The baseball is a collective Sport derived from the same roots as the Cricket. He is played with beaters to strike a ball launched, and Gant S to catch up with the ball. There are many debates on the origin of baseball, but it is indisputable that the first modern rules (the “ Knickerbocker Rules ”) were codified in 1845.
This sport is very popular with the the United States, with the Canada, Cuba, in Dominican Republic, with Puerto Rico, the Mexico, the Dutch West Indies, in Colombia, with the Venezuela, the Japan, Taiwan, the Filipino and in South Korea. But baseball is also practiced in other countries; for example, the major professional leagues of North America include/understand players Australia NS and a launcher which was high-speed motorboat of the French league . Baseball is sport Olympic since 1992 but will not be present at the Jeux of 2012.
Genesis of the playThe English play of the Rounders seems one of the primary sources of baseball. This play is quoted for the first time in an English book of John Newbery in 1744: has Little Pretty Pocket-Book . Another important book in the history of the genesis baseball is the Plays of the young boys printed to Paris in the years 1810. There is a description of “the poisoned ball” which resembles baseball.
In 1845, the first modern rules (“Knickerbocker Rules”) were codified by Alexander Cartwright. They are an adaptation of the plays of rounders, town-ball and another round-ball. The term of baseball (or baseball, as it formerly was written) between besides in the language, the literature and the press as of 1835. It is at this period that plays as the Town ball gave up the sticks, with the manner of the cricket, to locate the goals, by replacing them by cushions, the famous bases. This evolution seems to be initiated in 1833 with Boston. They are however Manhattan and Brooklyn which shelters the New Yorkean formations as the New York Knickerbockers which give birth to the first modern version of the play of baseball.
It should be noted that a legend was built of all parts at the beginning of the 20th century making of Abner Doubleday the inventor of baseball in 1839. A celebration of the centenary of this event took place even in 1939. This legend was refuted as of its publication by the American historians of baseball. The June 3rd 1953, the Congrès of the United States credited officially Alexander Cartwright with the invention of the play.
Baseball in the United States
See also: History of baseball in the United States
The first matches are held in 1846 with New York, then the play, a time called the “New York Game”, extends to the unit from the United States gradually. From 1846 with the American Civil War, several tens of clubs are assembled through the United States and they adopt the payment of Knickerbockers. The first federation, NABBP (National Association off Base Players Ball), is founded in 1857 with New York by sixteen clubs. It organizes the first championship, which will be gained by the Brooklyn Atlantics. At the end of the war, the sport touches the worldwide when the soldiers return in their hearths. They were initiated with the play by the New Yorkeans in their regiments. The first professional training sees the day in 1869 (Cincinnati Red Stockings) and the first major league is created in 1871: NAPBBP (National Association off Professional Bases Players Ball). The current National league is founded in 1876 and the American Ligue becomes a major league in 1901. The world Séries between the champions of these two leagues are created in 1903.
The American national play ( national pastime ) knows a resounding scandal in 1919 with the business of the Chicago White Sox, implying several players of this frankness for corruption at the time of the world Series. The judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis is named as police chief of the major leagues; it remains in station of 1920 with 1944 and imposes an iron discipline on the world of baseball, but reinforces the capacity of the owners on the players. The first trade unions of players are trained as of 1885, but it is necessary to await 1966 and the creation of the MLBPA to see the players obtaining signification advances. Conflicts with strikes in 1971, 1982 and 1994 marked the surging relationship between players and owners in connection with their possibilities of transfer and the fixing of a minimum wage, in particular. The most important strike was that of 1994 - 1995 which involved the cancellation of 938 matches and the whole of the matches of play-offs and even of the world Series 1994.
Among the most famous players of the years 1870 - 1945, let us quote Cy Young, Christy Mathewson, Honus Wagner, Walter Johnson, Ty Cobb, Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig and Joe DiMaggio, in particular. These stars of the major leagues are all of the white players because the black players are prohibited to play in major league at the end of the Années 1880. This agreement between the owners of franknesses is validated at the beginning of the 20th century by the Supreme court of the United States. The black players as Satchel Paige evolve/move then in the “Negro League S”, strong symbol of the American segregationist policy. This situation perdure until in 1947, and the arrival of Jackie Robinson with the Brooklyn Dodgers. Robinson was recruited by the general manager of Dodgers, Branch Rickey, and begins in major league the April 15th 1947. Victim of many racist attacks, Robinson held good and opened the way with the black players in major League. Since the year 2000, on April 15th is celebrated by the MLB as “Jackie Robinson Day” while its number 42 was withdrawn in 1997 in the whole of the franknesses from the MLB.
Since the appearance on stage of Robinson, the principal players were Stan Musial, Mickey Mantle, Sandy Koufax, Yogi Berra, Warren Spahn, Hank Aaron, Pete Pink, Cal Ripken, Jr. and Ted Williams. Today, Roger Clemens, Alex Rodriguez and Barry Bonds counts among the most famous players.
The American football competition clearly baseball since one half-century. However, since the beginning of the 21e century, the multitudes recorded on the grounds of baseball reach historical records. In 2005, 74.915.268 spectators attended the 2419 matches of the MLB, that is to say an average by match of 30.970 spectators.
International baseballThe export of baseball started at the end of the 19th century: with Cuba in 1864 (first club in 1872 and first championship in 1877), in Dominican Republic in 1868, with the Japan in 1872 (first team founded in 1878 and first professional championship in 1920), with the Mexico in 1877, with the Panama in 1882, with the Nicaragua in 1889, with Taiwan in 1895 (first professional championship in 1990), in Korea in 1898 (first professional championship in 1982 ), with the Netherlands in the Years 1900 (founded federation in 1912 and first championship in 1922). Baseball has the statute of national sport to Cuba, Taiwan or in Dominican Republic in particular. In South Korea and with the Japan, the Football becomes a solid conceived.
The first match of baseball exploited the French soil took place the March 8th 1889 at the time of the World Fair, in the presence of the president of the Republic, Sadi Carnot. It was about a match between a selection of the players of the League National and the club of White Socks of Boston. The first French club is created in 1913 with Paris: Ranelagh baseball club. The federation is founded in 1924 and the championship of France is set up in 1926.
See also: Lexicon of the vocabulary of baseball
Franco-English lexicon of the principal terms used with baseball with for base those of use in Canada. Certain terms differ slightly in the remainder from the Francophonie. For the example, a " but" " is generally named; base" in France. |width=" 50" | |valign=" top" | |}
The groundThe ground is divided into three parts: the interior field (the before-field), the field external and the territory of the false balls. Dimensions of the ground vary from one stage to another, only the interior field must comply with certain rules. The first goal is to 27 m (90 feet) of the second goal and so on to the marble, forming a square which one names “diamond”. The monticule, where the launcher carries out its throws towards the marble, is to 19 m (60 ½ feet) of the marble, aligned on the axis of the marble and the second goal.
The external field includes/understands space between the goals and the fence. The distance to which the fence is varies from one stage to another, but also inside even of a stage. For example, the fence on the line of the first goal (right field) can be to 100 m of the marble, that of the third goal (left field) to 105 m and that of the field centers to 120 Mr. a famous case points out that of Hank Aaron, whereas he played for the Braves of Atlanta. About to break the record of circuits of Babe Ruth, the direction of the Brave men decided to bring closer the fences to facilitate the task to him.
In the territory of the false balls, the rules vary with regard to the sure blows and the withdrawals.
Equipment and heldThe Balle of baseball is of a circumference of approximately 23 cm (23,5 cm to the maximum) for a weight of approximately 140 grams. It consists rubber and cork and is covered with two bent leather thin straps (108 seams).
The beater (or stick) measurement to the maximum 1,05 m length for a maximum thickness of 7 cm. It can be out of full wood or hollow metal alloy. Its weight is variable.
The gloves of reception of the ball which the players of defense wear vary according to the occupied station.
Beaters and receivers carry helmets aiming at protecting them violent one throws from ball to the head. The helmet of the receiver is most complete. It includes/understands a facial grid. The beaters carry a helmet without facial grid but drawn to protect the temple which faces the launcher. The other players carry caps: famous the Baseball courses (caps of baseball). These last were drawn as of 1860.
The players of baseball carry pants three-quarter. Formerly rather full, they carry from now on close to the body. The shirts known as traditional are shirts with buttons. However, many formations, even in MLB, raise also shirts without buttons. The two traditional colors of the behaviors are the white and the gray but the colors enters manners gradually. , the championship of France is amateur.
The best European clubs clash each year in a Coupe of Europe where the Italians and the Netherlanders dominate logically.
On the level of the national selections, there exists an international world cup and tournaments the such intercontinental Coupe or the world Classique of baseball. Each continent moreover is equipped with competitions like the Championnat of Europe or the Championnat with Asia, for example.
Variations of baseballBaseball knew many variations of the Littérature to the Cinéma and passing by the Video games, in particular. The most famous films having a scenario built around baseball are Best the with Robert Redford which obtained four nominations with the Oscar S, Until the end of the dream (3 nominations with the Oscars) with Kevin Costner, Vainqueur of the destiny (11 nominations with the Oscars) with Gary Cooper in the role of Lou Gehrig and a team out of the commun run with Tom Hanks and Geena Davis recalling the permiers not female professional league. With the ray of the comedies, let us quote Indians (1989) and in the category of documentary, the Histoire of baseball of Ken Burns in 1994. Among the video games of management, one will quote Out off the Park Baseball and Baseball Mogul.
The charts of baseball (Baseball cards) also constitute an important component of culture of baseball and even of the American culture. These charts appeared as of the end of the 19th century in the packages of Cigarette S, of Chewing-gum or of Bonbon S and rarest of them reach today important prices. This level, the most famous chart is that of Honus Wagner of 1909 (T206 reference) whose price was established to 2,35 million dollars at the time of an auction the February 26th 2007.
Baseball and mediaBaseball was the first sport to be profited in the United States from a consequent media support. As of 1853, the New Yorkean daily newspaper Mercury proposes a report of match following the modern rules of sporting journalism. Since 1886, the Sporting News is described as “Bible of baseball”. In 1889, Albert Spalding lance his Baseball Guides , which was very effective to popularize the exploits of the champions. Nowadays, there exclusively exist several tens of publications treating baseball. Let us quote Baseball Digest , created in 1942, and Baseball America (1991), most famous of them. In parallel, baseball has important spaces in the press general practitioner, of the NewYork Times with the Washington Post while passing by USA Today with the the United States. Idem with the Japan, in South Korea or Central America.
The radio emerges in the Années 1920. The first match is diffused in 1921 and in 1926, not less than 26 stations transmit on line the World Series. Graham McNamee was the most famous sports correspondent officiating with the radio during the between-two-war. Red Barber then Mel Allen took over then. In front of the conflict generated by the fall of the multitudes following its first retransmissions on line, the American franknesses from baseball decide in 1932 to make pay the stations to compensate them for this shortfall. It is the same model which is taken again with the Télévision. The May 17th 1939 the first retransmission of a match of baseball (a university match between Princeton and Columbia) is proposed by American television. Since 2006, MLB diffuses on line via its Internet site the entirety of more than 2400 matches which includes/understands one complete season: MLB.TV. In Europe, the television channel NASN diffuses on average a match on line each day throughout the season of MLB.
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