The bagpipe is a Musical instrument with wind and more particularly with Anche S.
It consists of a tight pocket (bag) in which the Air is pushed by bellows or the mouth of the instrumentalist. This one is generally called piper, bell ringer of bagpipe, or cornemuseux (sometimes dépréciatif but often used in the field of the traditional or folk music of the center of France), " cornemusiste" or " cornemuseur" , according to the areas. The air escapes then in a continuous way of the bag, through one or several tubes whose internal end has a Anche which is used to produce the its. These tubes for certain are bored various openings which are, as for a Flûte, are sealed or left free by the fingers or a set of keys, in order to modify the tonality of the sound.
The melody pipe (called " pied" in invoice but more usually Oboe or Blowtorch or chantarelle) can be single but there can be of them also two, reserved each one for a hand (zampogna Italian for example) or two joined, the holes being stopped either by the first phalange of the finger or by the second (Tunisian Mezoued for example). The two pipes more or less identical or are then equipped with different combinations of holes.
The number of bumblebees is very variable: from zero to three, in theory generally with the octave or two octaves under the tonic of the melody pipe, more generally in fifth or quad. The uillean Irish pipe has, in addition to its three (seldom four) bumblebees, three (sometimes two, seldom four even five) regulating equipped with keys making it possible to reach agreements of accompaniment with the wrist of the right hand.
There exists more than one hundred of the types of bagpipes listed to date. It is an instrument which one finds in most of the cultures of Europe, circumference of the Mediterranean and with beyond: in the north and south of the Caucasus, the Persian Gulf and India. It existed already time of the Greek which would have borrowed it from the ancient Egypt. It would have been then spread by the Roman .
The photograph opposite comprises the following parts (which are overall the same ones on all the bagpipes):
- oboe (to sing, blowtorch, lévriad),
- bag or pocket,
- stock; certain bagpipes have several bumblebees or oboe on the same stock,
- to bouffoir or tubes blowing or blast pipe or sutel,
- large bumblebee,
- slide of agreement or slide of tuning,
- cords of maintenance (specific to the large bagpipe of Scotland).
To bouffoir is provided with a non-return Clapet (valve), allowing the air to be introduced into the bag without coming out from it. All the bagpipes have at least an oboe, making it possible to play the melody, the difference is done on the number of bumblebees and the possible presence of regulators (kind of oboe with keys played by the wrists) or a secondary oboe, as in the case of the haversack of court or the zampogna.
On the bag one or more stocks, fixed at the bag and bound are assembled in a tight way. In the stocks, one comes to introduce the bumblebees and the oboe. On the diagram opposite, representing a large bagpipe of Scotland , you will find a stock by bumblebee and a stock for the oboe, on the haversack of court , you will find a stock for the nine bumblebees, and a stock for the two oboes, for example.
The bag generally consists of coated leather (inside) of Poisse or molasses, to ensure the sealing, but certain bagpipes can be made up of a bladder (the gaïda, for example), or of gore-tex or rubber, in recent construction industries, according to the wishes of the musicians.
SheersThe bagpipe uses two systems:
Simple sheersThey consist of a small tube, generally in reed (Canne of Provence), bored on the side with the one of the ends, and covered with small a plate of Bronze, the vibrating part. The plate is dependant on the tube by oakum, or wire of hemp pitched and coated Poisse .
The sheer is plugged in the bumblebee, the plate upwards. The air makes vibrate the bronze plate while being engulfed in the sheer, then in the bumblebee, of which the length is variable to regulate the height of the note that it produces.
Double sheersThey consist of two trapezoidal plates of reed, refined (scraped) on the part broadest, and held one against the other with a wire of Laiton, the rasette.
The unit is tied up with wire of flax or of hemp and pitches on a small conical brass tube, the gun.
This sheer, after having rolled of the linen thread at the end of gun, is plugged in on the Chalumeau (or oboe) of the bagpipe, having bored holes and possibly together with keys, to produce the melody.
The double sheers are also used by the Basson, the Hautbois, or the Cor anglais.
List bagpipes alphabetically
- Baghèt, one of the Italian bagpipes coming from the valleys of Bergamo;
- Bagpipe braz, or GDP vor (Breton, male name), literally “large bagpipe”, which is in fact a Great Highland Bagpipe with a very close play dating from the years 1950;
- Bagpipe kozh (Breton, male name), literally “old bagpipe”, one of the acutest bagpipes.
- Bodega Occitan E.
- Boha (bagpipe landaise), the traditional bagpipe of the Moors of Gascogne;
- To border pipe (Scottish), the traditional bagpipe of the south of Scotland and the North-East of England;
- Cabrette (auvergnate), bagpipe appeared at the XIXe century in the community auvergnate of Paris and which was quickly spread in High Auvergne and Aubrac like in zones bordering; it comprises a melody pipe and a pipe of accompaniment, but this last is not always functional;
- Center France; bagpipe of everyday usage, rebuilt starting from old models preserved in the museums or the families of the former musicians;
- Chabrette (the Limousin E);
- Chabrette (périgourdine);
- Bagpipe of Highlands (Scotland) to see Great Highland Bagpipe
- Doedelzak (Flanders French and Belgian) that one finds, for example on the representation of Brughel ;
- Duda (Hungary);
- Dudy (Poland);
- Gaïda (Bulgarian), whose bag is consisted of the skin of a goat on which bumblebees and oboes with the site of the legs and the neck of the animal are assembled;
- Gaïta (Galician and asturienne);
- Gaita-with-fole (Portugal);
- Great Highland Bagpipe (Scottish); it is the bagpipe of war of the regiments Scot of the British army and by extension of the Pipe-band S;
- large Nevers-native the (Burgundy), " There was at last century with Saint-Pierre Moûtier, in the Resident of Nevers, of the manufacturers of large bagpipes (...) which excelled in the incrustations of tin and of lead of which they charged the blowtorches out of wooden with pear tree. A rather curious detail, it is that the flowers of lilies which formed the base of this decoration never did not cease affecting the form which they had in XVIe siècle". Eugene de Bricqueville, 1895. In the order books of Mr. Pajot, factor of hurdy-gurdies, one found this mention: " Charles Frébauts, manufacturer of haversacks in Billy-Chevannes" ;
- Loure (Norman), illustrated in the old manuscripts or the sculpture, it disappeared at the XVIIIe century;
- Mezoued (Tunisia nne);
- Accordion music Béchonnet (Burgundy), in Charolais and Brionnais, the researchers of the GRETT discovered that the practice of the bagpipe perduré until 1931. They to date listed ten cornemuseux buildings, playing on bellows instruments of the Béchonnet type;
- Haversack bressane (Burgundy), small bagpipe with bellows, oboe in B flat and two bumblebees (small bumblebee parallel with the oboe on the same case). One found of them several specimens of which one in perfect state, signed Lutaud 1852, preserved at the museum of the Ursulines with Mâcon. This specimen was used as model to B. JACQUEMIN (violin maker with Semur-in-Auxois) to carry out copies making it possible to reconstitute a style of play of which there does not exist sound testimony.
- Haversack of court (used with XVIIe and XVIIIe centuries in France, this bagpipe with bellows with the characteristic to have two oboes, to make two simultaneous melodies, and nine reconcilable bumblebees. It was made out of ivory, its bag was out of money embroidered wire silk; its use remained the prerogative of noble, amateurs of “sheep-folds”.
- Northumbrian Small Pipes (County of Northumberland, the North-East of England), usually called Small Pipe ;
- Paunch of oueille, or worse of chieuv' (Burgundy), In the south of Morvan and the Resident of Nevers, association Lai Poêlée carried out an inventory of the musicians and instruments. The found bagpipes, of accordion music type of the Center, are not local invoice. The practice remained alive until in the years 1950;
- Pipossa (deformation of pipe out of bag), name of a bagpipe disappeared from the area of Boulogne-sur-Mer
- Bag of gemecs, bagpipe of Catalonia;
- Säckpipa (Sweden)
- Schweizer Sackpfeife (Swiss bagpipe): in Switzerland, the bagpipe was an instrument in the traditional music of the Middle Ages at the XVIIIe century;
- Scottish Smallpipe (Scotland), which is a version of Northumbrian pipe developed by Colin Ross, by using the tact of the large bagpipe of Scotland, in the Années 1980;
- Touloum, is a bagpipe suitable for the area of the North-East of the Turkey
- Uilleann pipes or Union pipes (Irish, which have a complex play of bumblebees with key, the regulators, 3 on a full set , and 3 bumblebees, including one two octaves under the fundamental one of the blowtorch;
- Veuze (instrument of the Breton marsh /vend éen with sheer doubles not pinch).
- War pipe ( GDP Mhor , Ireland) to see Great Highland Bagpipe
- Zampogna, polyphonic bagpipe Italy nne
All on the history of the Bagpipes.
- documentary Page on the Celtic bagpipes.
- the bagpipe in Portugal (" Gaita-of-fole").
- Iconography of the bagpipe
- Definition and history of the bagpipes
- Ring Internet on the bagpipes (in English)
- old popular Music Swiss
- Some big families of bagpipes
- the Scottish bagpipe
- the bagpipe landaise or Boha
- various European bagpipes
- the haversack
- the cabrette
- Description of the Scottish bagpipe on Breizh Partitions
- Site on the bagpipes of the museum of the ages of Europe and the Mediterranean.
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