Animates , sometimes animated , (ja アニメ, to pronounce “animated”) is the diminutive of ja アニメーション (animēshon), Japanese transcription of the English pronunciation of the word “Animation”. It is thus about a borrowed word indicating cartoon films, whose Japan is a large producer. In French, this term in general indicates only these cartoons produced in Japan. One also uses the words japanime or japanimation .
The Japanese realizers often use the complete term ja アニメーション.
The term of manga eiga , literally “film of manga”, was the original term to indicate the cartoons of inspiration of Manga (Japanese Cartoon). Animation has a more general range then since it also includes films in volume or another cartoon films which are not inspired by the manga.
Very often, they are in connection with a manga: either the animates is based on a manga with success, or a manga is created of a animates popular. Sometimes both are created at the same time. Other series, like Medarot , or more recently Tokyo majin gakuen kenpucho , take as a starting point video games.
One in general distinguishes various types of animates :
- the series , diffused on television. If the standard duration of an episode is generally approximately 20 minutes, the number of total episode is variable according to the times. At the period end of the year 1980/début of the years 1990, several series exceeded the hundred episodes, like the Knights of the Zodiac (114 episodes) and Dragon Ball Z (291 episodes). Starting from the middle of the years 1990, the format in 26 episodes is spread and become most conventional.
- the Original Video Animation (OVA) are animates produced for the sale in video. Their technical quality is often better than that of the series, because the times are less constraining and the higher budget (for a public more targeted).
- the films , intended to leave to the cinema. They profit from the highest budgets.
The history of the animates starts at the beginning of the 20th century, made by some pioneers according to the traces of the Westerners. After some experiments, one long period followed where the production was reduced to some short films, some orders of the army or the cinemas.
It was necessary to await 1963 so that Osamu Tezuka kind Astro, the small robot , the first great equipped animated series recurring characters within a followed history, or even the King Léo . Tetsujin 28-go also went celebrates in Japan.
The Années 1980 show a strong development of the Space operated . One looks at Robotech (1985), Lamu (of Mamoru Oshii, 1984). The Studio Ghibli makes speak about him with the Castle in the sky (1986), two years after Nausicaä of the valley of the wind (Hayao Miyazaki, 1984) and the Otaku appear. One also sees the Tomb of the fireflies (1987), Akira (1988) or Kiki the small witch (1989). OAV appear, the Hentai also.
The Années 1990 are marked by several works shocks, very required: Neon Genesis Evangelion of Hideaki Anno (1995), Ghost in the Shell of Oshii (1995), Cowboy bebop (1998) or Serial experiments Lain (1998).
The end of the year 1990 and the Années 2000 see a strong return of commercial works, using well-known diagrams, aiming a very young public primarily. Having proven reliable: Pokémon and Yu-Gi-Oh! (1997), Digimon (1999) , Beyblade (2001), or Mahoromatic (2001) . But one also witnesses a recognition of the animates throughout the world: the voyage of Chihiro accepted the 1st price ex-æquo Festival of film of Berlin 2002 and gained the Oscar of best cartoon film in 2003, and Innocence: Ghost in the Shell 2 was selected for the Cannes festival 2004.
A team workEven if certain people can be tried to reduce work to that of the only realizer, as readily Mamoru Oshii recognizes it, this work is that of teams of Japanese organizers, which very often have recourse to subcontracting of South Korea and other countries of Asia for reasons of economies.
Not-creditedBeginning of the year 1980 until the years 1990, the Franco-American production companies Saban and DiC tended to remove the appropriations of the authors of the imported or Co-produced series. Ulysses 31 , Jayce and the Conquerors of the Light , the Mysterious gold Cities are as many series associated with Western production companies. Actually, they were produced in collaboration with Japanese studios such as Studio Junio, Studio Pierrot or TMS (Tokyo Movie Shinsha), and of the realizers and Character designer such as Shingo Araki or Michi Himeno.
The japanimation in France
IntroductionThe term japanimation gathers simply the totality of Japanese animation.
This term was created because of specificity of the local production compared to that of the rest of the world: indeed, where Western animation is often regarded as intended for the children (apart from works of independent authors or some satirical comedies like Simpson or Daria to quote most known), Japanese animation profits in its subjects from a treatment close to the cinema in real catches of sight, approaching almost all the kinds, including the pornography ( Hentai ).
The arrival in Europe, then in FranceIt is in the the Seventies that developed the first collaborations between European and Japanese companies with the Vic Viking (1974, Wickie in German), Maya the bee (1975, Die Biene Maja as an Austrian), the 3 musketeers (1981, Spain). But it is only starting from Goldorak which was an enormous success, pulverizing all the records of audience, after its first diffusion in July 1978 on Antenne 2 that Japanese animation made an entry forces some on the French television channels.
At the beginning of the the Eighties, France is not in remainder and of the French also series produced successfully by being surrounded Japanese teams. Thus, Jean Chalopin created series like Ulysses 31 in 1981, then the Mysterious Cities of gold in 1982, and Inspecteur Gadget in 1982 also.
In fact of very many Japanese series left after 1980, but the kind is then drowned in the flood of childish animation, televisions operating a drastic selection in the Japanese production.
Effects of the deregulation and the era Club DorothéeBut with the arrival of the private channels following the deregulation of 1986 and with the privatization of TF1 in 1987, youth becomes a stake of sensitizing and true units of emissions youth are setting-up like celebrates it Club Dorothée AB Production on TF1. These units youth find in the Japanese production an important flood of series, which more is at low prices. In addition, new and exacerbated competition involves a research of the emotion and dynamism which will find a framework ideal in the japanimation and will bring gradually to certain drifts.
In 1988, whereas the Five imports Olive and Tom , TF1 retorts by on April 6th the Knights of the Zodiac , series who will become the symbol of the time, preceded on March 2nd by the series Dragon Ball , which will be really success only later in its second shutter Dragon Ball Z (1990) which will start a new wave of unconditional, large consumers of derivative products. Cherry Miel , a series, contemporary of Goldorak, had to wait 15 years before its French diffusion…
These series were often décriées for their violence. It is however rather about an ignorance on behalf of the persons in charge of French programming, these series not being intended for the public to which they were presented (involving a censure besides making certain episodes incomprehensible). Indeed in Japan, there is a very great segmentation of the manga. It is obvious that the combat of Ken the survivor have nothing to do with the frankness or the humor of Juliette I love you , Lamu , Dr. Slump , the insane, insane, insane College or a new life .
Other series headlights: Nicky Larson , Ranma ½ and Sailor Moon , which will have an impact similar to Dragon Ball Z . They will allure more the girls whereas the boys are focused on the adventures of Sangoku .
Principal realizers alphabetically
- Hideaki Anno ( Evangelion )
- Yoshiaki Kawajiri ( Ninja scroll , Vampire Hunter D: Bloodlust )
- Satoshi Kon ( Perfect Blue , Millennium Actress , Tokyo Godfathers , Paprika and the series Paranoia Agent )
- Leiji Matsumoto (born in 1938) ( Galaxy Express train 999 , Captain Albator , Yamato , Queen Emeraldas , Gun Frontier , Interstella 5555 with Daft Punk)
- Hayao Miyazaki ( Nausicaä of the valley wind , the Castle in the sky , My neighbor Totoro , Kiki the small witch , Porco Rosso , Princess Mononoké , the Voyage of Chihiro , the travelling Castle )
- Mamoru Oshii ( Ghost in the Shell , Patlabor , the Egg of the angel , Innocence: Ghost in the Shell 2 )
- Katsuhiro Ōtomo ( Akira , Steamboy )
- Rintarō ( Metropolis )
- Isao Takahata ( Goshu the violoncellist , the Tomb of the fireflies , Omohide poro poro , Pompoko , My neighbors Yamada , Kié the small plague )
- Osamu Tezuka (1928 - 1989) ( Astro, the small robot , Phoenix, the bird of fire )
- Yoshiyuki Tomino ( Mobile Follows Gundam )
- Shinichirō Watanabe ( Cowboy Bebop, Samurai champloo , Animatrix , Macross Plus )
- Taiji Yabushita (1903 - 1986)
- Zenjirô Yamamoto (1898 - 1981)
Principal studios of production alphabeticallySee : Category: Studio of Japanese animation for a more complete list.
- List of seiyū
Type-setters of music for animatesThe musics of animates , called anison (for song animates), are often published out of separated CD, individual and album, bound for the fans of the series. Certain musics arrived in heads of the classification Oricon (the equivalent of Top50), such as Hare hare yukai , ending of Suzumiya Haruhi No yūutsu . The artists make as sometimes CD gathering all the anison as they could make. The majority of the musics of animate are drawn from a title or an album of a group of " Jpop" or " Jrock" moment, requested at the beginning by the studios of animation: the pieces presented often shorter are even slightly modified compared to the original pieces (quote for example the title " Tough Boy" of " TOMCAT" , credits of beginning of the animate " Hokuto No Ken" 2). Success for its groups depends obviously on that of the series, but is generally with go at least in the short run, thus profiting from an unhoped-for publicity. The animates thus use often people of talent, and sometimes, discover some, like Asian Kung-fu Generation (revealed by Naruto ) or Orange Arranges.
Here a list partial of the type-setters of these musics:
- Joe Hisaishi
- ALI PROJECT
- Yuki Kajiura
- Kentarô Haneda
- Yōko Kanno
- Kenji Kawai
- Shunsuke Kikuchi
- Shirō Sagisu
- Seiji Yokoyama
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