See also: Tennis shoe
The basketball or basketball is a collective Sport of ball, which is played hand. The goal is to mark more points than the opposing team by marking basket S, i.e. while making pass the balloon through a ring placed at several meters of the ground.
See also: Chronology of the basketball
The basketball was invented in 1891 by James Naismith, a Canadian professor of physical education of the college of Springfield in the State of the Massachusetts (the United States). He sought to occupy his students between the seasons of football and Base-ball, during the winter, during which the practice of the sport in outside was difficult. Naismith also wished to find an activity to them where the physical contacts are restricted, in order to avoid the risks of Blessure.
One day, it took up the idea of old a Maya play of ball and placed two cases of fishing on the slopes of the gymnasium. The goal of its students was to make penetrate a balloon in these cases in Bois to mark a goal. Cases being in height, this is why this play required as much address than of rough force. Naismith quickly lays down 13 rules to make this play practicable.
This sport was baptized basketball , which means literally in English: “balloon with the basket”. The very first match of the history took place the December 21st 1891 and finished on the score from 1 to 0.
The same year, the play was adapted to be played by women.
At the beginning of its history, the tennis shoe was especially related to the offensive play and defense was relegated to the second plan. Defense was the passive aspect of the tennis shoe where the failure of the adversary was awaited.
Promoted by the Young Men' S Christian Association , the basketball became little by little a current activity in many Collège S American. The YMCA played a great part in the diffusion of this sport in the whole world. It was adopted in many colleges and sporting clubs. Little before the beginning First World War, the Intercollegiate Athletic Association (ancestor of NCAA) and the Amateur Athletic Union disputed the control of the rules of the game.
In 1946 is created the National Basketball Association (NBA) in order to organize the meetings between the best professional teams. In 1967, the American Basketball Association (ABA) is launched to try to compete with the NBA, but the latter ends up “absorbing it” in 1976, and becomes incontestably the league most raised of the United States, and even of the world.
Shortly after its creation, the basketball extends gradually in-outside from the United States and Canada, and it reaches Europe. In 1932, the International federation of basketball amateur (FIBA) is founded by the Argentine, the Czechoslovakia, the Greece, the Italy, the Latvia, the Portugal, the Romania and the Suisse. In the beginning, this federation supervises only the teams of amateurs. In 1936, the basketball becomes an official test of the Olympic Games of summer. In 1950 takes place for the first time the championship of the world of basketball, and three years later, the same test is founded among women, for whom the Olympic test arrives only in 1976.
In 1989, the FIBA ceases excluding the professional players from its competitions. A little later the first Dream TEAM (literally: “Team of Dream”) American, in particular made up of Michael Jordan and Magic Johnson, enters in competition and reinforces, at least partially, the world domination of the United States in this sport. For a few years, however, a kind of “globalisation” of the basketball has seemed to be set up, which involves a questioning of the preponderance of the United States, which is more and more often beaten at the time of international competitions.
Before 1967, the basketball interests world less and less. To make the matches gravitational, Busnel authorizes in 1967 two foreigners per team. 1967 are also the beginning of the professionalisation of the tennis shoe, which will be completed truly only in 1990.
If the tennis shoe were diffused as much in France, it is in particular thanks to Pierre CAD, trainer of the male French team in 1975. Pierre CAD brought back, of a training course in the United States, knowledge in tennis shoe which the French did not have.
The basketball is generally played in a covered place, for example a Gymnase, but it can also be practiced on adventure playgrounds as a leisure, under its most popular alternative: the Streetball (“basketball of street”).
The ground is doubly symmetrical (in length and width). Its dimensions vary, according to the countries or the international standards, from 22 to 29 meters length on 13 to 15 meters broad. Thus, a ground to the standards of FIBA (international federation) or to the standards NBA (North-American Federation).
At the two ends of the ground a basket is, formed by a ring (or arch ) metal located at 3,05 m of the ground, below which an open net in its center is attached. The arch is fixed at a vertical rectangular panel (the board ) on which the ball can rebound during a shooting.
Under each basket is a trapezoidal zone called the racket. An arc of circle located at 6,25 m of each basket (7,23 m in NBA) represents the line of shootings at three points. This line was introduced in 1984.
Initially, the basketball was practiced with a balloon of Football. The first balloons used specifically for the basketball were maroon, and at the end of the Années 1950, Tony Hinkle, wishing to design a balloon which is more visible in the players and spectators, introduced the traditional balloon of orange color.
The basketball is practiced by two teams of five players on the ground, with a maximum from 5 to 7 substitutes according to the countries and the championships. The goal of each team is to mark more points than its adversary by marking basket S and by preventing the opposing team from making some in the same way.
A match proceeds in four ten minutes periods according to the rules FIBA, and four twelve minutes periods according to rules NBA. The stop watch is stopped with each whistle of the referee (in the event of fault, exit…). Each team can replace one or more players during the stops of play and time-deaths.
At the beginning of the match, engagement is carried out by the referee in the form of a interval . For that, a player of each team (generally that which jumps highest) places himself vis-a-vis his adversary, behind the line of the medium ground, in direction of the basket where it must attack; the referee then launches the ball above the two players and those must strike the balloon with the hand so that one of their team-member the trap. It is at this time that the play starts.
The players must handle the balloon with the hands. The touch with an unspecified part of the leg in a deliberated way is prohibited and constitutes a violation.
The balloon is off-side as soon as it rebounds in extreme cases or apart from the ground, or when it is touched by a player who bites or exceeds the limits of the ground. Contrary to the Football, it is not the absolute position of the player or the balloon who counts, but the rebound or the support (a player can thus plunge apart from the ground and save the ball, since it releases the ball before taking a step beyond the limit of the ground.
The time of play being effective, additional time ago as with football; a ringing resounds at the time when the last second of each period was passed, but a shooting successful after the ringing can be granted if the player released the balloon before the ringing does not resound.
At the conclusion of the meeting, the team which has the most points gains the match. In the event of equality, one then plays 5 minutes of prolongation to decide between the two teams, and this whatever the competition in progress. So at the end of the prolongation there is again equality, one rejoue another prolongation. There is thus never tie with the basketball.
When a player is in possession of the balloon, it owes Dribble R , i.e. to constantly make rebound the balloon on the ground with the hands, to be able to move with. If the player who has the balloon takes more than two supports without dribbler, where if it makes a complete jump by preserving the balloon at the repercussion, it is then sanctioned by a to go English (: dolly ), and the balloon is returned to the opposing team by a handing-over concerned.
When a player takes again his dribble after having stopped it, the balloon recovers after having released it without this one not touching anything, it is sanctioned by a taken again dribble ( double dribble in English) and the balloon is returned to the opposing team. In the same way, a player who has the balloon does not have the right to weigh up the balloon during his dribble, which constitutes a to carry balloon ( curry ) and the balloon is then returned to the adversary. The hand must indeed always be above the balloon.
Any player can pass the balloon has a fellow-member in launching to him. When the recipient marks a basket without dribbler, one speaks about passes decisive .
In order to mark points, any player can launch the balloon in the unfavourable basket. If the balloon passes completely through the arch, the basket is validated and brings back a, two, or three points. The opposing team must then give the balloon concerned behind the basic line.
The team in attack has 8 seconds to cross her half of ground called back zone (fixed before at 10 seconds, the limit was lowered to support the offensive play). She has in all 24 seconds to try a shooting. The 24 second old clock is re-initialized as soon as a shooting touches the ring or as soon as an unfavourable player controls the balloon on the ground or makes a fault. In the event of against or of air-ball (shooting which touches neither the basket nor the arch), the clock continues.
A player in attack cannot remain more than 3 seconds of sharpened in the racket. The 3 seconds are not entered any more as from the moment when the player seeks to leave the racket.
During a handing-over concerned, the assailing team has 5 seconds to carry out this one. A player who has the balloon and which stops dribbler has 5 seconds to get rid some (by a master key, a shooting, or by it skilfully making touch by an adversary - if the unfavourable player subjects it to a defensive pressure (action of brought closer defense)).
Defenses were not born all at the same time. Here an chronological order of the appearance of various defenses essence to the basketball:
; Spontaneous, intuitive, wild defense “The players ran in all the directions and on all the ground, they tried to take the balloon with the adversary. ” This defense is today that done by the young players.
; Strict individual defense The first organized defense which involves the development of the defensive responsibility. The line attacker-basket is discovered. This defense makes it possible to put in difficulty a of the same team level. This defense has its limits when the attacker is very strong.
; The defense of zone This defense also does not pose badly problems with the attackers because it is difficult to penetrate in the racket and the attackers are in the obligation of shooter halfway. The reference area in the years 1960 is 2-1-2. It is with the appearance of the zones that the concept of play fast (before the installation of defense) appears.
; Individual defense with taking risk limited It is at this time there that the concept of assistance appears (in-depth undulation). The defenders react and place themselves according to displacements of the carrier of the balloon.
As from 1960, the basketball takes a great turning. An essential rule changes: the rule of going. Front, the basketball player could take two steps before his dribble and two after his dribble. This change makes it possible to the defender to become more aggressive. Defense is not any more one passive moment of the basketball, it becomes a reconquest of the ball.
Today, there exist mainly two manners of defending for a team: the Defense of zone and the individual Defense . In the first, each of the five players must cover a specific part of half of the ground, and deal with unfavourable player when this one penetrates in its zone. Until 2001, this type of defense was interdict in NBA. In an individual defense, each player deals with adversary and deals with remaining close to this one throughout the part. There exist many alternatives mixing these two defensive tactics. We can in particular speak about the Zone close appeared in 1964. Well done, this defense is very useful to recover a maximum of balloons quickly.
During a shooting, the defenders have the right to counter the ball as long as this one is in ascending phase towards the basket. Against carried out in downward phase English (: goal tending ) is illicit and in this case the basket is granted.
With the basketball, the contacts are generally proscribed. In the event of shock, it is generally the defender who is sanctioned by a personal Faute , except when he is motionless and that it is the assailing one which strikes it, in which case the attacker is sanctioned by a forced passage and the ball is returned to the other team.
In the event of fault of the defender on dribble (contact with the arm, obstruction), the ball is given to the assailing team on the level where the fault was made, apart from the limits of the ground.
When a personal fault is made on a player who draws or is on the point of drawing, this player must then draw two charity tosses, three if it is about a shooting at three points, but only one when the basket is successful and is granted.
When a player made five personal faults (six in NBA) during the match, it is then replaced and does not have any more the right of rejouer until the end of the match.
At each quarter-time, once a team adds up four faults, the opposing team draws then automatically from the charity tosses to each new unfavourable fault.
If a team is in zone before (half of ground unfavourable) with the balloon, and that this last has suddenly returned in back zone (by a master key or a support in its own half of ground), the referee whistles a return in zone. The ball is returned to the adversary at the place nearest to the violation, apart from the limits of the ground.
One marks in attack, one gains in defense
- My best memory of the tennis shoe would be than the opposing team marked zero points (Bobby Knight)
- The attack makes raise crowd, while defense saves the titles (Michael Jordan)
- My best memory of the tennis shoe would be than the opposing team marked zero points (Bobby Knight)
When a shooting misses the target, the players of the two teams can try to recover the possession of the balloon before or after it does not fall down on the ground, it is what is called a rebound .
A defender can try to recover the balloon when an adversary dribble, tries to pass it to a fellow-member or holds the ball in the hands. When it reaches that point without making fault, it carries out a interception .
The five players of each team who begin a match belong to the major Five .
That it is in attack or defense, each player plays precise station. There exist many variations and possibilities, but the basic diagram functions with five stations known as “traditional”:
- the pivot (ex: Shaquille O'Neal) is generally the largest player and most extremely. In defense, it positions close to its basket and protects the interior sector, with good capacities with the rebound and with against.
- the strong Winger (ex: Kevin Garnett) plays a part similar to the pivot and form with him the interior sector. It is generally smaller than the pivot and can evolve/move more far from the basket.
- the small winger (ex: Carmelo Anthony) is an external, nimble and fast player. Occasionally, it can come to help the interiors with the rebound.
- the back (ex: Michael Jordan) is a player whose play is mainly directed outside. It varies its play while penetrating in the racket and while drawing at three points.
- the Driving (ex: Magic Johnson) is charged to distribute the ball and to organize the play in attack. It assembles the ball since its own camp and announces the tactics to be set up. In addition to good capacities to the dribble, it must have an excellent vision of the play to be able to distribute the balloon to its fellow-members.
Usually, the stations are indicated by numbers:
- Driving (in English: not guard ): 1
- Back ( shooting guard ): 2
- Small winger ( small forward ): 3
- strong Winger ( power forward ): 4
- Pivot ( center ): 5
Each player carries a Maillot numbered. Rule FIBA imposes the numbers from 4 to 15 at the time of international competitions (either 12 numbers, as much as there are players in a team); however, in NBA, the players can choose any number from 0 to 99 included/understood (the 00 also exists). Thus, in general and as far as possible, the players of NBA preserve the same number during all their career, even while changing team except when a player has it already or when this one is withdrawn. When certain players mark the history of their frankness, it happens that this one decides to withdraw their number of circulation to pay homage to them. Thus, number 23 carried by Michael Jordan with the Chicago bulldozers celebrates it was made inalienable after its departure. It is a withdrawn shirt.
See also: Basketball with the Olympic Games
The championships of the world are organized every four years by FIBA (international federation).
As an Olympic sport , the basketball is represented with the Olympic Games of summer with a male test and a female test. Historically, this test is largely dominated by the team of the United States, whether it is at the men or women.
- Championship of America of basketball
Clubs and franknesses
With the image of other sports of North-American origin, the basketball is a little confused in the distinction between championships and professional leagues (system of frankness S).
The most known championship in the world is the National Basketball Association (NBA), which takes place in the United States (but currently includes also a Canadian team). This competition publishes, like many American leagues of basketball its own rules, which differ on many points from those dictated by the FIBA. The purpose of these differences are often to support a play related to the spectacle and the entertainment. Initially held to the North-Americans, this league which constitutes the basketball moreover high level opened little by little to the best foreign players, whose Drazen Petrovic was one of the pioneers.
A female competition was created on the same model that the NBA, and is called the Women' S National Basketball Association (WNBA).
In Europe, the system, in general, is based on the same principle of the championship as in the majority of the other sports. However, contrary to the Football, the league managing the professional elite (the whole of the championship being property of the federation) has more weight and more easily imposes its choices on the national federation. This was reinforced by the creation of the Union of the European leagues of basketball (ULEB).
Several European cuts are organized, either by FIBA Europe, or by the ULEB, most prestigious being the Euroligue.
Only the the United Kingdom chose a system of franknesses with the British Basketball League, although financial problems and the European influence encourage it to think of a system of promotion-relegations.
In Asia, the championships are rather recent and take as a starting point the North-American system. Thus in China, teams and championships bear English names, in the Chinese Basketball Association. With the Japan, B-J League tries to be established a little in the same way. These two nations hope that the presence of some their players in NBA (Yao Ming, Yuta Tabuse…) create vocations in their young people. With the the Middle East (Lebanon, Saudi Arabia…), the principle of championship is appreciably the same one as in Europe.
In Africa, one finds the same principle as in Europe, put aside the fact that the national federations still have the monopoly on their own championship. The competition headlight is the Coupe of the clubs champions.
In Oceania, the Australia and the New Zealand adopted the Anglo-Saxon principle with their National Basketball League respective. It seems nevertheless that Australian NBL has a length in advance on its homologous New Zealand and has a desire of expansion by accommodating in its center the New Zealand Breakers (New Zealand) and the Singapore Slingers (Singapore).
Basketball and its environment
Like many popular sports, the basketball has a cultural and media exposure very strong.
Its establishment in the world of the video games is a strong success, in particular with the series of the NBA Live or of the NBA 2K .
The European press sporting generally relegates the basketball to a lower plan (far behind the Football for example), which does not prevent a strong presence of newspapers specialized in the world ( SLAM , Maximum-Basketball Reverse…).
The basketball is also present in Musique. This sport is indeed very associated with the culture Hip hop. Certain players thus tested themselves with the music: Shaquille O'Neal, Ron Artest, Tony Parker or Allen Iverson, for example, left individual or the albums.
The basketball is also declined of books and others Cartoon S, among which one can quote as example the French data base Basket Dunk .
Similar sportsThe Korfball is an alternative Dutchwoman Ringboll Swedish, and would have been created towards 1902. It is present mainly at the Netherlands and Belgium, and was presented twice to the Olympic Games.
Appeared just after the basketball in England (but originating in the the United States), the Netball, was judicious to become a female basketball . Played to 7, it is practiced mainly in the countries of the the Commonwealth in Oceania.
The Slamball is an alternative of the years 2000 of the basketball, it is intended mainly to be a spectacle before being a sport with whole share.
- Basketball Hall off Famed
- List of players of basketball
- Basketball in wheel chair
- Basketball court
- Table of mark (basketball)
Source and references
- Official site of the FIBA - International federation of basketball
- Official site of the FFBB - French federation of basketball
- Official site of the LNB - National league of basketball
- Official site of the NBA - North-American professional League of basketball
Beats-smg: Krepšėnis Be-X-old: Баскетбол Simple: Basketball
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