See also: Braun
Wernher von Braun , or Werner von Braun according to the sources, (March 23rd 1912 with Wirsitz, Eastern Prussia (today Wyrzysk in Poland) - June 16th 1977 with Alexandria, Virginia) was a German engineer .
One of the most famous scientists resulting from Germany Nazi, he is the inventor of the V2, first ballistic missile used during the Second world war. He is the father of the rocket Saturn V, which made it possible to develop to a significant degree the American space program. He is also very known to have taken part in educational films of Walt Disney between 1955 and 1957, in which he presented the American space program.
He makes his studies at the technological institutes of Zurich and Berlin, while devoting his leisures, starting from 1930, to build and try out small rockets within a team joined together by Hermann Oberth ( Verein für Raumschiftfahrt ).
As from 1932, it is responsible for the station of Kummersdorf-West, where it undertakes a series of experiments on the rocket engines on behalf of the German army. In 1934, it gives its thesis of doctorate on the propulsion of the rockets.
In 1937, it integrates the Nazi party and is named director of the center of tests of Peenemünde and ensures the settling of the V2, whose 4000 specimens were launched mainly on the England and the Netherlands in 1944 and 1945.
In 1940, it integrates the S like Untersturmführer. It was promoted three times by Himmler, the last time like Sturmbannführer. In 1943 the construction of V2 starts to use deportees of the camps of Gilded-Mittelbau and Buchenwald like slaves. Von Braun belongs to the executive team of the specialists in the rockets, supervising the engineers, the civil workers and the prisoners of Gilded. The manufacture of V2 made more deaths than their use as weapons.
Cependant Wernher Von Braun forever allowed its responsibility in its autobiographical book, minimizing its position in the camp and not recognizing the crimes committed under its eyes. However more than 10.000 prisoners lost the life with Dora. Werhner von Braun will always affirm not to have known anything the suffering, of the work of slave and of died of Gilded-Mittelbau. According to the Dutchman Albert van Dijk, survivor of the camp, it is unthinkable.
It is exfiltré in the United States following the Opération Paperclip, in 1945. To counterbalance the Russian efforts in the field of the ballistic rockets, it is named chief of the projects of the guided missiles of the Fort Bliss army with the Texas.
In 1950, it is named chief technical officer of the Redstone arsenal to Huntsville (Alabama) for the development of guided missiles. It is at the origin of the missile Redstone, first guided ballistic missile of the American army, and which was useful in 1961 with launching of the first American astronauts.
It is naturalized American in 1955.
During the middle of the years 1950, he collaborates with Walt Disney on a great number of educational films having for topic the American space program: Man in Space and Man and the Moon in 1955, then Mars and Beyond in 1957. These films drew the attention not only of the public, but also of the Space program of Russia.
It is named director of research of the Agency for the ballistic missiles of the American army in 1956. It ensures the settling of the missiles Pershing and Jupiter, while taking a decisive share with the launching of the first Artificial satellite launched by the United States (Explorer 1) in 1958.
It enters to NASA in 1960 and becomes director of the Space center of flight Marshall of 1960 to 1970. He becomes assistant administrator of NASA in 1970, and person in charge of the programs until 1970. He directs the programs of manned flights Mercury, Gemini and Apollo.
He dies in 1977 of the continuations of a cancer of the liver.
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