This page relates to the year 1972 Gregorian Calendrier.
- June 5th: The first conference of UNO on the environment opens with Stockholm. It marks the beginning of an awakening which will carry out inter alia to the Environmental economics.
- January 13rd: Military coup d'etat to the Ghana.
- February 27th: Agreement of national reconciliation with the South, with the Sudan. Constitution of a mode of autonomy for the Christian areas and animists of the south which puts an end to the civil war.
- March 2nd: Jean-Bedel Bokassa proclaims life president of the Central African Republic.
- October 26th: Military coup d'etat to the Benign one. Mathieu Kérékou seizes the power with the Bénin. The scientific socialism is proclaimed official ideology.
- Civil war between White and Blacks in Rhodesia, which lasts eight years and fact 20 000 victims.
- Dryness with the the Sahel (Mali, Mauritania, Senegal, the Upper Volta, Niger, Chad) until in 1974. The aggravation of the dryness involves serious political difficulties in all the countries of the the Sahel.
- January 30th: The president Philibert Tsiranana, obtains 99% of the votes at the time of anticipated elections.
May - June: Strikes, demonstrations and riots with Madagascar against the mode of the president Tsiranana and for a malgachisation of the company. The full powerss are given to the general Ramanantsoa.
- May 17th: In front of the country and student's dispute, president Tsiranana is constrained to leave the capacity in Madagascar with the profit of the general Ramanantsoa.
- August 29th: Promulgation of the martial law with Madagascar.
- October 8th: Referendum on the initiative of the general Ramanantsoa for his maintenance with the capacity during five years, resignation of the president Philibert Tsiranana.
- January 7th: The Canada and the Iran conclude a agreement from nuclear cooperation, whose coming into effect is envisaged the April 10th 1973.
- June 8th, Quebec: Formation of the Central of the democratic trade unions to the Quebec.
The United States
- Voyages of Nixon in China (February) and in Soviet Union (May).
- March 22nd: The Congrès of the United States approves the Equal Rights Amendment aiming at ensuring the women a total equality. Approval also by Nixon, it will see its process of ratification blocked by holding of the “New Right-hand side”.
- June 17th: The arrests according to the burgling of the building of the Watergate to Washington (democratic HQ) start a political crisis (Scandale of Watergate). The investigation reveals direct links with the “Committee for the re-election of the president”.
- Be: Peace marches in front of the seat of the company Honeywell, shown to produce anti-personnel weapons.
- October 20th: Returned Sahring Act which gives during five years 1/7° of the federal assistance (6 billion dollars) to the local governments.
- November 7th: Re-election of Richard Nixon (R) like President of the United States with 60,7% of the voices vis-a-vis the reform program radical of the democrat George McGovern (D) 37,5%.
- December 29th: a Lockheed L-1011 of the company Eastern Air Lines (flight 401) is crushed close to Miami with 176 people on her board. 101 victims will be counted. The accident is with a fault of piloting.
- Of the independent federal organizations controls the quality of the products delivered to consumption.
Central America and the Caribbean
- January 19th: Creation of the EGP ( Ejército Guerrillero of los Pobres ) to the Guatemala, Castro-guévariste movement directed by Ricardo Ramírez (Rolando Morán).
- February 20th: The soldiers must resort to the fraud at the time of the presidential election with the El Salvador to prevent the come to power of a coalition of opposition led by Christian-Democrat Jose Napoleón Duarte. Colonel Arturo Armando Molina seizes the power. The legislative elections (1974, 1976) and presidential (1977) which follow are only parodies which discredit all the electoral process.
- March 2nd: Michael Manley becomes president of the Jamaica (fine in 1980).
- March 25th: Failure of a coup d'etat to the El Salvador. Jose Napoleón Duarte is imprisoned for conspiracy.
- May 23rd: The poet Pedro Luis Boitel dies in the cuban jails in Martyr of the Christian Foi.
- In July, Cuba joined CMEA.
- December 4th, Honduras: The general Oswaldo López Arellano shift the government with the support of broad social sectors and seizes the power (fine in 1975). Honduras enters a military phase of reformism.
- December 23rd: Earthquake with the Nicaragua which destroys Managua. The family Somoza monopolizes the international assistance and benefits in an outrageous way of the operations from rebuilding, which causes the defection of supports with the mode of the private sector.
- February 6th: The general Guillermo Rodríguez Lara becomes president in Ecuador (fine in 1976).
- the populist leader Assad Bucaram is on the way to gain the elections, when the army seizes the capacity and entrusts it to the nationalist general and to progressist Rodríguez Lara. It makes adhere Ecuador to OPEC and controls the foreign oil companies operating in the country thanks to the creation of the Ecuadorian oil official Corporation (BOLETUS). But the oil boom does not benefit all the Ecuadorians and the social gaps widen. The government, which wants to be “revolutionary, nationalist, social-humanistic and for an autonomous development” launches only one modest land reform.
- March 1st, Uruguay: Juan María Bordaberry is elected president. The presidential election sees to clash six candidates of the Parti Colorado and three the left Blanco. The system of the double simultaneous vote, which makes correspond the primary elections within the parties and the presidential election, allows to the candidate colorados at the head sometimes happening to carry it (the total of the voices of the colorados is higher than that of the blancos) whereas the candidate of the blancos at the head has more voice than him.
- June 17th: Salvador Allende form a new government with the Chile.
- October 13rd: An Uruguyan plane is crushed in the Andes cordillera with 45 people on board. The 16 survivors will admit having practiced the Anthropophagie to survive. The survival of the survivors returns to the courage of two passengers, who decided to cross the Andes to find the helps, which arrived the December 22nd, 1972 .
- November 17th: Return of the general Juan Perón in Argentinian after 17 years of exile.
- October: A strike movement of the truck-drivers paralyzes the Chile.
- November: Travel of Allende to Cuba and in Soviet Union.
Continuation of the nationalizations to the Chile: maritime transport ( February), industries Dupont (Mars), goods of ITT (April). They revive the conflict as well between the government and the national middle-class as with the United States, which limits by all the means the sources of credit. Certain sectors of extreme left take initiatives (ground occupations, factories) likely to place the government in a delicate situation. In spite of two meetings of study (“meeting of El Arrayán” (February) and “conclave of Lo Curro” ( June), the government does not change a policy before August. It proceeds then to a devaluation and authorizes a rise of the prices and a wage increase. In reaction, the private sector, with at its head the road carriers, is put in strike ( October) during 26 days, paralyzing the economy of the country and obliging the government to reconsider price increases. Having to resort to the State of emergency and to call upon the army, Allende proceeds the October 3rd to a cabinet reshuffle which sees the entry of soldiers to the government. As of October, sectors until - boutist of UP take the top on the partisans of a political compromise. The political polarization of the country is with its roof.
- temporary Disappearance of the benches of anchovy off the coasts of the Peru (these fish transformed into flour constitute a big part of the animal feeds then).
The Middle East
- February, Egypt: Sadate turns to the United States.
- March 8th: The Syria accepts the resolution 242 in condition of an Israeli withdrawal of all the occupied territories and of a taking into account of the rights of the Palestinians. The country profits in return from a Saoudi financial aid.
- Mars: New Constitution in Syria. The political personnel of the mode is gathered within the National front progressist and gathers independent arabists, Communists and, under the control of the Parti Baath. Any opposition is repressed.
- April 9th: Treaty of friendship and co-operation the USSR - Iraq.
- May 30th: Attack with the Airport of Lod (Israel): 26 died and more than 80 wounded.
- May: At the top of Moscow, Henry Kissinger obtains Soviets the idea of an overall solution by stages: Israeli withdrawal “of occupied territories”, end of the state of belligerence and installation of peace.
- June 1st: The Iraq nationalizes to 51% the production of Pétrole ( Iraq Petroleum Company ).
- July 18th: Sadate returns the 20 000 Soviet military advisers of Egypt after the USSR refused to increase the economic aid and military brought to Egypt.
- August 2nd: Union of the Libya with the Egypt, broken on February 1st 1973.
- September 5th: Taken hostages of the Olympic Games of Munich. Massacre Israeli athletes by Palestinian terrorists with the OJ of Munich.
- October 5th: Signature of an agreement between the Western oil companies and the Saudi Arabia, the Qatar, the Kuwait and Abou Dabi: at January 1st 1973, these States receive 25% of the capital of the concessionary companies.
- October: The military authority is restored in the Gaza Strip.
- In Iraq, Creation of the patriotic National front dominated by the Party Baath and with the participation of the Communists.
- January 31st: Beginning of the reign of Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev., king of the Nepal. It controls initially in a very authoritative way, trying to stop the movement of reforms carried out by the Prime Minister Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala.
- March 19th: Treaty of friendship enters the India and the Bangladesh.
- May 22nd: Constitutional reform with Ceylon: Buddhism acquires a privileged place. The country receives officially its Singhalese name of Sri Lanka.
- July 2nd: Indo-Pakistani agreement following the conflict of 1971. The question of the Cachemire is still not settled.
- July 21st: Jigme Singye Wangchuck becomes king of the Bhutan, at the 17 years age.
- March 30th: Beginning of a great communist offensive with the south Vietnam.
- May 11th: Northern mining of the ports Vietnam iens and blockade of the country by the United States.
- September 21st, Filipino: After demonstrations and a new campaign of guerillas country-women, led by a new Communist party, the president Ferdinand Marcos founds the martial law (end in 1981) while announcing a reform program social and economic. In same time, corruption and the nepotism worsen, Marcos distributing favors and preferential treatments to his/her friends and associated mediums of businesses, in exchange of a generous share of the profits carried out.
- December 18th: Massive raids of B-52 on Hanoï and Haiphong.
- December 30th: Resumption of negotiations of Paris on the Vietnam, end of the massive bombardments of the the United States.
- New Constitution in Thailand.
- First defections of pilots of B-52 who refuse to fulfill their missions of bombardment on Hanoi and Haiphong.
- Formation of a central government Papou in Papua.
The Far East
- 21 - February 28th: Visit historical US president Richard Nixon in China, it meets Mao Zedong there. In an official statement published with Shanghai at the time of the voyage of Nixon, the two countries note that they have strategic objectives common vis-a-vis the Soviet Union.
- May 13rd: Return of Okinawa to the Japan.
- July 4th, Korea: Joint statement of the South and North proclaiming that the two parts would continue to dialog to advance towards the reunification of the peninsula.
- September 25th: Re-establishment of the diplomatic relations between the China and the Japan.
- October: In South Korea, Park Chung-hee founds the martial law and sets up a new Constitution approved by plebiscite in December, which enables him to remain indefinitely in function (Yusin Constitution). In the months which follow, repression is accentuated in South Korea.
- January 27th: Benefitting from the visit of a hundred diplomatic missions, the Aborigènes of Australia install an try-embassy on the lawns of the old Parliament, with Canberra.
- December 5th: Gough Whitlam becomes Labor Prime Minister in Australia (fine in 1975).
- January 22nd: Widening of the EEC: the United Kingdom, Ireland, Denmark. The Norway, also envisaged, will give up its adhesion following a referendum.
- January 30th: Bloody Sunday . Thirteen people taking part in a walk in favor of the civic rights are killed with Londonderry in a shooting started by the British army.
- March 21st: Creation of the European Currency snake.
- May 17th: A signed international agreement with Brussels (Belgium) makes it possible to limit to 11 T the weight axle of weight-heavy as from 1980.
- September 1st: In Iceland, American Bobby Fischer at 29 years becomes world champion of the failures by beating the outgoing world champion, Russian Boris Spassky, at the conclusion of a memorable match.
- October 2nd: By Referendum, the Denmark enters the EEC.
- October: Summit of Paris. the EEC has to deal with the industrial policy and regional, like those of energy, environmental protection and the work conditions. A calendar envisages to build by stages an economic and monetary union and to lead in 1980 to a European Union practitioner the political co-operation defense foreign relations.
- November 22nd: Preparation of the Conference of Helsinki (CSCE).
- Abolition of the capital punishment in Sweden and Finland.
- the Spain produced 500 000 cars per annum. Industrial growth rate is of 11% (comparable with that of the Japan). Thirty-three million tourists visits the country (for 1,5 in 1955).
- May 26th: GDR and the FRG sign with Berlin a Basic Treaty devoting the division of Germany in two States. It is the beginning of the Ostpolitik.
- April 27th: Failure of the first attempt at censures constructive, that Rainer Barzel against Willy Brandt.
- September 5th: Assassination of 2 members of the Israeli Olympic team by a commando of eight Palestinians (group black September) to the Plays of Munich, then of 9 others the following day September 6th, is 11 athletes on the whole.
See also: Taken hostages of the Olympic Games of Munich
- September 14th: Re-establishment of the diplomatic relations between FRG and the Poland.
- November 19th: Election of the 7th the Bundestag .
- December 21st: Treaty Basic between the FRG and GDR.
See also: 1972 in France
The United Kingdom
- January 30th, with Londonderry, in Northern Ireland, the British parachutists open fire on a demonstration for the defense of the civic rights of the catholics, making 14 dead. A first investigation bleaches the army. It is the famous Bloody Sunday .
- February: The WILL GO starts to organize actions in England.
- Mars: The government Edward Heath assigns the English army with operations of anti-IRA cleaning and suspends the Irish constitution to place “temporarily” the province under direct administration of London. The WILL GO deposits the weapons until in 1975.
- June: Edward Heath gives up its neoliberal policy to resort to the methods interventionists: credit rationing, blocking of the prices and the wages, nationalization of Rolls Royce.
- 28 - August 5th: A general strike of the dockers paralyzes the economic life (24 million day's works lost due to strike in 1972).
- January 15th: The republican having rejoined the opposition, the government Emilio Colombo resigns.
- February 17th: Giulio Andreotti form a homogeneous government cd..
- February 26th: As the government does not obtain the confidence of the Senate, the president of the Republic dissolves the Rooms. The Andreotti government ensures the go concern.
- Mars: XIIIe congress of the Italian Communist party with Milan. Luigi Longo is elected president of the party; Enrico Berlinguer becomes general secretary.
- March 14th: Giangiacomo Feltrinelli, founder of the Gruppi d' Azione Partigiana , change with the bomb which it installed on a pylon with high voltage with Segrate, close to Milan.
- May 7th: Political elections: cd. obtains 38,8% of the voices, NCV 27,2%, the socialist party 9,6% (7/05). The left extraparlementaire obtains only one million voice. The revolutionary movements are radicalized.
- June 26th: Giulio Andreotti founds its second government with the participation of the liberals and the social democrats.
- July 24th: The three principal central trade-unions (CGIL, CISL, UIL) gather in a federation.
Of the hours of paid formations is ensured the workers.
- October 12th: Student's disorders, after the death of the student Jose Ribeiro back Santos, victim of the Pide.
- December 30th: Business of the vault of Rato, with Lisbon. Christians, brought together to request and reflect on the colonial war which has lasted for eleven years, are dislodged by the police force and those of them which were civils servant are excluded from the public office. The cardinal emits a protest.
the “censure” is replaced by “the prior examination”
- Réélection of Américo Thomaz to the presidency of the Republic.
- 17% of raising of prices in 1972.
- the amount of the naps transferred towards Portugal by the emigrants reaches 10% of the general receipts of the State.
- May 22nd - May 30th: Visit Richard Nixon in the USSR.
- May 26th: Agreements SALT 1 ( Strategic Arms Limitation Talks ) at the time of the voyage of Nixon to Moscow, limiting the number of the missiles. The two super powers will not be able to deploy more than 100 missiles antiballistic (ABM), and only in two affected zones one with the defense of the capital, the other with the protection of a site of intercontinental launching of machine (ICBM). They also relate to the prohibition of the bacteriological weapons. No inspection of the respect of the clauses of the agreement is envisaged, the Soviets seeing a form of espionage there. Progress as regards detection by satellite makes it possible to circumvent this refusal.
- a trade agreement offers to the USSR the clause of the most favoured nation in exchange of its good will to the Vietnam, Berlin and on other subjects.
- the American-Soviet agreements envisage the co-operation in the fields of medical research, environmental protection, science and technology, the space conquest, the prevention of the maritime accidents and the limitation of the armaments. Shortly after are concluded the adjustment from the Soviet debt lease-lend of the Second world war, a triennial trade agreement and programs of cultural exchanges.
Bad harvests in Soviet Union.
- Soviet naval Effort: the USSR can deploy 820 large ships (447 for the United States). But the American fleet is higher in tonnage. Its buildings are heavier and profit almost all from the nuclear propulsion.
Arts & culture
- 10 - August 11th, Colorado: Valley Curtain is set up by Christo and Jeanne-Claude. The curtain saffron is torn off after one day of exposure because of a wind reaching 100 km/h.
- Ve International exhibition of contemporary art to Kassel, centered on the Hyperréalisme and the Conceptual art.
- June 19th: With Bilbao (Spain, province of Biscay), alternate of Pedro Gutiérrez Moya known as “El Niño of Capea”, Spanish Matador.
- July 9th: With alternate Barcelona (Spain), of Julio Robles, Spanish Matador.
- August 20th: With Palma de Majorque (Spain, Balearic Islands), alternate of Roberto Domínguez, Spanish Matador.
Sciences & technology
See also: 1972 in science
See also: 1972 in aeronautics
See also: 1972 in the railroads
See also: 1972 in sport
See also: 1972 in football
Births in 1972See also: : Category: Birth in 1972
- January 12th: Priyanka Gandhi, Indian political woman, family member of Jawaharlal Nehru and Indira Gandhi and Sonia Gandhi
- January 17th: Ken Hirai, type-setter-interprets Japanese
- January 29th: Nicolas the Rich person, principal dancer with the Opera of Paris
- February 7th: Amon Tobin, DJ and Brazilian type-setter.
- February 16th: Taylor Hawkins, beater of the group Foo Fighters
- February 17th: Billie Joe Armstrong, singer of the group Green Day
- February 17th: Philippe Candeloro, artistic skater French.
- February 17th: Valeria Mazza, Top model Argentinian.
- February 20th: Cristina Sánchez, Spanish Matador .
- February 22nd: Rolando Villazón, Singer of opera (Tenor) Mexican.
- February 29th: Antonio Sabato, American Actor
- March 6th: Shaquille O'Neal, player of American basketball
- March 21st: Piotr Adamczyk, actor Polish
- March 23rd: Judith Godrèche, actress
- April 20th: Wouter Van Bellingen, politician Flemish
- April 28th: Sebastien Cauet, radio presenter and of television
- May 15th: David Charvet, actor and singer French
- May 21st: Stomy Bugsy, singer and actor French
- May 23rd: Rubens Barrichello, pilot of automobile race (F1)
- May 24th: Laure Sinclair, French actress
- May 28th: Chiara Mastroianni, French actress
- June 7th: Karl Urban, actor
- June 10th: Radmila Sekerinska, political woman Macedonian, former Prime Minister for the Macedonia
- June 19th: Jean Dujardin, French actor
- June 23rd: Zinedine Zidane, footballer
- June 25th: Mike Kroeger, bass player of the Canadian group Nickelback
- June 26th: Garou, Québécois singer
- June 29th: Samantha Smith, American schoolgirl , Ambassador of good will in Soviet Union († August 25th 1985)
- July 6th: Isabelle Boulay, Québécois singer
- July 14th: Loïc Le Meur, contractor and Blog uor French
- July 27th: Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor, Malaysian spationaut
- August 11th: Jonathon Prandi, American actor
- August 15th: Ben Affleck, American actor
- August 30th: Cameron Diaz, American actress
- August 31st: Sebastien Off-set, French author-actor
- September 21st: Liam Gallagher, British singer of the group Oasis
- September 23rd: Sarah Bettens, Belgian song writer and performer
- September 24th: Pierre Amine Gemayel, Lebanese politician († November 21st 2006)
- September 28th: Gwyneth Paltrow, American actress
- October 20th: Kasongo Ilunga, politician Congolese.
- October 27th: Santiago Botero, Colombian racing cyclist
- November 4th: Shine Figo, footballer Portuguese
- November 13rd: Takuya Kimura, Japanese actor
- November 27th: Stephan Pocrain, chronicler of French television, militant association
- December 10th: Brian Molko, singer of the group Placebo
- December 19th: Alyssa Milano, American actress
- December 22nd: Vanessa Paradis, singer and French actress
- December 28th: Ingrid Colicis, Belgian political woman of French language
- December 29th: Jude Law, British actor
Death in 1972
- January 3rd: Frans Masereel, engraver and Belgian painter.
- February 21st: Bronislava Nijinska, dancer and Russian choreographer (° 1891).
- February 25th: Pierre Overney, militant Maoist.
- March 23rd: Cristóbal Balenciaga, Spanish Dressmaker, (° 1895).
- March 27th: Maurits Cornelis Escher, engraver Dutch, (° 1898).
- April 27th: Kwame Krumah, former Ghanaian president
- May 24th: Pedro Shine Boitel, poet and martyr of the Faith, died in the jails cuban
- May 28th: Duke of Windsor ex king of the United Kingdom Edouard VIII, (° 1894).
- June 29th: Boby Lapointe, Singer French, (° 1922).
- July 21st: Jigme Dorji Wangchuck, king of the Bhutan since 1952.
- July 31st :
- Paul-Henri Spaak, Belgian politician (° 1899).
- Mikhail Artamonov, Historian and Russian Archeologist . (° November 23rd 1898).
- August 14th: Pierre Brasseur, Actor and Realizer of French cinema, (° 1905).
- September 15th: Ásgeir Ásgeirsson, Icelandic politician (° May 13rd 1894)
- September 21st: Henry de Montherlant, novelist, essay writer, dramatic author and French academician (° 1895)
- September 27th: Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan mathematician and Indian librarian (° 1892)
- October 10th: Kenneth Edgeworth, engineer and astronomer Irish (° February 26th 1880)
- October 20th: Harlow Shapley, American Astrophysicist, (° 1885).
- October 22nd: Pablo Casals, Spanish Violoncellist, (° 1876).
- November 20th: Ennio Flaiano, Italian writer, Playwright, Novelist, Scenario writer of films, dramatic Journalist and Critical. (° March 5th 1910).
- December 26th: Harry Truman, President of the United States, (° 1884).
to also see: : Category: Death in 1972
Beats-smg: 1972 Be-X-old: 1972 Map-bms: 1972 Simple: 1972 Zh-min-nan: 1972 nor Zh-yue: 1972 年
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