Aymara designates at the same time people called also people Qolla or Colla , originating in the area of the Lac Titicaca to the crossing of the Bolivia, the Peru and the Chile, as well as a common language which replaced many others like the Uru or Uchhumataqu of Bolivia.
According to Rodolfo Cerrón-Palomino, one of the principal specialists in these two languages, it is not the Quechua, but well will aymara it which was the official language of the INCA empire, contrary with a widespread opinion.
The varieties of will aymara form a linguistic subfamily with the varieties of quechua.
Account will aymara approximately two million speakers, primarily in Bolivia.
As for the majority of the Amerindian people, there is not or few documents reporting the history of the Aymara people. Some bits reached us through the chronicles which report the time of the conquest like some accounts précolombiens.
In an unquestionable way however is known that the Aymara people were not the first to populate the area of the Titicaca and the Altiplano, one thus puts the question of the origin of these people. There are several theories today, in particular the theory localist which would like that the current distribution of the Aymara language is explained by the rise of some communities of the accesses of the lake in direction of the altiplano. Another theory locates the origin of the Aymara people in the central Andes of Peru, between Huarochirí, Yauyos, Cañete and Nazca. These areas, currently of Quechua language, formed part of the Aymaraphone surface formerly. A third theory locates the origin of with dimensions of the peaceful coast at the north of Chile.
The Aymara people arrive on banks of the Lac Titicaca two centuries before our era, it then competes with the tribes Uru which it replaces little by little in the area. Developing an original culture and basing his economy on the development of agriculture and the breeding as well as the trade with the people around, the people thrive on well sheltered banks of the lake. One period of expansion is followed from there, one mainly finds many archaeological traces in south-eastern direction of the lake.
It is while passing at an imperial stage, one speaks about civilization of Tiwanaku or Tiahuanaco, that the Langue starts to be spread in the the Andes: one finds it on all the altiplano, on the coast since Arica with the Chile until Lima with the Peru and south-east until in Argentine. Reaching its apogee about year 900 of our era imperial civilization Tiwanaku will decline to leave room to several kingdoms and chefferies of language and Aymara culture. These are these prosperous but rival chefferies that the INCA S during their expansion meet towards the south. Among those one knows the rival kingdoms Lupaqa S and Pacajes located on south-western bank of the lake. It is not known exactly if Aymaras are just peacefully with the empire like describes it INCA Garcilaso of Vega or delivered battles in the INCA. The whole of the people of Aymara language are gradually integrated into the Collasuyu, the southern quarter of the INCA empire. After the conquest and the fall of the INCA mode, the Aymara people pass under domination of the crown of Spain. This period will be strewn with country revolts caused by the difficult living conditions of the communities. At the beginning of the XIXe century, Aymaras take part in the engagements for the independence of Bolivia but their living conditions will not be improved under the capacity of the republics.
From the geographical point of view, after the conquest INCA, then Spanish colonization, the Aymara language gradually loses ground vis-a-vis Spanish and with the Quechua, language with which it maintains a border floating. It remains today enracinée on banks of the Lac Titicaca and in the zones of Aymara settlement.
One mainly explains the loss of his use as common language owing to the fact that the evangelization of the people autochtones by Europeans was mainly made with the dialects Quechua and Muchik or mochica. However, there was a significant decline because of indifference and sometimes the contempt of the government until half of the 20th century. After years of deliberation, the supreme decree 20227-DS of the May 9th 1984 of the Bolivian government and also the ministerial resolution 1218-RM of the November 18th 1985 of the Peruvian government give an official statute to this thousand-year-old language. In the same way, the official alphabet Aymara is recognized, by the force of law, denominado único . Thus, it is today the Co-official language of Bolivia and Peru.
Currently, will aymara it extends on a surface called Qollasuyu on the péru-Bolivian Altiplano and the Andean buttresses from the areas from Moquegua and Tacna with the Peru and from Tarapacá in Chile. One counts more than 2 million aymarophones which is subdivided into two dialectes :
- Central Aymara: in the south of Peru, the Bolivian altiplano and the adjacent Andean zone in Bolivia with the Chile.
- southern Aymara: in the areas Peruvian S of Tacna and Moquegua.
One finds however through all South America of the geographical places bearing a name Aymara :
- Cundimarca in Colombia, derived from Kontjimarka: city where one is installed in first
- Cajamarca with the Peru, the village which shines in Aymara
- Itinez on the boliviano-Brazilian border, derives from the word Jit' inissa meaning assembled water at the time of the rains
- K' atamarka in Argentine, village where dust (seniority) accumulates
- Arica with the Chile of Aymara Arikka: the point
- Tarija in Bolivia comes from Taruja, name of the stag or the hind in Aymara.
VowelsLike the Quechua, the Inuktitut and the Arab , will aymara it has only three vocalic stamps ( has , I , U ), but has nevertheless vocalic lengthenings, which are noted by a Tréma ''' ¨ ''' on the vowel. There are thus six vocalic C-Ws communication: has, ä, I, I, U, U . Let us mention also the transformation of the vowels I and U into /e/ and /o/ , respectively, in front of a consonant Uvulaire ( Q, q', qh, X ). There is no Diphtongue, except those which use Semi-voyelles (' there E W ).
ConsonantsWill aymara account sixteen Consonne S basic, but the Occlusive S can be glottalized or aspired, which increases the numbers of consonants to twenty-six.
Personalities will aymaras
Evo Morales, founder in 1985 of the Bolivian political party MAS-IPSP (Movement for socialism - Instrument political of the Sovereignty of the People) of which he is the chief. Elected official President of the Republic Bolivian in December 2005.
Different design of timeThe people will aymara has a design of time different from that which prevails in the European cultures: with the eyes of those, it would be a " design inversée". For will aymara, the past, known and visible is in front of the speaker whereas the future, unknown and invisible, are behind him.
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