Battle of Formigues
The naval Bataille of Formigues was held the 3 and the September 4th 1285, under the reign of Pierre II the Large one of Aragon-Catalonia, close to. The Catalan Fleet , ordered by the Admiral Roger de Lauria, beat that of Philippe III Bold the.
Situation of FormiguesThey are four granitic small islands, located at 1,3 km with the E-NE of the advanced in Canet (Palamós) and at 0,8 km with the E-SE of the course the Plane ones. It is undoubtedly because of their small size that they bear the name of Formigues, literally Fourmis.
PrecedentsThe pope Martin IV having launched the Crusade of Aragon, the king of France Philippe III the Bold one decided into 1285 to invade the Catalogne with the head of an important army, in order to support his cousin Charles II of Naples, in conflict with the Couronne of Aragon-Catalonia about the throne of Sicily. The king of Majorque, Jacques II, in delicacy with his brother, the king of Aragon-Catalonia, united with king de France. In Catalonia, Pierre the Large one did not obtain the support discounted on behalf of the noble ones, that it had offended while using a little too with their taste of his royal authority. But in spite of this unfavourable situation, the atrocities made by the invaders drew up the cities and the countryside Catalan women against them.
The French troops progressed painfully, because they had extremely to make to seize the cities, which were defended with eagerness. The French counted for their supply on a fleet stationed along the coast, which was going to supply with Acute-Dead Narbonne and . In fact, all their intendance depended exclusively on this squadron.
King Pierre understood that the rupture of this umbilical cord would force the French to withdraw themselves. He thus took the risk to temporarily reduce defense of the Sicily and called with the rescue the Catalan fleet, which was with Palermo, under the command of Roger de Lauria. The admiral arrived at Barcelona on August 24th, where it was informed of the position of the French ships.
The battleRoger de Lauria saw that by breaking the center of the very stretched line formed by the enemy naval squadron, it could demolish his two ends then. In the night of September 3rd, it attacked the belly of the French fleet, not far from the Formigues islands. The Catalan squadron encircled the enemy lines and éperonna vigorously the French ships, making rain at the same time on them a rain of squares of crossbows which threw desolation on the unfavourable bridges. This tactic made it possible to gain a total victory. The French rout was followed, according to the use of the naval wars of the time, of a massive slaughter.
Leaf French house, Roger approached then, thus misleading the enemy squadron which wet there, and the French were again demolished. Pinks was thus taken again and Roger seized the ammunition, as well of the vivres as of the weapons, as one had stored there.
ConsequencesThis naval rout, which was followed by another French rout to the collar of Panissars, obliged Philippe the Bold one to beat a retreat. Seriously sick, the overcome king died in Perpignan. The French however continued to occupy the Val of Aran until 1312, year when it was recovered by Jacques II of Aragon, which restores there the following year the habits and privileges removed by the French.
The French rout also involved the confiscation of the kingdom baléare, that Jacques II of Majorque recovered only in 1295.
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