Aung San Suu Kyi
" Also, the amateur of myths (philomuthos) is philosophical (philosophos) to some extent, because the myth is composed of merveilles."
Metaphysical Aristote, , 982b18-19
A myth produces a concrete explanation of certain fundamental aspects of the world: its creation (Cosmogony), natural phenomena, the statute of the human being, its relationship with the divine one, nature or with the other human ones (of another sex, another group), etc, by a Account carried originally by a oral tradition.
It would be certainly erroneous to take a myth literally, and to believe that the people take them for a perfectly exact description (including the supernatural aspects) of the course of the events. It would undoubtedly be quite as false to take them for a simple poetic, deprived account basic real, an antiquated form of reflections philosophical and proto-scientist, carried out by a poetic Analogie more than on the Logique, and expressed in a form symbolic system, even a kind of novel.
These stories are of nothing arbitrary:
- the various companies, even very different and without cultural contacts, present myths which use very the Archétype S;
- the myths always treat the questions which arise in the companies which convey them. They have a direct link with the religious and social structure of the people.
particular Direction : The philosophers of the post-mythical time, such as Protagoras, Empédocle and Plato use the myth like a setting in allegorical scene in order to make perceive their remarks in a concrete way. For example, Plato creates original myths (for example the Mythe of the cave), or rehabilitates former myths. With its continuation, other philosophers or certain authors of argumentative speeches them also had recourse to the myth, in the same employment.
Nowadays, the majority of the ministers of religion of the most liberal movements of the three monotheisms, like those of the néo-pagan , do not test any difficulty of considering that certain aspects of their texts Sacré S (primarily the Genèse in the Bible) concern the myth. This consideration does not remove anything with the fact that they contain also a great number of religious truths, divinement inspired but revealed by means of the categories of thoughts and language of a culture and one time given. To speak about myth or Mythology, with regard to the monotheisms, does not imply any value judgment on the Foi which they propose, but offers a technical tool of reflection Herméneutique.
Aspects of the Myth
The myth tells a crowned history, performative for that which belongs to the culture which creates it. He reports not only the origin of the World, the animals, the plants and the man, but also all the paramount events after which the man became what he is today, i.e. a mortal being, sexué, organized in company, obliged to work to live, and alive according to certain rules.
The myth proceeds in a paramount and remote time, a time out of the history , a Golden age, a Temps of the dream. The cosmogonic myth is “true” because the world exists. The Mythe of identity is “true” because the community of which it is the image exists. The myth of origin is “true” because the community repeats it to continue to live. In this direction, the myth almost always contains elements of Liturgie.
To recite the myth produces a re-creation of the world by the force of the Rite. The requirement of the Sacrifice is one of most powerful. The myth is not recited any time but at the time of ceremonies: births, Initiation S, Marriage S, Funeral, and a whole calendar of festivals and celebrations, i.e. at the time of a beginning or of a transformation of which it returns account (or returns tale , it is according to).
Posterity of the myth
The approach specialist in comparative literature shows that each cultural surface produced the Archétype S which will be used in all or partly then embellished and supplemented in the myths of each one of these civilizations. Some of them survive the civilization which gave them birth by literary or theological recycling. Thus it is for example Mythe of Orphée.
- the textual investigation Critical and archaeological
- the sociological comment
- the textual investigation Critical and archaeological
Great myths and elements of the myths
Types of myths
the Cosmogonie tells the creation of the world;
- the Théogonie tells the creation of the gods;
- the Anthropogonie tells the creation of the man;
- the Mythe of regeneration tells a re-creation of the world, generally after a Mythe of cataclysm: the world would crumble if it were not periodically recreated; in the same category can line up the Mythe of creation of an institution likely to testify to regeneration, the Mythe of creation of a plant whose utility appears during regeneration or of its celebration, the Mythe of creation of an animal which plays a part in the celebration, either like victim of the Sacrifice, or like support of the Théophanie;
- the Myth of separation of Divine and the world and the Myth of separation of Divine and of the man are frequently accompanied by a Mythe of the invention of dead the.
- Myth of foundation
Some famous myths
- Iliade (of the Ilion Greek, who wants to say Troy)
- Cosmogonie and anthropogonie :
- Njeddo Dewal, mother of the calamity: initiatory tale Peul;
- the Bible, Genèse 1 and 2, which constitutes a cosmogony starting from an existing substrate of chaos and paramount water;
- the Théogonie d' Hésiode which describes the creation of the world, the history of the gods, the creation of the men.
Myths of regeneration and cataclysm
- the Bible, Genesis, the Flood, where God saves only one small team of survivors and a couple of animals of each species.
- the myth of Proserpine or Perséphone, which gives an account of the alternation of the seasons cold and sterile and hot and fertile.
- cosmogony Aztèque starts with the destruction of the 4 paramount suns;
- the crucifixion and the Resurrection of New Testament can be included/understood like a myth of cataclysm followed by a myth of regeneration, whose annual celebration occurs in spring and constitutes the liturgical beginning of the year in the Christianity of practically all the confessions.
- the myth of the destruction of the Atlantis
- One of the last myths from its importance to be appeared is without any doubt that of the Postmodernisme. According to this design, humanity would be dedicated to its loss from its insatiable thirst for technological development. In the perception of holding of the postmodernism, in fact the machines would now have the influence on the humanity (see for example the film Matrix which illustrates particularly well this belief and this fight against fate). In addition, it is remarkable that the postmodern ideology draws its force from its opposition to modernity. This last time being marked by the recourse to the reason as base of the authority so that the men can discuss between them while getting rid of the weight of the superstitions of all kinds. The postmodernism declares that there is no more reason, while meaning that the control of the men on the Earth inevitably tends to the self-destruction, that the conciliation of the interests of all and each one is a dream, because this objective being unrealizable from nature even men who in fact of the beings animated by cupidity.
Myth of the man
- the myth prométhéen which says that Prométhée brought fire to the men.
- the myth of Don Juan, taken again several times, speaks about a man for whom the only pleasure resides in the conquest and the seduction of the women.
- Myth of creation of an institution
- the myth of Hiram, architect of the Temple of Solomon, whose are claimed the maconnic companies and the Compagnons of the Tour de France.
- the scientific novel “néo” of Alfred Jarry, Gestures and Opinions of Doctor Faustroll, pataphysician, whose the Collège of' Pataphysique is claimed.
- the myth of Abraham whose all the monotheisms are claimed.
Myth of separation of the men and the gods, the world and God
- In India, the sacrifices with the gods make them go up to the sky and they give up the men;
- In the Bible, the Fall in Genesis.
Hero and objects of the myth
- the marvellous child;
- the dismembered character.
- the moon, sun;
- the crowned territory.
Urban myths or modern mythsIn the modern context, one can still observe certain accounts which have all the characteristics of myths but are either very recent of construction, or in the course of assembly. One then speaks about urban myths or, more usually, about urban legends . But one can also speak about modern myths in reference to the reflection which carried out the philosopher and sociologist Georges Sorel who analyzed their emergence in and by the advent of extraordinary facts, such as for example of the warlike epopees or the working strikes of the end of the XIXe century.
- Mythology S:
- Greek Mythologie
- Scandinavian Mythologie
- Indian Mythologie
- the movement Radikal Kritik (Critical radical) at the beginning of this century démythologisé the biblical accounts Voir Newspaper off Higher Criticism * Philosophie
- the first Philosophe S (such Démocrite) démythifié the metaphysics, i.e. they brought of the rational explanations to natural phenomena differently than by myths (like the theory of the atoms, for example).
- In complement, the contemporary philosophers as Rene Girard rationalized the myths, i.e. they rebuilt the mythical account by replacing the supernatural elements by perfectly natural explanations; with the passage, the role of the various actors can appear basically transformed (the bad god seems a victim wrongfully marked, the good god like a chief without scruple, etc) and a reality reluisante to little appear (the young girl transformed into cow or in nymph is nothing any more but one victim of human sacrifice, the god who does not fertilize by a gold rain is not more that one rich person suborner, the Trojan horse is not any more but one traitress embassy of peace than people tired of the war accept imprudently, with the requirement by killing the birds of ill omen like Laocoon and his sons which defends it, etc. )
Posterity of the myth: Myth and Utopie with the XVIIIe century: some myths with teaching and political goals are prolonged in the literature http://membres.lycos.fr/jccau/ressourc/utopie
Myths of the desire at the 19th century: How the imaginary one of an avid company of material possessions is appeared and is analyzed in the literary myth.
a road show exists on the Myths and Legends: http://www.mythesetlegendes.fr
|Random links:||Gabriel Byrne | Ahuy | Weird Bruise | Asclépiade de Bithynie | Tinqueux SC|