Ascq is an old village of the northern of France on the Marque, which makes today party of the new city of Villeneuve-in Ascq. Its inhabitants are the Ascquois . Ascq is sadly known for the Massacre of Ascq of April 1st, 1944, where the Nazis massacred 86 men.
Etymology of the name “Ascq”
According to the etymological dictionary of Dauzat and Rostaing, “Ascq” would come from Flemish “ask” meaning the ash (“asch” in 1164). V. Becquart, local scholar, writing in his dictionary of the communes of the district of Lille that a cartulaire of 1200 gives to Ascq the name of “Aqua” (Latin water). He explains this name by the presence of the abundant marshes in the zone.
BlazonGold to the fasce of azure, the saltire of mouths stitching on the whole .
The territory of Ascq of formerly was larger, and included/understood the site of current the Scientific Cité and Forest-on-Mark. It was on the chalky slopes of the Mélantois and had very fertile grounds, which had a very good output until the XXe century, and were regarded as among most fertile of the area. Located on the Mark, Ascq belonged to the canton of Lannoy.
One does not know large thing on the past of the village. Since one found traces of stay of Gaulois in the surroundings, one can think that fields extended on the site from Ascq. In XIe century, one knows that one cultivates the Blé intensively there.
In XIIIe century, Ascq which belongs to the Comté of Flanders is managed since the town hall comtale Annapes, and maintains the close relationships with its neighbors, the villages of Annapes and Flers.
Although the territory is rich, the country population saw in a very precarious way, and must undergo several famines in XIVe and XVe century, in particular during the year 1316 following bad harvests the year of front. Another misfortune falls down on the area, the war. Of 1297 with 1304, the troops of French of Philippe IV of France and those of Flemish devastate the cultures and burn the village. In 1340, it is the Guerre One hundred Year old, and the village is militarily occupied. In 1349, it is the black Peste which falls down on the area. At that time, the population of the village decreases.
IN XVe century, the economy of the village is rectified gently, in spite of the periodic plagues, bad harvests and the almost constant presence of soldiers. The corn not being more profitable, one starts to cultivate the Guède to color the linen in blue, the flax and the hemp, and the breeding of sheep intensifies. Wool cloth tisserands work with in Ascq. After being burned by the troops of Louis XI, the church is rebuilt - it will be noted that this church does not have probably anything to see with the current Saint-Pierre church.
In 1449, tax investigations count 99 inhabitants with Ascq. After the confrontations between Charles Bold the of Burgundy and Louis XI of France, the population is in 1498 of 600 inhabitants with Ascq. In 1505, one counts 650 ascquois. The cattle became also more numerous. Thus the livestock of the village this same year is estimated at 80 horses, 30 foalta, 243 cows, 343 sheep. However, a proportion between 30% and 50% of the population, sometimes more, are very poor and cannot pay taxes, whereas the lords multiply who have rights as well on the men as on the things. The area is still touched by the diseases, in particular a Peste in 1534.
About 1640, Forest-on-Mark is detached from Ascq, and becomes a commune with whole share.
The area is torn by the wars, and the village will belong successively to the Duché of Burgundy, with the Spanish Netherlands before becoming French in 1668 by the Treaty of Aachen, following the catch of the area by Louis XIV.
The village undergoes the evils of the war constantly: residences of the troops, requisition in all kind, devastations and exaction of the soldiers. Of 1708 with 1713 the area is occupied by the Hollando-British of Malborough, who will return in 1744.
Little by little the elimination of illiteracy progresses. Between 1737 and 1789, 38% of the men and 22% of the women can sign their marriage certificate in Ascq. The cultural life also develops, with Ducasse S twice a year. One celebrates there also the Jean Saint, the Martin Saint and Saint Eloi. One notes the appearance of the cabarets, or come to slacken village and village; most known of the surroundings is the inn of House-That in Ascq, meeting place for young people.
As with Lille, there is no popular revolution in the peasants in 1789; more events Paris iens arrive to them with several days of delay, and they are occupied by the distribution of their marsh communanux. In January 1790, Charles Renard is elected mayor of Ascq.
In August 1792, at the time of the war against the Austria, of the regiments gather in the area, to be directed towards the enemy. But with the approach of the enemy, they beat a retreat towards Lille, where crowd will massacre the timid general Dillon. The Austrians directed by the duke of Saxony Teischen occupy the area after having taken Roubaix, Tourcoing and Lannoy. However, they raise the seat on October 8th vis-a-vis the impossibility of seizing the town of Lille. Still the war, the coalition formed against France invades the village in 1794, but the victory of Tourcoing pushes back the enemy.
Under the Terror, the goods of the emigrants are confiqués. In the same way, the silverware and the objects of worships of the church Saint-Pierre d' Ascq are inventoried, sent to Lille and are recovered by the State. The church will be even sold on September 29th 1798 with the biddings at the same time as that of Annapes and that of Flers, but will not be demolished. After the Legal settlement, it will be taken again by the monks.
From 1800, the mayors are named by the Préfet. The first will be Ch.L. Desquiens for Ascq. In 1809, following the continental Blockade of the the United Kingdom by Napoleon i, one starts to cultivate sugar beet.
The wars of the Empire are greedy as individuals, and the men of the village are very numerous to mutilate themselves or to hide in the career of Lezennes. In 1814, following the countryside of France, the Northern border is threatened. One removes the bridges on the Marque to try to delay the invasion. The general House, reducing in front of the Russian , makes camp his soldiers with the accesses of Ascq which during twelve days plunder and fly to be nourished. At the end of March 1814, the enemy is there, but the capitulation of Paris puts an end to the hostilities. French squadrons return to place themselves in Ascq at the time of the Hundred Days.
During first half of the century, the activity of Ascq remains primarily artisanal and agricultural. Thus, one counts approximately 150 farms with Ascq in 1850. Still at that time, the villages suffer from epidemics and difficult work conditions (Sunday rest respected step, Travail of the children etc).
In the middle of the XIXe century, progression of industry made develop considerably Lille and especially Roubaix. The Railroad disencloses Ascq by attaching it to Lille in 1865 and 1885 in Roubaix by the coal line. This last line of Somain to Halluin from now on disappeared, but a remainder of bridge is still visible in the countryside with the accesses of Ascq. These new means of transport develop in Ascq industry related on the Textile, the Métallurgie and the food one. The Agriculture is also modernized: in 1896, Ascq sees arriving its first Moissonneuse-lieuse Samuelson. Many local festivals rythment monotonous life of the peasants and workmen.
France enters the First World War, where much villager died. As from October 1914, the German occupy the area, until the release by the Britanniques in October 1918.
With the rise to power of the metropolis inhabitant of Lille, more and more of people start to live in peripheries, and the population of the village increases considerably. In 1939, Ascq counts approximately 4000 inhabitants, of all social and economic categories.
The area undergoes full whip the Second world war, of which the most outstanding fact is the Massacre of Ascq, on April 1st 1944, where the Nazis massacre 86 men. For this period, Ascq depends on the German command of Brussels, and never will thus have belonged to the Vichy government. The German occupation will last of May 1940 at September 1944, and the zone will once again be released by the British.
After the war, the borough still under the shock of the massacre continues to change, and on its fields appears the scientific quoted in 1964. The grounds being very fertile, much at peasants of the area are made indignant.
February 4th 1970, at the time of a press conference, the town halls of Annapes, Ascq and Flers-lez-Lille announce that their communes will amalgamate to give “Villeneuve-in-Flanders”. February 20th, the municipal councils accept but retain the name of “Villeneuve-in Ascq” in memory of the Massacre of Ascq. The ratification takes place later 5 days. February 25th, 1970, the decree of creation of the commune of Villeneuve-in Ascq is published, and Ascq is nothing any more but the most famous district of the city. Ascq counted 4000 inhabitants then.
Wuaflart of the Cross, knight brigand of the War One hundred Year old.
- Lord of Castlings, lord of Ascq to XVIe century.
- Déliot Family, middle-class man inhabitant of Lille having the stronghold of the Mound with Ascq towards XVIe century.
- Family Vasseur, middle-class inhabitant of Lille having the stronghold of the Mound with Ascq after Déliot.
- Charles Renard, mayor of Ascq in 1790.
- Charles Louis Desquiens, mayor of Ascq named by the prefect in 1800.
- Georges Delebart, mayor of Ascq at least of 1941 to 1944.
- Gaston Churn, founder of US Ascq, leader of a weaving, resistant, shot of Ascq in 1944.
One will note that the church of Ascq is called Saint-Pierre, like that of Flers-Borough. Not to confuse!
- Church Saint-Pierre d' Ascq (XVe century)
- Castle Claeys (Neighborhood house)
- Town hall
- Station of railroad (built in 1865)
- Station (Place of the Station)
- Hillock of Massacred and Museum of the memory
- College Rimbaud
Each Palm Sunday since 1945 without exception, the memory of the massacre is celebrated in Ascq. A double commemoration takes place every five years with a walk with the torches.
Ascq has a football team since 1929, US Ascq.
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