The Australia (officially “the Commonwealth of Australia”) is a country of the southern hemisphere which covers the largest island of the continent Oceania N, the island of Tasmanie as well as other islands of the oceans southern, Pacifique and Indien. The close nations include/understand in particular the Indonesia, the Eastern Timor and the New Guinea New Guinea in north, the the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and the French territory of New Caledonia in the North-East and the New Zealand in south-east.
Populated since more: 50000 years by the Indigenous , the principal island of Australia was visited only in a sporadic way, in particular by fishermen come from north. As from the 17th century, European explorers and merchants will recognize the coasts, but it is only into 1770 that the Eastern half of the island will be officially asserted by the England and on January 26th, 1788 which will be founded the penal settlement of News-Wales of the South. Five other largely autonomous colonies were founded in the current of the 19th century, as the population increased and that new territories were explored.
January 1st, 1901, the six colonies federated and formed the Commonwealth of Australia. Since its independence, Australia preserved a stable political system of type liberal Démocratie and remains a monarchy member of the the Commonwealth of the Nations. Its capital is Canberra, located in the Territoire of the Australian capital. Its population is estimated at approximately 20,8 million inhabitants (estimate 2007) and is mainly concentrated in the coastal big cities of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adélaïde.
The name Australia comes from the Latin australis (Austral E). At the 2nd century, scientists had put forth the assumption of an unknown continent in the south (the Terra Australis Incognita ) which would allow the Ground, then regarded as punt, not to rock around its axis by acting as counterweight vis-a-vis the continents of the northern hemisphere. The first use of the word " Australia" (and either " Terra Australis") in English to 1625 (" goes back; With note off Australia del Espiritu Santo" , written by Master Hakluyt, published by Samuel Purchas in Hakluytus Posthumus). The Dutch adjective " Australische" was used in the official texts concerning the Dutch colony in Indonesia to qualify the new grounds discovered in 1638 in the south of Indonesia. The word " Australie" is used in 1693 in the English translation of " Adventures of Jacques Sadeur" in " the Discovery and the Voyage of the Australe" Earth; , a new Frenchwoman published in 1692 and written by Gabriel de Foigny under the name of author of Jacques Sadeur. Alexander Dalrymple will then use it in " Year Historical Collection off Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean" in (1771) to indicate the whole of the grounds of this area of the Pacific-South. In 1793, George Shaw and Sir James Smith published the book " Zoology and Botany off New Holland" , in which they write " the vast island, but rather unintermitting, off Australia, Australasia gold New Holland." (the large island, or rather continent, of Australia, of Australasia or News-Holland.)
The British explorer Matthew Flinders, the first navigator to have made the turn in boat of Australia published in 1814 has Voyage to Terra Australis but the title reflects the point of view of the British Admiralty, the author speaking about Australia in his book which was largely read and the Australia term used. The Governor of the News-Wales of the South, Lachlan Macquarie used consequently this word in his dispatches towards the the United Kingdom and the December 12th 1817, it required of the Ministry for English Colonies that this name is officialized. In 1824, the British Admiralty approved the proposal and the new continent became officially l'" Australie".
See also: History of Australia
See also: Prehistory of Australia
The exact date of the first human presence in Australia is always the subject of great research. There is strong evidence Scientifique S of human presence there is approximately 50.000 years. It is one period enormous ecological upheavals in Australia and she is regarded as the consequence of human colonization. However, certain speculations are made as for more remote origins of the first Australian populations, until there is 100.000 years. These first Australian is the remote ancestors of the Aborigènes of Australia of today. They would have arrived via terrestrial bridges appeared with the Glaciation of Würm and the crossing of rather large seas in Southeast Asia. Starting from DNA mitochondrial, a reconstitution of large the human migrations of prehistory goes back the arrival to Homo sapiens in Australia with: 70000 years Before the present. There exists many Espèce S of Plante S and animal common between Australia, the New Guinea-News-Guinea and some islands Indonesia born, which makes think that it was to exist terrestrial bridges between these countries. They would have been closed when the Mer S are assembled.
It later developed exchanges Tradition nels between the people of Australia and the islands more in north using boats used for the fishing and the Commerce. That made think that tradesmen Arab S and Chinese learned the existence, then visited the coasts of the island of Australia as of the 9th century. Charts drawn in Europe at the end of the 15th century indicate parts of the northern coast of Australia. The Makassar of the southern of Célèbes in Indonesia, large seafaring nation, came on the coasts north from Australia, which they called Marage , to fish the Holothurie or trepang .
Discovered by Europeans
The first European to visit Australia is the explorer Portuguese Cristóvão de Mendonça in 1522. However, it is only at the 17th century that the island becomes the subject of European explorations. Some forwardings see famous the Terra Australis : the Dutch Willem Jansz in 1606, the Portuguese Shine Váez de Torres in service for the Spain in 1607 and the Dutchmen Dirk Hartog in 1616, Jan Carstensz in 1623 and Abel Tasman in 1642. This last gave its name to the island of Tasmanie but itself had named it according to the name of the admiral and governor Anthony van Diemen: " van Diemenslandt".
The first British explorers are William Dampier (for the England) on the west coast in 1688 and the lieutenant James Cook which, in 1770, takes possession to two thirds of the island for the Kingdom of Great Britain, in spite of the orders of the king George III stipulating that it was initially to conclude a treated with the indigenous population. His report/ratio with London informant that Australia is unoccupied (see Terra nullius) allows the establishment of a penitentiary colony , which is quite practical after the loss of the American colonies for Great Britain.
The British royal colony of News-Wales of the South begins with the foundation of a camp (which later will become Sydney) in Port Jackson by the Capitaine Arthur Phillip the January 26th 1788. The arrival of this First Fleet (first fleet) will become later the date of the national Festival Australian ( Australia Day ).
Great Britain became the the United Kingdom in 1801 after the unification with Ireland. British of the new country are established on the ground Van Diemen (today the Tasmanie) in 1803 and it becomes a colony separated in 1826. The remainder of the island (today the Western Australia) is declared British in 1829. Progressively of the extension of the British establishments, News-Wales of the South is divided into several separate colonies: the South Australia in 1836, the Victoria in 1851 and the Queensland in 1859. The Territoire of North is founded, like belonging to South Australia, in 1863.
During the period going of 1855 with 1890, the six colonies of the crown become each one one after the other a car-controlled colony, managing its own businesses. The British Loi is adopted in each colony, when the United Kingdom authorizes each one to obtain a responsible Gouvernement, and evolves/moves with time. The British government keeps the control of certain fields of which the Foreign affairs, the defense and international business. In spite of its economy strongly Rural E, the Australian Population remains strongly urban, concentrating especially in the Ville S of Melbourne and Sydney. In the Years 1880, Marvellous Melbourne is the second plus big city of the British Empire. Australia gains also the reputation to be a paradise of the worker and a laboratory for the social Réforme. It is indeed it which organizes the first election with Secret bulletin and the first government of a workers party is elected there.
January 1st 1901, the federation of the colonies is completed, after 10 years of gestation, and the Commonwealth of Australia is born, as a Dominion of the British Empire. Between 1901 and 1911, the capital will be temporarily located at Melbourne but it is on a territory yielded to the federal government by News-Wales of the South in 1911 that the new federal capital will be built, Canberra.
Although Australia became independent, the British government keeps some capacities on the dominion until the Statut of Westminster of 1931, ratified by the Australian Parliament in 1942.
At the time of the First World War, Australia which then counted 5 million inhabitants joint as of the whole beginning with the Alliés; : 416000 Australian will take part in this conflict where: 60000 of them will die, that is to say, for the Western face, the highest rate of the committed armies. Australia is the only country which avoids shooting for the example its soldiers.
The theoretical authority of the British Parliament on the States however is not completely removed before the Australia Act of 1986. The original Constitution gave in fact to the federal government only the capacity to vote laws for all the inhabitants of Australia except the Aborigènes. In 1967, a Référendum approved by more than 90% of the voters gives to the federal government the right to vote laws to protect the Aboriginals and to count them in the Recensement S.
Australia is a Constitutional monarchy whose Elisabeth II is the queen. In 1999, a referendum is held on the question of a constitutional modification to make country a République so that the queen of the United Kingdom is not any more the Head of State of Australia, in order to affirm the sovereignty and the independence of Australia with respect to the old colonial power. However, the project meets many oppositions, coming initially obviously from the monarchists, but not only, since part of the republicans invites to vote against the project because of the dissension with the method suggested for designation of the Head of the State, which should not have been elected by the vote for all, but named by the Parliament in the majority of two thirds, this system having for advantage of placing the president above the quarrels of the parties but for disadvantage of excluding the citizen from the choice from his representativeness. Vis-a-vis these criticisms and with the concern the many Australian ones with respect to the dangers which this change could involve, a majority of Australian - to a total value of 55% - was described in a negative way in connection with this project, in spite of the fact that less than 10% of the population on this date the maintenance of monarchy supported. Even if Australia preserves today its statute of constitutional monarchy, the debate is still not sliced and probably evolves/moves in the years to come. A Référendum should be held running 2007 to propose, once again, the establishment of a République in Australia.
Australia extends its: 7686850 km ² of surface on the indo-Australian plate. Bordered by the oceans Indian, Peaceful and Southern, Australia is separated from Asia by the seas of Arafura and Timor. It counts: 25760 kilometers of coasts and asserts: 8148250 km ² of exclusive economic Zone. This zone does not take account of Australian the Antarctic Territory.
The meteorologists note an alarming warming which pushed the government to be voted in 2007 the creation and the protection of the first climatic Corridor transcontinental, intended to allow the migration of the living organisms which could not support the local climatic conditions any more.
The Large barrier of the coral, largest coral Reef of the world, extends at short distance from the north-eastern coasts, on more: 2000 kilometers. Largest Monolith of the world, the Mount Augustus, is located in Western Australia. With an altitude of: 2228 meters, the Mount Kosciuszko, is more the high mountain of the continental territory, whereas Mawson Peak, located on the island Heard, reached: 2745 meters.
Most of the Australian territory is covered of ic zones Désert or Semi-aride S: the programs of irrigation have evil to overcome the dryness. Oceania is driest of the inhabited continents, flattest and has oldest and the least fertile of the grounds. Only the parts located at south-east and south-west profit from a moderate climate. The northern part of the country, with a tropical Climate, has a vegetation made up of wet tropical forests, meadows, mangroves, marsh and deserts. The climate is strongly influenced by the oceanic currents, in particular El Niño, which is correlated with periodic drynesses and the low seasonal pressures which produce Cyclone S in the north of Australia.
Fauna and flora
Although the majority of the island are desert or semi-arid, Australia does not miss habitats diversified to accommodate various species Animal are and Végétal be. Because of the great age of the continent, of its very variable climate in time and its very long geographical insulation, a particular fauna and a flora could develop. The most known animal species are the Koala, the Kangourou, the émeu, the Ornithorynque, the Wombat and the echidna.
The arrival of the first men in Australia, the European Colonization and modernization brought each one their batch of Flore and fauna of the whole world. Some thrived too much and reached too important proportions, threatening, if not exterminating, other species. The rabbit for example became a true security question. Disease S as the Myxomatose are even maintained by the authorities to limit the number of it. A very known example of extermination is the disappearance of the Tigre of Tasmanie after the arrival of Europeans.
The first colonists imported cattle but their excrements did not disappear because there were no insects nor of bacteria in charge of their degradation. Since, it is interdict to import animal species or vegetable into Australia.
See also: States and territories of Australia
Australia is composed of six continental States, two territories and other less important territories. The States are the News-Wales of the South (NSW), the Queensland (QLD), the South Australia (SA), the Tasmanie (HEAP), the Victoria (VIC) and the Western Australia (WA). The two continental territories are the Territoire of North (NT) and the Territoire of the Australian capital (ACT). In the majority of the cases, the territories function like the States, but the federal Parliament can cancel the laws voted by their Parliaments. By contrast, the federal legislation can cancel the legislation of State only in the fields covered by section 51 of the Constitution; the remaining fields are the prerogative of the Parliaments of State and include capacities on the hospitals, education, the police force, the legal organization, the public roads, transport and the local government.
Each the States and territory has its own Parliament (monocaméral in the case of the Territory of North, the ACT and Queensland, and bicameral for the remaining states). The Lower House is known under the name of Legislative Assemblée (Legislative Assembly) and the Upper House like the Legislative council (Legislative Council). The heads of government bear the name of “first” in the States and “chief ministers” in the territories. The queen is represented in each state by a governor; an administrator in the Territory of North and the general governor in the Territory of the Australian capital have similar roles.
Australia also has minor territories; the federal government directly manages a zone within News-Wales of the South, the Territoire of bay of Jarvis, as bases naval and seaport for the national capital. Among the other territories, the Island Norfolk, the Christmas island and the islands Cocos are inhabited; as for the islands of the Coral Sea, Ashmore and Cartier, Heard and Mc Donald as well as the Australian Territory of the Antarctic, they are largely uninhabited.
See also: Political of Australia
Australia has a federal Parlement with two rooms: the Senate ( Senate ) with 76 senators and the Chambre of the Representatives ( House off Representative ) with 150 Député S. the deputies are elected in districts (officially divisions , but more known under the name of electorates or seats ) according to a system of a deputy per district. The more one State is populated, the more it has deputies with the Room of the Representatives with a minimum of five per State. With the Senate, each State is represented by 12 senators, and each territory of the Australia island by 2. The deputies are elected for three years and the senators six. The election S take place every 3 years, renewing the Senate of half to each election.
The Gouvernement is formed in the Room of the Representatives. The chief of the left majority is Prime Minister. It arrived only once that a senator becomes Prime Minister of Australia, and this for one very short period.
An exception to this constitutional Convention took place the November 11th 1975. The general governor Sir John Kerr returned indeed the Prime Minister Gough Whitlam. This event remains more discussed of all the Australian political history.
The Prime Minister John Howard is currently with the head of a coalition between the Liberal party and the national Parti. Howard chose to hold of the anticipated elections the October 9th 2004. It was reappointed in its term of office by these elections and the conservatives even reinforced their positions with the Room of the Representatives. They moreover took majority with the Senate. This result is a rout for the Workers party, principal party of opposition. One of the consequences in particular was the maintenance of the Australian troops at the sides of the the United States in Iraq. The Labor chief, Mark Latham, had been committed in the electoral campaign bringing back the soldiers to Australia before Christmas 2004.
The January 18th 2005, Latham resigns of all its political mandates, of which that of the chief of the Labor , officially for health reasons. After a short interim of Jenny Macklin, Kim Beazley, which was chief of the Labor during five years, takes again the head of it. Kevin Rudd replaces it in December 2006.
The the Commonwealth of Australia is a constitutional monarchy: Elisabeth II is queen of Australia, a role distinct and separated from its position as a Elisabeth II from the the United Kingdom. She is the Head of State, although this term appears neither in the Constitution nor in the Loi. The queen is represented by name by the general governor. In practice, the Queen Elizabeth II came only little from time to Australia and forever called upon her capacities. The near total of the constitutional role of the monarch is thus assumed by the general governor. According to the Australian Constitution, the role of the monarch is almost purely ceremonial. Although the Constitution theoretically gives great executive powers to the general governor, those are not never used directly and are delegated to the Cabinet whose members are chosen by the party in power or the Prime Minister only, among members of the Gouvernement.
The government is ensured by three capacities and the separation of those:
- the capacity Législatif is ensured by the Parliament ( House off Representative and Senate )
- the capacity Exécutif is ensured by the Executive council (the general governor, the Prime Minister and all other ministers).
- the capacity Judiciaire is ensured by the High Court off Australia and the Federal courts .
The legal base of the nation changed with the Australia Act of 1986 and laws related to this act with the British Parlement votes it. Until this date, a small number of legal affairs could be pled in last spring with the Judicial Committee off the Privy Council, highest Court of Appeal of the United Kingdom. By this act of the Parliament, the Australian law became, unambiguous possible, the only valid one in the country. The High Court off Australia became also the highest Court of Appeal. Lastly, the theoretical possibility that the British Parliament can vote laws modifying of the articles of the Australian Constitution was removed.
See also: Economy of Australia, List of Australian companies
The Economic development of Australia was slow with the departure and based on the Exportation of the Laine. All that changed with the discovery of Or into 1851 and the mines were the most important sector of the Australian saving in its history. At the end of the 20th century, Australia has a prosperous and diversified economy, of Western type, with a GNP per capita comparable with that of the economic great powers European. These last years, the Australian economy faced the world economic deceleration by keeping a stable growth. A growth of the Production for the national Consommation thwarted the world deceleration, and the confidence of the Entreprise S and the Consommateur S remains solid. The importance attached to the reforms is another key factor of the force of the economy. In the years 1980, the Workers party, directed by the Prime Minister Bob Hawke and the treasurer Paul Keating, played a crucial role in the modernization of the Australian economy.
Since 1996, the coalition with the Government, directed by the Prime Minister John Howard, continuous to implement economic microphone-reforms. Some say that the deregulation of the job market during this period is the result of a necessary flexibility of the Job market. Others criticize these deregulations for their negative impact on the Salaire S, the Sécurité and the Santé. The Législation introduced during this period sought to reduce the participation and the capacity of the Syndicat S while preferring to support the Négociation inside the companies. Moreover, during this period, the government coalition dérégulé many other industries, inter alia the sector of the Télécommunication S, and has privatized number of preexistent natural Monopole S.
Since the recession that Australia was to have (according to the Keating Prime Minister) with the beginning of the year 1990, the Australian economy has not suffered from recession in the Business cycle for 13 years. Even the deceleration of the beginning of the year 2000 does not have affected the growth of its GNP. In March 2007, the Chômage had fallen to 4,5%, its low level since the end of the year 1970.
Number of natural resources in Australia remains not-exploited. Australia is often qualified by the economist S of firm of the world , but in spite of this accent on the agricultural sector, these last years the government is worried especially sectors of the Tourisme, education, and Technologie.
Australia belongs to the Economic cooperation for the Asia-Pacific (CEAP).
See also: Demography of Australia
It is estimated today that the Aborigènes of Australia were: 350000 when Europeans arrived in 1788. In 1996: 386049 people in Australia are indigenous. In spite of the fact that it is a population more Rural E which general population, two thirds of the Aboriginals are urban. News-Wales of the South and Queensland count half of the Aboriginals of Australia. In Tasmanie, the Aboriginals were exterminated at the 19th century.
The majority of the Australian population is downward of immigrant, British of any origines: English, Irish, Scottish and Welsh. Although the Australian colonies were founded as penal settlements (except South Australia and Western Australia), the arrival of British convicts in Australia gradually stopped between 1840 and 1868. During the Gold Rush ( gold rush ) of the end of the 19th century, the convicts and their descendants became a small minority vis-a-vis the hundreds of thousands of colonists of British Isles. An example of the mass of the newcomers: in the years 1850, the total of the immigrants arriving in News-Wales of the South and with Victoria was equivalent to 2% of the total population of the the United Kingdom and the Ireland.
The Australian population more than doubled since the end of the Second world war, encouraged by an ambitious program of immigration post-war. At the 19th century, Australia set up strong measurements to prevent the immigration of not-white (the policy of white Australia). After 1945, the immigrants coming from Greece, Turkey, Italy and other countries increased the cultural diversity of the country. In 1973, Australia put officially fine at the discriminatory immigration policies , and a great Asian immigration appeared. In 1988, approximately 40% of the immigrants in Australia came from Asia and, in 1997, the Asian ones composed 5% of the population. The Indigenous population - Aboriginals of Australia and inhabitants of the Strait of Torres - the shape 2,2% of the population (census of 2001). In 2001, the electoral campaign was dominated by the subjects of immigration and the national security.
A great number of Australian citizens (: 950000 in 2004) saw abroad. This number (almost 5%) immense is compared with other countries. It is only recently that the subject received interest on behalf of the government and of the media, but the term of Australian diaspora forms part of the Australian vocabulary today.
Just as many other developed countries, Australia saw today an ageing of its population.
The country, having encountered serious problems of integration at the new arrivals of origin not-english-speaking, decides that starting from end 2007, the new candidates with immigration, if they want to obtain the Australian citizenship, will have to pass and make a success of two shutters of questionnaires, comprising questions about the Australian history, the history indigenous, on the culture of the country, the national sports and the knowledge of the English language. The Australian government hopes that they will allow a better social integration of the immigrants.
The Néo-Zélandais are entitled to special visas which authorize them to remain to live and work in Australia indefinitely. However, they are excluded from the national assistances to which can claim the citizens Australian or resident permanent. New rules going back to 2001 divided the New Zealanders alive into Australia in two categories: those residing in the country before 2001 and those arrived afterwards. The first will be able to touch allowances Chômage after 2 years of residence, like all other immigrating with a permanent visa. The last will be able to claim with no allowance unemployment of the whole, as that is the case for the immigrants in Australia with only one work permit.
The English is the official Langue de facto of Australia, even if certain communities aboriginals continue to speak their native languages. A considerable number of immigrants of first and second generations is bilingual. The Italian , the Cantonese and the Greek still are very largely spoken.
The Australian Constitution guarantees the Separation of the Church and the State. There is no official Religion in Australia. Even if the country is very largely laic, the three quarters of Australian say Christian, in majority catholic or Anglicans.
Education is not spring of the Federal state but various States. However, the governmental assistance took part in the opening of many universities.
Schooling is obligatory until:
- 17 years in Tasmanie;
- 16 years in the States of Victoria, southernmost Australia and the Queensland;
- 15 years in all the other States and territories.
Several States ask that obligatory education not be related any more on the age but to obtaining a diploma.
The terms High school and Secondary college indicate the Secondary education in Australia.
Because of very the demographic weak density of the outback, many pupils are provided education for by correspondence.
See also: Culture of Australia
Most of the Culture Australian drift of roots European and more recently American, but of Australian specificities evolved/moved starting from the Environnement, of the culture aboriginal and the influence of the neighbors of Australia. The strength and the originality of the Australian Art S (Cinema, opera, Music, Painting, Theater, Dance, Craft industry) make him reach today a recognition International E.
Australia had a school of important painting as of the first days of European colonization and the Australian painters with the international reputation include: Sidney Nolan, Russell Drysdale, Arthur Boyd and Brett Whiteley, without forgetting the preceded work of many Artist S aboriginals.
The country counts excellent Musée S (surprisingly even in small Ville S); a very rich Tradition of Ballet, vivified by the heritage of Margot Fonteyn and Robert Helpmann; a famous company of opera national: Opera Australia, become of foreground thanks to the diva internationally recognized Joan Sutherland; and of the symphony orchestras in all the capital cities, in particular with Melbourne and Sydney. In this field, the Leader Charles Mackerras is undoubtedly most internationally recognized.
Thomas Keneally, Murray, Colleen McCullough, Shirley Hazzard Nevil Shute, Morris West and Jill Ker Conway are universally known Australian writer S. D.B.C. Pierre and Peter Carey have both gained the Booker Prize and Patrick White the Nobel Prize of literature. Paul Wenz, novelist Australian of French language, as for him is regarded in Australia as an author of traditional.
As regards the music pop, the Australian groups and musicians are not in remainder. In the Years 1960, The Easybeats and The Seekers made known their name in the medium of pop Since the Années 1970, AC/DC is one of the most important groups Rock of planet, while Midnight Oil and INXS gained an important pop success in the Années 1980. During Years 1990, Silverchair and Savage Garden made speak about them. Today, the groups Jet, The Fortify, The John Butler Trio, Spin Doctors, Xavier Rudd and Kylie Minogue, Dannii Minogue pop singers, is famous in all the country and is made known in the United States, the United Kingdom and through Europe.
It is also noted that Australia saw being born celebrates it dancer Wade Robson.
Australia has very few owners of companies of media. The newspapers are dominated by two Entreprise S: News Corporation and John Fairfax Holdings (see also the List of the Australian newspapers).
News Corporation publishes only the national Quotidien: The Australian , as well as a daily newspaper in each capital, except Perth. It is inter alia: The Daily Telegraph (Sydney), Herald Sun (Melbourne), The Courier-Email (Brisbane) and The Advertiser (Adelaide). News Corporation was founded in Adélaïde and its first newspaper was The News which later amalgamated with The Advertiser .
The rural and regional press is dominated by Rural Close Limited. Its titles are inter alia: The Canberra Times , The Land (News-Wales of the South), Queensland Country Life , Stock and Land (Victoria), Stock Newspaper (South Australia) and Farm Weekly (Western Australia). Rural Close is also very present in New Zealand and in the United States.
Australia has three private large chains of Télévision: Nine Network, Seven Network and Ten Network. It has also two public diffusers: Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) and Special Broadcasting Service (SBS).
According to Reporters without borders, in 2005 Australia is in 31e position in the world for freedom of the press in the country. It is well far behind the New Zealand (12th). With the liberal government of John Howard taking the control of the Senate in 2005, the regulations on the property of the media should be slackened. That will allow a greater concentration of the media in the hands of some companies.
Land borders: 0 km
Littoral: 25.760 km
Ends of altitude: - 15 m < +: 2229 m
Life expectancy of the men: 77,8 years (of 2001 with 2003)
Life expectancy of the women: 82,8 years (of 2001 with 2003)
Growth rate of the population: 1,2% (in 2004)
Birth rate: 12,7 ‰ (in 2004)
Death rate: 6,1 ‰ (in 2004)
infantile Death rate: 4,8 ‰ (in 2003)
Rate of migration: 4,19 ‰ (in 2001)
Fertility rate: 1,8 child/woman (in 2003)
Telephone lines: 9,58 million (in 1998)
Cellphones: 6,4 million (in 1998)
Radios: 250,5 million (in 1997)
Television stations: 10,15 million (in 1997)
Users of Internet: 7,771 million (in 2000)
Many suppliers of access Internet: 264 (in 2000)
Roads: : 913000 km (of which: 353331 km tarred) (in 1996)
Railways: : 33819 km (in 1999)
inland Waterways: : 8368 km
Many airports: 411 (including 271 with tarred tracks) (in 2000)
- Freedom of the press ( according to Reporters without borders): 35e
- GNP /habitant: 14th
- environmental Durability: 13th
Fabrice Argounes, Geopolitical of Australia , Complex, 2006.
- Xavier Pons, words of Australia , PUM, 2006. Australia , French Documentation, 2000.
- Georges-Goulven the Camwood, Australia and New Zealand , PURE, 1998.
- Martine Stake, Plural Australia , Harmattan, 2004.
- Vanessa Castejon, Aboriginals and Australian political apartheid, Harmattan, 2005.
- List of leaders: States and territories of Australia
- Tourism in Australia
- Official site of the Australian Government
- Site of the tourist bureau of Australia
Beats-smg: Australėjė Simple: Australia Zh-classical: 澳大利亞 Zh-min-nan: Australia Zh-yue: 澳洲
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