The assassination of the president John Fitzgerald Kennedy , thirty-fifth chair the United States, took place Friday November 22nd 1963 with Dallas, with the Texas with 12 h 30 (Standard Exchange Time). After the presidential procession had crossed at low speed the center of the city and that the presidential limousine, décapotée, passed on Dealey Plaza, John F. Kennedy was mortally wounded by shootings of firearm. He was the fourth president of the United States to being victim of a Assassinat, and the eighth to die in exercise.
ContextJohn Fitzgerald Kennedy, born in 1917, was elected in 1960 while first of all succeeding in imposing upon the tenors Democratic party, such as the senators Hubert H. Humphrey, Lyndon B. Johnson (which will be her fellow candidate and vice-president then his successor) and Adlai Stevenson, then by beating accuracy the republican candidate , Richard Nixon.
In spite of this victory with the snatch, Kennedy quickly became a very popular president though also discussed.
Its popularity was due to its youth, its control of the media (one often allots its electoral victory to a remained televised debate celebrates), its dynamism (it invented in particular the concept of New Border by giving a goal to America: to send American on the Moon) and the hopes of peace which it seemed to incarnate in disturbed times of the Cold war. The couple which it formed with his wife Jackie like her simple and direct approach completed to make of Kennedy the incarnation of the hopes of a generation which wanted to leave the Cold war.
On the other hand, its policy, as well foreign as interior, was perceived as well as possible like " soft " with regard to Communism (" software one communism ") by the conservatives. However, entered in function in January 1961, Kennedy had launched in March an important program of armament and declared themselves ready to be opposed to the progression Communism. Besides in November 1961, the United States deployed in forty-five Europe missiles Jupiter whose range made it possible to reach the Soviet territory (fifteen in Turkey and thirty in Italy). But when Kennedy accepted the execution of a plan of invasion of Cuba prepared by the the CIA, the operation, known under the name of its place of unloading, Baie of the Pigs, was a resounding fiasco which involved the dismissal of Allen Dulles, director of the CIA. On their side, the CIA, the exiled cuban ones which had paid the full price, and the conservative right made Kennedy as directly responsible for this failure because this last had refused an air support for the operation. During months which followed, the Kennedy administration on several occasions tried to make assassinate Fidel Castro and the Crise of the missiles of Cuba was the occasion, for the young president, to show that it could resist the Soviet Union firmly. However, the American conservatives reproached him, again, its incompetence and the fact that he conceded the dismantling of the missiles installed in Turkey. Finally in August 1961, whereas started the construction of the Berlin Wall, and although this act was contrary with the agreements between the great powers, Kennedy does not react differently than by speeches.
With the Vietnam, regarded as a hot spot of the fight against the projection of Communism, the policy of Kennedy did not seem clear, since on the one hand it had allowed the inversion of Ngô Đình Diệm, hostile with the direct intervention of the United States, by one clicks corrupted generals, but, on the other hand, it seemed to consider the possibility of evacuating the American military advisers in 1964.
On the internal plan, the point more discussed of the policy of the Kennedy administration was the process of racial desegregation. In September 1961, of the federal agents were elected to allow the inscription of a black student the university of State of the the Mississippi, and the president decided for the civic rights of the blacks.
Also, when in November 1963, John F. Kennedy started the countryside for her re-election by a voyage to Texas, he was a very popular president but whose policy was disputed hard by the line reactionary, that certain representatives regarded as a traitor, and he counted savage enemies from one edge to another of the political chessboard, of Fidel Castro (of which it ordered with the CIA to get rid) to the anti-castristes Cubans and the CIA - which did not forgive him the Baie of the Pigs, while passing by the Maffia which started to suffer from the attacks of the department of Justice under the orders of the Attorney General Robert Kennedy, without forgetting all that the United States counted of racist elements and reactionaries, like the John Birch Society.
The voyage to Dallas
President Kennedy had chosen to visit Dallas the November 22nd 1963 within the framework of an election tour to the Texas. The reason for this round was of raising funds for the democratic presidential campaign and preparing its re-election at the time of the elections of 1964. The presidential procession was to cross the city and to bring the president to Trade Mart for a lunch. The car was a Lincoln Continental of 1961 convertible. In the limousine of the president, in addition to him and his wife, Jacqueline Kennedy, the governor of Texas, John Connally, Sr were present., its Nellie wife, and two agents of the Secret Service (department in charge of presidential safety), Roy Kellerman and Bill Greer (conducting).
The town of Dallas was regarded as a relatively risky destination because little acquired with the ideas of Kennedy. Characteristics of this charged atmosphere, publication in a newspaper of Dallas, the day of the voyage, of a paying insert criticizing the president with a great violence, and the aggression, at the time of a demonstration, of Adlai Stevenson, ambassador of the the United States to the the United Nations.
However, the procession had crossed a friendly city and an enthusiastic crowd, with very few negative demonstrations.
The assassinationTowards the end of the way of the procession, the car of president Kennedy left Main Street and turned right on Houston Street. After a few tens of meters, it negotiated a steep turn on the left on Elm Street, thus circumventing Dealey Plaza.
At this time, Nellie Connaly, relieved like all the occupants by success of the procession, pointed out with the president whom it will not be able to say that Dallas does not like it.
The car had strongly decelerated (approximately 15 km/h) and passed in front of the deposit of schoolbooks (“Texas School Book Depository” or “ TSBD ”). It was 12:30 and in front of the limousine, the bridge of railroad was profiled under which Elm Street passes. In one of the cars of safety, an agent of the Secrecy Service murmured some words in a microphone: in a few minutes, the president would be in Trade Mart.
Suddenly, a shot resounds. Many thought initially of a backfire of engine. Even the agents of the Secret Service remained prohibited first of all and reacted only that when other shots claquèrent. In all, three shots were drawn (according to the official conclusion).
The president had been touched. Much transfers it to be packed slightly on its seat and to carry the hands to the throat: a ball had struck it in the top of the back and was brought out by the throat (some estimate that the ball with the throat was drawn from front and that another struck it with the back). The governor Connally, sitted right in front of the president, was also touched: a ball struck it in the back on the right clavicle, crossed the Poumon and fractured a coast while arising, its right wrist was transpierced (the Radius is fractured) and the ball finished its race by penetrating little deeply its left thigh. According to the official conclusion, the same ball would have crossed the two men.
It had occurred only a few seconds, and the agents started to react to the events. Inexplicably, the agent which drove the limousine did not accelerate immediately: it was turned over, released undoubtedly the accelerator, and the car slows down (some think that the driver slowed down).
The governor Connally collapsed in the arms of his wife. Clint Hill, one of the agents of the Secret service which travelled on the footboards left of the car which followed that of Kennedy, precipitated towards the presidential limousine.
A few moments after, a ball reached the president with the head, destroying a good part of the brain (the site of the wound to the head is also prone to controversy, to see below). The caused damage is such as blood, fragments of bone and cerebral matter was projected until several meters height (pieces of bone were found by passers by).
Connally and his wife, packed on the front seats, was sprinkled of blood and particles.
A tailor of the name of Abraham Zapruder, the eye stuck to his camera, tetanized, filmed the events with for result a terrible film, undoubtedly the most famous film amateur of all times. The images which it seizes of the fatal shooting still feed the polemics.
According to the estimates, it had occurred between 6 and 9 seconds between the first and the last shot.
Jackie left the bench and crawled with four legs on the back trunk of the car (it did not seem to have later any memory of this episode). The limousine accelerated at the time or Clint Hill reached the limousine, climbed on the trunk postpones and pushed back the first lady in its place.
The procession sank towards the Parkland hospital. The president still breathed, but he was already dying man. The governor, who was seriously wounded with the lung, was going to survive and could testify. At the hospital, the doctors of the emergency ward n°1 hopelessly tried to save Kennedy, but quickly realized of the uselessness of their efforts which lasted despite everything 20 minutes. Towards 13:00, all was finished, Kennedy was declared died.
The departure of DallasAround 2 p.m., after a short confrontation between the agents of the Secrecy Service and the police force of Dallas, the body of Kennedy was carried towards the airport of Coils Field and embarked in Air Force One .
This confrontation was due to the fact that in 1963, the murder of a president was not classified yet like federal crime, and that the investigation into the murder should have taken place in Texas.
So the autopsy of the body of the president could not take place under the authority of the coroner of Dallas, which had certain consequences and would be interpreted, later, like one of the elements of a plot tending to cover the true circumstances of the assassination.
An author claimed a time that the body of the president had been made up during the transfer to Love Field, but this extreme assumption was refuted since.
Lyndon B. Johnson, which was present in the procession two cars behind that of Kennedy, and had not been wounded, was the constitutional successor of Kennedy. He lent oath on board Air Force One and became the new president of the United States right before the plane does not take off of Coils Field. At her sides the wife of the assassinated president was, still wearing her stained dress of blood which it will preserve until her return to the White House the following day.
The arrest and the death of OswaldMeanwhile, the events precipitated on Dealey Plaza. Witnesses had heard shots coming from front the procession, perhaps of behind the wood barrier on the grassy monticule on the right of Elm Street. Others had seen a man (some had seen a weapon) with a window of the 5th stage of the deposit of schoolbooks or believed that the shots came from there. One found three casings and a rifle on the 5th floor of the building.
One started to seek the missing employees of the deposit, including one some Lee Harvey Oswald.
Between 13:00 and 13:15, a policeman of Dallas, J.D. Tippit, was cut down in the district of Oak Cliff. The suspect, which had been pointed out by its odd behavior and while entering while resquillant a cinema, was controlled by the police officers in the cinema whereas it left its weapon.
It was called Lee Harvey Oswald. It was a 24 year old young man who had been Marine and had, after his departure of the army, emigrated in Soviet Union where he had married an young woman, Marina. It had returned to the the United States a little more than one year earlier. He was initially shown murder of the police officer, then of that of Kennedy.
One found in his possession a false identity paper in the name of Alek James Hidell, identity used to order the Carcano which were used to assassinate the president and the revolver which was used to kill J.D. Tippit.
One found his print on rifle, but this discovery is the subject of some critical which question its reality.
Oswald denied all and declared being a “goat-emissary”. He was questioned in the building of the police force of Dallas until Sunday morning, on November 24th.
The morning of November 24th, during its transfer to the prison of the county, it was cut down in the basements of the police station. Oswald, touched with the belly, fell into the Coma. Transported in the Parkland hospital, it died there the very same day. The assassin of Oswald was Jack Ruby, owner of a nightclub well-known of the police officers. The motivations of Ruby Jack will be never very clear, even if some estimate that it was radio-controlled by conspirators and base themselves for example on the relations between Ruby and the Mafia to see in Ruby an instrument of this one in its revenge against the Kennedy. Itself affirmed to have wanted to avoid with Mrs. Kennedy the pain of a public lawsuit. Even if this justification appears whimsical, Ruby seemed to expect to be congratulated to have made justice .
Condemned to died during a first lawsuit, Ruby died of a pulmonary Embolie consecutive with a Cancer whereas its appeal was informed. Its death was also sometimes allotted to a plot.
The autopsyAir Force One lands on the basis of Andrews, close to Washington, and the body of Kennedy was transported to the naval hospital of Bethesda in order to practice its autopsy (the hospital of Bethesda was chosen by Jackie because of naval career of her husband).
The autopsy was practiced by three doctors of Bethesda in the night of November 22nd. Their conclusions were that the president had been touched by two projectiles drawn from the back. The first had struck it in the top of the back to the top of the right clavicle, had crossed the muscles of the base of the neck, had slightly damaged the top of the right lung without crossing this one, and had left by the neck by a wound which had been destroyed by tracheotomy. The second had struck the head with the right back causing of extensive damage, considered mortals, with the brain, of the pieces of the projectile having left by a large wound with before right of cranium.
The circumstances of the autopsy and its conclusions attracted a great number of criticisms. Later, the second governmental investigation into the assassination (the House Select Committee one Assassinations) will raise in particular the fact that the doctors in charge of the autopsy did not have necessary competences to make the autopsy of an individual killed by balls, that photographs necessary had not been taken and that the site of the wounds had not been described compared to anatomical reference marks invariants; had not been either carried out to the rebuilding of cranium to determine the site of the opening of exit.
This last point made the analyzes later of the events particularly difficult and prone to discussions. Thus, the medical panel of the HSCA would arrive at certain conclusions relative with the precise site of the wounds, but these conclusions will be criticized as well by the defenders of the thesis of the single assassin as by their opponents.
Initial reactionsThe time being with the Cold war exacerbated, the initial reactions, before even as the death of the president is announced, indicate a great confusion. The worst, such as an attack against the country, was even considered and the first concern was to ensure the safety of the new president, Johnson. The news of the assassination of John Fitzerald Kennedy astounded the whole world. In the United States, people cried in the streets and bound themselves around the television stations in front of the fronts of the stores. The three days following the assassination, the three national television networks cancelled their programs to ensure a permanent cover of the events, making the televised cover of the assassination longest ever carried out, sad record which was beaten only by the attacks of September 11th, 2001.
Religious services were celebrated in the majority of the countries of the world and the day of the funeral, on November 25th, was declared day of mourning in the United States and in much of other countries.
FuneralAfter the autopsy carried out at the naval hospital of Bethesda, the body of Kennedy was embaumé for the funeral and was brought back to the White House. The Sunday the 24th, the coffin was transported until the Capitole, where during all the day and the night, of the hundreds of thousands of people were pressed to pay a last homage to the defunct president. The representatives of 90 countries attended the funeral on November 25th, 1963. The president was buried with the national cemetery of Arlington.
Investigations, criticisms and theories
The first investigation: the Warren Commission
See also: Commission Warren
The assassination of president John Fitzerald Kennedy caused an enormous emotion in the american company. Lyndon Johnson, new president of the United States, named a federal board of inquiry charged to make the light on the assassination. It will bear semi-officially the name of its president, Earl Warren. In September 1964, the commission submitted his report to president Johnson (a volume of report/ratio and 26 volumes of testimonys and parts).
The conclusions of the Warren Report were simple: Lee Oswald had acted only. It had not had of accomplice. It had drawn three times, of the fifth stage of the deposit of schoolbooks. A ball had missed the limousine and two balls had touched the president (one with the neck, one with the head). One of these two balls had struck it in the top of the back, was arisen by the throat and had then caused the wounds of the Connally governor. Jack Ruby only had him also acted, and did not have either of accomplice. Ruby and Oswald did not know themselves.
The first criticisms
It is hardly enough to a few months after its publication so that the Warren report/ratio is criticized hard.
It is true that the objections did not miss: the Commission had worked very quickly, and the political objectives which had governed its creation were obvious (the discovery of a communist plot could have meant war with the Soviet Union). The disconcerting elements did not miss: the least was not the Autopsie of the president, carried out with the naval military hospital of Bethesda by army medical officers not having necessary competences, bâclée, and of which certain elements (of which photographs) were lost forever. The imbroglio was such as still at the present time, there is no agreement on points as elementary as the nature and the exact position of the wounds of the president. For the wound with the head for example, though the images of film taken by Zapruder seem to show a wound on the right and rather forwards cranium, which is confirmed by the autopsy, some are based on testimonys, in particular of the medical personnel of Dallas, to affirm the presence of a major wound to the back of cranium, which would tend to support the thesis of a drawn ball vis-a-vis the president.
Single ball magic-Ball
See also: Theory of the single ball
The supposed ball to have caused the wounds with the throat and the back of the president and the whole of the wounds of the Connally governor would have been found on a stretcher at the hospital - it would have fallen according to the Commission from the wound to the thigh from the governor. This ball was called “ magic ball ” by the critical analysts of the report/ratio. This nickname refers to the way of the ball, balistiquement impossible, and with the state of this one (“ almost intact ”): flattened and slightly curved, of lead having been extruded by its base whereas the critics estimate that a ball could not cause so many wounds without suffering more damage. To illustrate this polemic, from the researchers drew a ball through the wrist from a human corpse. The conclusions showed that the ball was in a state less than the “magic ball”. Other researchers however, insisted on the fact that the ball had, before striking the wrist of Connally, crossed two human body (the neck of Kennedy, the chest of Connally) and had been slowed thus down. Test carried out with balls thus slowed down led then to a result which these researchers considered comparable with that observed on the magic ball .
These first critics of the conclusions of the Warren Commission, popularized by film “ JFK ”, postulate, contrary to the conclusions of the Warren Commission, that such a trajectory is impossible for a ball.
The fatal shooting
Another point of discussion is the site of the wounds to the head and, in a general way, the elements which would indicate that the fatal ball would have been drawn from the front one.
One of the elements being able to be revealing trajectory of the ball is the site of the wound to the head. Whereas the results of the official investigations place the wound in the quarter before right of cranium, a certain number of elements are advanced to affirm that the essence of the wound would be with the back.
- of testimonys of medical personnel of Parkland; however it became difficult with time to determine up to which point these late testimonys were requested. Some of these witnesses, quoted by conspirationists authors like describing open wounds with the back of cranium, affirm in front of other researchers who the report/ratio of autopsy corresponds so that they saw;
- the fact that blood and cerebral matter would have been projected backwards; however, the Connally husbands, with front, were sprinkled with blood, and one can note, on film of Zapruder, that a sheaf of blood is projected quasi vertically, until 3 meters height. The limousine and the motorcyclists of the police force would have been splashed while crossing this fog with matter which fell down.
However, one of the elements more striking will be brought by film of Zapruder of which the first copies " pirates" of bad quality will become available as from 1975. One indeed sees there the abrupt movement of the body of the president backwards, which would let suppose that the shooting came from front. Grassy hillock for example, where certain witnesses affirm to have seen smoke or people with a weapon.
It is in particular the publication of this film which ends up causing the installation of the second board of inquiry, the House Select Committee one Assassinations. On this particular point, and whereas the majority of the researchers worked with bad copies, the experts appointed by the HSCA analyzed copies of high-quality of film and raised that the movement of the president backwards was preceded, at the time of the impact of the ball, by a brief and fast movement in front of the head, which would let suppose the impact of a projectile coming from the back what is in conformity with the official thesis (it is about a movement of the head of about 6 cm which occurs in a time about some hundredths of second).
According to interpretations, the movement backwards which follows the first movement forwards could be due to various elements, from of which a consecutive spasm neuromusculaire with the destruction of the brain or… to another ball drawn from the front one.
The investigation of Jim Garrison and the lawsuit Clay ShawJim Garrison, prosecutor ( District Attorney ) of the New-Orleans, was the only person at the origin of continuations in the business of the assassination of the president.
This investigation was popularized by the film JFK in 1991.
In 1968, Jim Garrison showed the Louisianian business man Clay Shaw to have been an agent of the CIA and to have plotted the assassination of Kennedy with the exiled cuban ones. Garrison affirmed impossibility that Oswald could draw and even tried to give the site of the gunners and the number of balls. He showed complicity the members highest placed administration, that is to say J. Edgar Hoover and even Lyndon B. Johnson in the execution of a coup d'etat.
Clay Shaw was discharged and obtained then the judgment of Garrison for harassing, but died, ruined and exhausted, before the confirmation in call.
It does little doubt at present that Garrison had been completely misled and to tell the truth, its not very orthodoxe methods did much wrong to the assumption of the conspiracy.
The only merit that the majority of the researchers of the conspiracy recognize in Garrison and the film JFK today is to have popularized research on the business and to have allowed the creation of l
Second board of inquiry
It was necessary to await 1976 so that the American Congrès decides, following revelations relative to illegal activities of the the CIA (of which attempted murders on foreign leaders), to create a committee charged to inquire into the assassinations of John Fitzgerald Kennedy and Dr. Martin Luther King. U.S. House off Representative Select Committee one Assassinations ( HSCA ) took again the investigations with zero, re-examined the parts, heard again certain witnesses, and made examine all the elements by panels of experts medical, ballistic, photographic, and others.
Conclusions of the HSCA
In short, the HSCA confirmed the main part of the technical conclusions of the Warren Commission on the circumstances of the assassination.
The theory of the “single ball”, in particular, is validated by an analysis by neutron Activation comparative which concludes that the fragments found in the wrist of the governor come from the found ball with Parkland (this analysis and its method were also criticized).
A fine analysis of film of Zapruder, whose correct copies are finally available, arrives at the conclusion which the head of the president is, at the time of the shooting to the head, briefly projected forwards, which corresponds to the other analyzes, in particular medical, which identifies the wounds as correspondent with a shooting of the back. The movement backwards is regarded as explainable by a consecutive spasm neuromusculaire with the destruction of the brain.
Panels of medical and ballistic experts, while criticizing hard the way in which in particular the autopsy had been carried out, validate also the conclusions of the Commission and the fact that the president was touched by two balls drawn by Lee Harvey Oswald starting from a window on the 5th floor from the deposit from schoolbooks.
However, the HSCA concludes that there was well a conspiracy during which four shots were drawn.
The HSCA concludes indeed that Oswald drew the shots n° 1,2 and 4 (and thus killed Kennedy and wounded Connally) since the deposit from books, and that an unknown assassin drew a shot from behind the wood palisade (on the grassy hillock) and missed his target.
However, this last point was abundantly criticized because the only element which supported it was a supposed recording to be made on Dealey Plaza the day of the assassination through the microphone remained open of a motor bike of police force.
The criticism of the conclusions of the HSCA
In addition to the technique used was criticized (no shot is on the tape, it acts of an interpretation of sound impulses), it proved since the supposed motor bike to have been that of the microphone undoubtedly was not on Plaza, and that the band comprises, at the moment when shots “were detected”, of the dialogs which one knows that they occurred several minutes after the attack. A subsequent panel formed by the National Academy of Sciences rejected the conclusions of the acoustic experts of the HSCA.
However, also on this subject, interpretations diverge, the experts are opposed and the doubts remain.
Assumptions of plot
Since the assassination, tens of researchers and authors more or less serious followed one another and of the hundreds of books were written.
Against the official version, which affirms that Lee Oswald killed Kennedy, the theses of the plot multiply and clash.
Because there is not only one thesis of the Conspiration: during the years, the most insane assumptions were considered; thus it was marked that from 3 to 15 projectiles were drawn by 2 to 10 gunners working according to 30 to 40 various combinations. They drew with the rifle, the gun, or even from the darts poisoned with umbrellas. They drew from the deposit of books, the Dal-Tex building, the grassy hillock, the rails of trains on the bridge, from the roofs of at least two buildings, a sewer or even of the interior of the presidential limousine. They worked independently or by team coordinated by radio. The silent partners considered include Lyndon Johnson, Cuba, the Soviet Union, the Mafia, the antiones, the CIA, the complex militaro-industrialist, the extreme line, the Jews, Illuminati, the Texans rich person of the South, FBI, the gauchists, etc
An good example of possible excesses is given by the odd investigation of Jim Garrison.
This abundance of more or less whimsical theories harms, even still today, with the establishment of the truth on a mystery which has lasted for more than 40 years. It would be however unjust to reduce to the researchers persuaded of the existence of a conspiracy to a band of “complotists” mild nutters.
There exist indeed researchers working on reasonable assumptions. The French magazine “Science & life” involuntarily illustrates the undulation on the subject: some time after the business, it publishes an article detailed containing ballistic considerations titrating “Why Oswald could not kill Kennedy”. Thirty years later, it will publish some another explaining why it is Oswald which killed Kennedy… without referring least to the first article!
Between incompetence, political prudence, and operation of coverIn addition to the factual elements which are always doubt more than forty years after the events, the way in which the surveys were carried out by the various government agencies is not foreign with the development of the theories of the conspiracy.
Some of the reproaches made with the investigations are about hypercriticism, as the reproach made with the police force of Dallas not have taken of note or recorded the interrogations of Oswald (what was useless at the same time in the ignorance which the suspect was going to die the following day and because the product of the interrogations in the absence of a lawyer could not have been produced in justice).
One however notes that it is proven, in particular thanks to the later investigation of HSCA, that information was hidden by the CIA and FBI: culture of the secrecy or operation of cover? Certain authors, affirming to have discovered bonds between the CIA and Oswald, answered the question with their way.
An striking example is the fact that the office of FBI of Dallas destroyed, a few days after the assassination, a note deposited at the office by Oswald little time before: incompetence and fear of sanctions for incompetence coming from Hoover or operation from cover? The note seems indeed to have been alleviating, but the incident is particularly revealing errors which the government agencies made, sometimes simply tetanized by the fear of the possible consequences if it were discovered that they had supervised Oswald without being able to stop it.
Lastly, it is known that one of fears of Johnson was that one discovers a communist plot and that this fear was communicated to Earl Warren at the time of the constitution of its commission. One of appearances of the commission is consequently that of a governmental body whose task is to validate the thesis of the single gunner or to show that there was not plot. The question of knowing if this concern invalidates the results of the Commission can also receive several answers, even if later, the HSCA validated the main part of the results of the Commission while concerned with the deficiencies in its conclusions (this same if the HSCA concludes with a plot with a second gunner which had missed the target).
SuspectsOn the assumption of the existence of a plot, several potential suspects were quoted by various authors or researchers.
The vice-president and successor of Kennedy appear among those: Lyndon B. Johnson, whose accession with the presidency an end put at certain problems that the vice-president seemed to have, dependant on problems of corruption. This thesis, recently updating by William Reymond, implies Malcolm Wallace, a dangerous man, condemned for assassination, having worked for Lyndon B. Johnson and whose print would have been found on the 5th floor of the deposit of book.
Among the first possible suspects, one raises also the Mafia. The rumor places the Maffia almost everywhere in the career of Kennedy, since the relations of Joe Kennedy with the Maffia of Chicago, until the assistance brought by the relations of Joe to the countryside of John, while passing by a mistress, Judith Campbell Exner, commune with the president and the godfather of Chicago Sam Giancana, to the great displeasure of the FBI. However, it is proven that the ingratitude of the Kennedy clan, and the " croisade" against the organized crime of Robert Kennedy, brother and Attorney General (Minister for Justice) of John, the chiefs of the Maffia out of them had put. Carlos Marcello, godfather of New-Orleans, off-set by Robert in Guatemala, and principal gangster city in this business, according to several witnesses, would have frequently pronounced death threats with the address of the Kennedy. This metaphor is allotted to him: " A dog continues to bite if you him cuts the queue" , implying by there that to neutralize Robert Kennedy, it was to better eliminate his brother directly. Bonds between Jack Ruby, the assassin of Oswald, and the gangster medium of Dallas, are also often evoked, even if, for the skeptics, these bonds were not other than those being able to bind an equivocal tenant of box and the criminal mediums.
Often quoted with the Maffia, the CIA is also one of the favorite suspects because often related to turbid operations with the Maffia, and become particularly hostile with the president since the Baie of the Pigs. President Kennedy had in addition undertaken to reduce the capacities of the CIA and had forced his director, Allen Dulles, guardian figure of the CIA, with the resignation. The shortly after the assassination, Robert Kennedy returns visit to the new director of the CIA, John Mc Cone, by asking him this question: " Was my brother assassinated by the CIA? " Suspicion with respect to the information agency, is also based on the fact that the years before and during the mandate of Kennedy are one of the periods during which the CIA produced the most " blows tordus" , in particular in Vietnam, in Congo, and Cuba.
The image of a plot is specified if one adds the bonds of the CIA, not only with the Maffia, but also with the line and the complex militaro-industrialist which wished the extension of the Vietnamese conflict (whereas according to certain sources, the president wanted to withdraw the country of this mud pit). The anticastrists mediums, as well as FBI of John Edgar Hoover are also often mentioned as implied with or without the CIA. It will be noted that Cuba crystallized of many assumptions around a plot, with the episode of the bay of the Pigs (Kennedy refused at the last time to support the operation by bombardments), which was worth the hostility of the anticastrists to him (sacrificed for nothing), of the CIA (by anticommunism), of the Maffia (which wished to recover its incomes related on the play and the prostitution under Fulgencio Batista), of the castrists (who retained the aggression by the USA of it).
Others still affirmed that Lyndon B. Johnson, Gerald Ford, George H.W. Bush had all of the bonds with freemasonry and that the American cabins were against the Catholic church and president Kennedy. This thesis is in bond with that of the Nouvel world order and the Bonesmen.
Among the most strange theses, it there with the “thesis montréalaise”. This thesis affirms that JFK was opposed to the militants Zionists and that those decided to assassinate it. The assassins would have fled towards Montreal and Europe with the assistance of the Famille Bronfman.
Several theories are also based on the fact that Kennedy presented, from the point of view of certain circles of being able, a too weak image and too dilettante within the framework of the international relations. A lightness to which several historians charge the crisis of the Berlin Wall in 1961, and the Crise of the missiles of Cuba in 1962.
The assassination today
A doubt ever raisedAccording to various surveys, whereas the majority of the American citizens believe that Oswald took part in the assassination, only between 20 and 30% of them believe that Oswald was the only assassin of president Kennedy.
In fact, in spite of the fact that the culpability of Oswald seems to currently be little doubt, much of researchers point a certain number of elements which indicate, according to them, the possibility of the existence of a conspiracy to assassinate president Kennedy. The researchers who estimate that Oswald acted only underline, as for them, that in spite of the number of files made public for 41 years, the assumption of the conspiracy could not have been shown up to now satisfactorily.
The passage of time and the disappearance of material elements and of the witnesses will prevent perhaps forever from reaching a conclusion which can satisfy the need for each one to give a direction to this terrible event. Every year, however, its procession of publications and alleged revelations sees.
Publication of the filesUndoubtedly following the new emotion raised by the film JFK , the American Congress off passed in 1992 a law entitled JFK Assassination Records Collection Act 1992 which created a Assassination Records Review Board .
The congress had concluded that the secrecy had led the American public to believe that the government had something to hide, and charged the ARRB with gathering all information available, to collect news, and to place of them this information at the disposal of the public, the whole of the documents having to be public at the latest in 2017.
DocumentsAt present, if a great quantity of documents were made public, however a number even more significant still owes the being, at the latest in 2017:
- approximately 3% of the documents of the Commission Warren
- approximately 21% of the documents of the House Select Committee one Assassinations
- a certain number of documents coming from the CIA, FBI, the Secret Service, the National Security Agency, the State Department, the Marine and other government agencies.
The February 19th 2007, a film amateur remained new hitherto is made public, while its original is given to the museum devoted to the assassination to Dallas. The film, whose certain images were turned 90 seconds before the assassination, was made color with a camera 8 mm by an amateur called George Jeffries, and offers a new visual angle which lets appear the apparent fold on the jacket of the president, which seems to invalidate an argument of some holding of the conspiracy on the " bad " position of the wound in the back of the President compared to the hole in the jacket.
Long-term consequences of the assassinationThe assassination of president Kennedy had an impact not only on all American, but also virtually on the population of the whole world. The majority of people in age to remember it can remember with emotion the exact circumstances of the moment when they learned the terrible news.
Confusion and the doubts which surrounded the assassination of John Kennedy and sound supposed assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, marked the appearance of the first faults in the American dream and, finally, in the dream of peace which it had carried, and the beginning of the decline of confidence that the American citizen granted to his government.
During 5 years following, the assassination of the brother of the president, Robert Kennedy, whereas it was going to take again the dream where it had stopped, and of the leader of the movement of the civic rights, Pasteur Martin Luther King, were going to be new terrible blows with the hopes of political change and social while the doubts growing with regard to the Guerre of Vietnam still worsened the deficit of confidence of the government. The scandal of the Watergate, in 1974, was going to be the point of organ of this process of rupture between the people and the US government, but end of the year 60 would see a certain result of this process: racial riots, revolt coed, social disturbances which ultimately were propagated with the whole world.
In the popular cultureThe doubts generated by the assassination were expressed, inter alia, with the cinema and in televised fictions. Thus, the realizer Oliver Stone carried out a film with thesis, JFK starting from the book One the Trail off the Assassins of Jim Garrison. Creators and scenario writers of televised series reflect their opinions in images: Donald Bellisario wrote three episodes relative to Lee Harvey Oswald in its series Code Quantum , where it described this last in a negative way. The French film I as Icare (1979) puts in scene a situation comparable with the attack. The successful series X-Files , in its tradition of the topic of the world conspiracy, contradict the thesis of the single killer, and explore the assumption of the military plot.
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