See also: Arun (homonymy)
Arun is important a layer of natural gas located in the province of Aceh on the island of Sumatra in Indonesia, not far from bay of Lhok Seumawe. Discovered in 1971 by Mobil, the field was economically exploitable only provided that the gas can be liquefied to be able to be transferred onto long distances by Méthanier in the form of Natural gas liquefied (GNL). The cost of the construction of a factory of liquefaction required the insurance of a contract of long-term purchase. Japanese companies of electricity were interested to invest in power stations with gas and a terminal of gasification of GNL.
In addition the same year an American geologist, Roy Mr. Huffington, had discovered another giant gas field in the province of Kalimantan Is, Badak. The oil company of State indonésienne Pertamina, owner of gas according to the constitution, had thus, on the one hand enormous gas reserves, on the other hand purchasers for this gas. A contract of delivery of GNL was signed in 1973. The gas was to come approximately for half of Arun and half of Badak. It was the beginning of an adventure which was going to make of Indonesia the first producer and world exporter of GNL.
Within the framework of this contract of purchase, Pertamina built a factory on the coast. With the signature of one 2nd contract of delivery to the Japanese in 1981, the capacity of the factory of Arun was doubled. New agreements brought to a new extension of the factory, whose capacity is now of 12 MT per annum.
Nevertheless, the layer, whose ultimate reserves are estimated at some 450 G.m3, saw its production declining starting from the end of the year 1990. Other layers neighborhood were connected to the terminal, but they are too small to replace the production of Arun. The capacity of the terminal was reduced by half in the year 2000 with closing of part of the units of Liquéfaction.
Even with reduced capacity, the factory today is insufficiently fed out of gas. To the decline of the production the rise of the local request is added (mainly of the factories of Engrais) who is priority in the attribution of gas available. This disuation placed the operators of Arun in the obligation to buy liquefied natural gas cargoes with Qatar to honor their long-term contracts with their customers Japan board. Exports of GNL since Arun should stop at the beginning of the next decade.
The conflict in AcehThe industrial development initiated with the construction of the factory of liquefaction, which will be followed of that of a factory of manure, will upset the life of the inhabitants of the area, in particular with the arrival of migrant worker, in particular of Java. But especially, the appropriation of the incomes of gas by the central government, without true repercussion for the local population, creates a resentment.
In 1976, the Gerakan Aceh Merdeka (" Movement for Aceh libre") or GAM is founded, whose objective is the independence of Aceh and the reappropriation of gas of Arun for the only people of Aceh. The GAM undertakes a series of attacks against military and police positions. In 1990, the government indonésien states Aceh daerah operasi to militate (" zone of operations militaires"), or DOM, in 1990. It is the beginning of a war which does not say its name.
The discovery in 1998, in the enclosure of the factory of Arun, of a common grave containing the remainders of combatants of the GAM will cause the indignation of the population of Aceh.
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