See also: Art (homonymy)
The word art comes from Latin ars (skill, trade, technical Connaissance). The Greek term are equivalent, Technè (τέχνη), evolved/moved in a different direction, preserving only the technical direction of . One finds here the traditional literary evolution of the Latin roots and scientist of the Greek roots. It is despite everything and in the two directions: the whole of the precise gestures concerning a practice controlled between theoretical science and the spontaneous practice, as much for the art of joinery that for the Art schools.
Philosophically, art is defined by its dimension Esthétique: it is a creation of works aiming at causing a positive esthetic appreciation, i.e. to like and touch the sensitivity by their only form, by their only appearance.
A form of interaction and exchange
Today, art establishes a relation which makes it possible to include in the same interaction, in the same exchange, a work, its creator and the receiver, the recipient of this work (spectator, listener…). The various forms which can take this mediation concretize certain relations between the man and the Nature, i.e. between a human spirit and its environment. A thought at the same time conscious and unconscious, individual and collective, a free spirit and imaginative communicates with the external world. Hegel, in its Esthétique , tried to define the transcendence of this relation while posing a priori, that: “The beautiful artistic one is higher than the beautiful one in nature releases from the illusory and untrue forms of this world imperfect and unstable the Vérité contained in appearances, to equip it with a higher reality created by the spirit itself. ”
To seek the truth behind appearance. Can one consider more captivating purpose? Art becomes the prolongation of the action then. This philosophy of the action, developed in particular by Hannah Arendt, emerges when the artistic gesture becomes the experiment of a particular relation. Also art does not seek it to imitate or reproduce, but to correspond to a métasensible reality. It can then make sting the spiritual one in the field of the common experiment.
Art and esthetics
The art is a play with significant appearances, the colors, the forms and volumes, the sounds. Play, it is it from its exemption from payment even. It is the useless double of reality, it creates from nothing, or almost, an appearance which does not claim even to mislead us; pleasant play in what it satisfies our eternal needs for symmetry, repetition and surprise that Charles Baudelaire regarded as the origin of poetry. Thus, with reading Kant, the esthetic pleasure is born less intensity and diversity from the feelings that in a way, seemingly spontaneous, in which they express a major unity, significant in their shimmer even but inconceptualisable.
The form like dynamism of the sensitive one
In art at least, the form is thus not a foreign principle with the contents, and which would be printed there outside, but the law of its development, become transparent. She is not thought by the spectator, which would like to say that she is about the concept, and thus foreign with perception itself, that she is not given to see. Paul Valéry could write that “beautiful architecture holds of the plant. The law of growth must feel. In the same way the law of care of the openings. - A window should not be a hole bored as by a crankshaft in a board, but be like the result of internal laws, the mucous membrane and modelled openings natural. ”
Before being transcribed in the notation, the melody exists like deployment even sound, exploitation of certain unsuspected possibilities of this material. The color does not fill impressionist space, but is the vibration. Poetry does not consist in imposing on the language a preestablished significance, nor to produce ends rhymes. It leaves rather the word to the words themselves, as if it were not the speech of anybody. It is a question of revealing a movement inherent in a significant dimension of the world. The art gives to see how the sensitive one is generated: the glance of the painter requires of the light, the shades, the color “how they begin there to make that there is suddenly something, and this thing” (Merleau-Ponty).
Art and attention with the sensitive one
Art is thus not satisfied to copy nature. For as much, it is not diverted it, but goes up until the source. In the painting of Cézanne, recalls Merleau-Ponty, it never acts of the color as a show of the colors of nature, but of the dimension of color, where our brain and the universe meets. The artist is sensual, it likes to seize the clean personality, the face of the things and the matters, as the small piece of wall yellow about which Proust in connection with Vermeer speaks.
It is precisely because the still life is not the apple, but the Représentation of apple, that for the first time I then to see it instead of thinking it or to crunch it, consider its aspect, and not its gasoline or its utility.
It is that “the art to see (with the direction drawing and painting) is opposed to seeing which recognizes the objects” (Paul Valéry). The visible one is sensual, him also: held thus remotely, it however shines of fires of our own desires.
To be attentive with sensitive, it is still, as we there invites Henri Focillon, to study the clean possibilities of a material, as wood, the stone, the wire of ink of the calligrapher. However let us take here the word “material” in a broader direction: the Gothic architecture is as much made light, or of verticality, that stone. From an esthetic point of view, time and space themselves are the fabric of the experiment, like a language that of the thought. They are not only abstract forms. And, certainly, art is not satisfied to explore the bases of the significant experiment, it draws from intimate knowledge from this logic, or this geometry, the structures and the unsuspected effects initially.
Can one still take art with the serious one?
A word will be enough for the poet to link two seemingly foreign ideas, to reveal the secret dealings of them. The abstract thought is unidimensional, art is multidimensional. “The artist, explains Paul Valéry, accumulated, by means of the matter, a plurality of abstract thoughts, simple acts. But the same thing results from it. ” Is to say that art made credit to our Intelligence, presents from the start to him the radical unit of the world which it can as for it build only step by step, painfully, indefinitely. It will be said of course that this easy triumph is illusory, that the artist takes the clean unit of his spirit, or his body, for the structure of reality, that its thought is thus more magic than rational. One can even defend the idea that esthetics is born with this disappointment, which makes it possible to distinguish art, play subjective of the spirit with itself, of serious of philosophy and sciences. (see the article Avant-garde.) Art can be regarded as a reality with whole share only with its desacralization. The Beautiful is neither Truth nor the Good. Thus, art is born at the moment when it becomes a legacy of the past (Hegel).
One however can, like Paul Valéry, to underline affinities of the Beautiful and the formal truth of mathematics. A work is a universe closed, which is worth in oneself, with its own laws; it constitutes the place of various variations and transformations, analogues finally with the properties of a mathematical unit. But isn't this especially to note that mathematics is they also a play?
Art has, on the ethical level, to see with the idea of self-control, of independence and distance with regard to passions. Not that art is unaware of passions, but rather because it sublimates them and gives them to see (see Croce). It is not a question to deny the crowd of our perceptions and our desires, but to integrate them in a whole, when they threatened our unit. With reading Alain, the song triumphs over the cry, the dance of passion; these bad folds are nothing any more but the keys of an instrument than we will effleurons freely. The monotonous chant transforms the sorrow, which tears us, into a beautiful symmetrical object. The work of art takes with the trap passions, reveals what there is in them of eternal, makes of it the matter of a kind of geometry or algebra. Art is not thus certainly passion overflowing. It is assertion of the freedom of the play within passion, consequently distance. Like humor, it dépersonnalise passion, gives it to see from the point of view of a being which would be foreign for him. Thus the tragedy enables us to contemplate the existence of the men, their agitation, as with the past, i.e. from the point of view of the Gods. For as much, we do not become foreign with passions, for example with the fear of death. It is they which the spectacle draws its power from fascination. Aristote is the inventor of the theory of the Catharsis, according to which art would allow purging, purging, of our passions.
If the concept of “artistic Beau” which dominated the history of art, since Plato until Hegel lost its recognition today, art always seeks nevertheless to use the world direction to penetrate in the world of the Esprit, or perhaps even in that of the heart. By doing this, the Immanent not behind the permanent one. The artist tries to prove that the human resources are not reduced to the transformation, but which it conquered the dimension of the Création. In this direction turned towards the Esthetic , art is a Représentation particular, personal, Nature (between physics and Métaphysique), of a Sentiment, Sacré… but also, quite simply of a spontaneously emerged Inconscient, even consciously (assumption of the Profondis) .
The concept of “Représentation” takes a very particular direction then if one wants to seize the direction of the work of art, and his report/ratio with the beauty. The work of art is a form of “representation”, i.e. it presents differently the reality of the universe. The work of art did not see a his more or less adequate report/ratio with reality, but of the affects which it produces; for example, the fabrics of Munch do not represent a form of sadness, but produce a feeling, an emotion, which for some is called sadness, for others the abomination. It is perhaps because it is producing affects, and that it is with it only a “universe”, that the work of art is beautiful (the contemporary art is beautiful when one hung to the initiation which the artist seeks to get to us).
It is the great difficulty of arts of our time: they are often bound by intellectual directions and experiments which cannot be readable directly and without knowledge of their genesis: in fact waste lands of discovered will perhaps become of true works to the eyes of the humanized machines (post-futurism) .
Never a young work is included/understood without to have assimilated its genealogy. However it will be noticed that the d'" term; art" is too usually applied to any spectacular mediatization, and that with its detriment.
Is art only one human spectacle and eternal?
In fact, the single experiment of the artist, living of Experimentation S, Abstraction S and Intuition S leads it to pass from the stages of legibilities and judgments less and less personal. It does not have any more the concept of good/badly or beautiful/ugly because what it saw is ordinary communication beyond: it absorbs and compresses by its directions a Réalité usually lived like concepts of object S and reports/ratios tangible. However the artist precisely works in the unlimited one, the potential and the indescribable one.
It is carried to have an increasingly direct action (last stages of trainings and technical tests…), which pushes it to continue a still unnamable research.
But the Perception of a work of art is often a lesson given and perceived directly in us. (the Vrai of the forgery is conditioned by a level of intuition felt and thus especially like a point of rupture with the daily newspaper).
The esthetic factor is often an element confused with work. Our eye is accustomed to a Proportion and Constante S of human balance communes to the S, but work is not made to be beautiful (one will speak then about Graphisme S), but to find a point of meeting between what the artist perceived like a possible Existence real, and the Quotidien.
Art and crowned
One of the first forms of representation, rupestral art (prehistoric time ) undoubtedly was, at the same time the iconic representation of animals, but also had certainly, a magic dimension , chamanic even Sacré E (cf Travaux of Jean Clottes).
Consequently, art transcended reality, and gave an account of its spiritual dimension whereas the daily newspaper risky and painful, was based on the need for driving out, for protecting themselves and for surviving. Art appears at dawn of the humanity which deposited a representation on the walls of the caves, sacrilized the events, and helped the man to survive, by transcending its thought and its vital needs.
Arts of the representation were often put at the service of the Church, becoming more or less a kind of official art. The unslung vitality of the American Gospel is at the base of the modern popular musics.
The relationship between the Art and the magnification of reality and crowned did not cease nourishing the concerns of certain artists, in particular the Nabi S and Maurice Denis or more recently Raza and its Mandala S. Art itself is often an object of worship, in front of the obliteration of the notion of crowned in Occident. the Mona Lisa of Léonard de Vinci in is an example just like the Nymphea of Monet to the Orangerie in front of which crowd of visitors collects itself and Marylin or Elvis of Andy Warhol, icons of modernity.
In Paris, London, Barcelona or New York, museums or centers of art (MOMA, Beaubourg, Touches Gallery…) become building-keys for the headlights cities of the Western modern world and can be compared with new temples, for other communions.
Arts and representations
Since, the various forms of art for art concretize any form of mediations: mediations between the man and nature, the man and his similar, even between the man and God or other forms of crowned. These artistic mediations exceed and transcend all the problems of the Connaissance of the world. The study of the physical phenomena and the evolution of the Technologie S play a big role there, since they often influence the tools of Création. An artistic experimentation, parallel with the scientific experimentation, thus comes to found the development of a new esthetics, supported by the increasing place of the techniques in the daily life.
Art could thus be used to reproduce eternal concepts conceived or imagined by only the Contemplation. The origin of art comes well from the Connaissance of the ideas and the things, but transcends this knowledge to present it differently, becoming of this fact representation. If as well is as art lays down objectives (what goes of course against its nature), one of the outstanding goals of art would be thus to communicate the major knowledge acquired not only by the direction, but also by the spirit. The art of pure Imitation will be always very far from truth: work can be the also beautiful only real thing; it is of another kind, and but one any small portion will never seize any. The imitation of nature never translates its level of Beauté, however that the artistic representation reveals an absolute specific to the artist, a truth of our natural space and inimitable since personal.
History and evolution of art
At the the Middle Ages, the Musique preserved a scientific statute (Quadrivium), while architecture, the art of the builders of Cathédrale S, and the Peinture, representations of the icons, were mainly reserved for the religion; but very quickly the social life was inserted there, and the portrait was involved to extrapolate the forms of art towards forms of representation of the social life, by reserving it for important characters (cf sociological theories of max Weber and birth of a Sociologie of the music). Since, art and company are strongly dependant. The artist is integrated in social movements, accompanies them, and survives thanks to goodwill rich person and the powerful ones.
As from the 18th century, art tends to becoming the whole of the human activities devoted to the production of the Beau, the whole of the representations which express the beauty of nature, the beauty of the characters, but also revealing the share of Transcendance of each one of these representation of reality. It is indeed starting from the middle of the 18th century (Esthetic of Alexandre Baumgarten, 1750) that takes shape a autonomous Science of the art, which further goes than the expansion from the representation, encouraging a reflection on the beautiful one and the value of the artistic representations. This science of the Esthetic , one of the disciplines of the Philosophy, reached its full apogee among philosophers with the spirit of the lights and in the phenomenologic revolutions of Kant then of Hegel.
Kant estimates that a work of art must provide a sensitive object, whether it is itself beautiful or ugly imports little with the final one: “the artistic beauty is the beautiful representation of a thing and not the representation of a beautiful thing”. This representation is according to him the result of free plan of our cognitive faculties.
Hegel, as for him, estimates that the goal of art is to make available to the intuition the universal spirit. It is a question of becoming aware of the development of the universal idea and of giving him a reality by retranscribing it in the form of work of Article the contemplation of work, and thus of the incarnation of the absolute spirit, is offered thus to the sensory intuition of the man.
Near to Hegel on certain points, the Romantisme does not see any more the representation of the beauty only like one print; this current founds what will become a subjective interpretation of art, interpretation confronted with all the layers of the company.
For Friedrich Nietzsche, “art must above all embellish the life, therefore to return ourself to us tolerable to the others and pleasant if possible”. Because, if work must express beauty, is it for as much beautiful with all the glances? These limitations, associated with the Esthetic sight of the other, impose a form of civility which can moderate us in our artistic expression.
Imitation and representation
But this production is not obligatorily of voluntary nature. Contrary to the other human productions, the act of creation is generally located out of the field of the Conscience. It gives access to us a communication of spiritual, the timeless one, the universal one. Nietzsche also thinks that art must be used to mask or embellish all that is ugly in the human nature. However, today, certain arts born of modernity, the such Cinéma, seek as much to embellish the Human nature , that to highlight all its blackness in the hope can be to extract the germs from them from incomprehension and intolerance.
The cinema, in limit of art, gives to see daily credibilities, which update, like the novel, but in more restricted, a human experiment which we could not discover differently.
This logic leads art towards a need, lived for the interior by the artist. The Music, more than “art to organize the sounds” reflects the expression of a sound entity “other”, of an unreal form and not conceptualisable of the communication; it is a total imagination, which joins together at the same time new representations and a new design of their construction. Like other arts, it expresses the rational one and the irrational one, but while deviating from the myth or the magic.
All the creative processes operate, by the spirit even which guides them, a catharsis which guarantees a going beyond of the limits posed with the Connaissance of the world. The sensory symbiosis which nourishes the creative action is only the elementary form of the representation which infère the imaginary one.
As a different approach, more turned towards the spirit than towards the thought, art must ineluctably lead to the prolongation of the work of a nature dominating and confined with evolutionary transformations. Trying to free itself from these limits of the human thought art finds the spiritual substance, quasi mystical, quasi magic, of creation. This will to alleviate our thirst for knowledge is not obligatorily unhealthy. Mythe and magic is not fundamentally loopholes with the lacks of rationality of the events which surround us, even if they is, for certain, of the admissions of weakness, the transfigured limitations.
They can sometimes also mark the search for a Spiritualité absent. Art on the other hand is him always a need for expressing the world this way. He does not seek to replace the Réalité by another entity of better consistency; he does not seek either to transgress limits inherent in our nature, but he seeks to transcend them. Art seeks to use the world direction to penetrate in a world of the Esprit, or perhaps even in that of the heart. By doing this, art seeks the Immanent behind the permanent one. It tries to prove that the human resources are not reduced to the transformation, but which it conquered the dimension of creation.
The objet d'art could thus rest on the connection of our directions, our Conscience and our spirit, with the things and the other living beings which surround us, without to represent them with the identical one. For Tolstoï indeed, “art is the human activity by which a person can, voluntarily, and by means of external signs, to communicate to others the feelings and the feelings that it tests itself”. It can not be not necessary that this communication with outside is immediate. Bergson estimates that if this communication between our conscience and reality were possible, “we all would be of the artists because our heart would vibrate then continuously in the unison with the Nature”.
Modern art and contemporary art
The Modern art was born at the 20th century, and saw appearing in painting the figures of Picasso, Matisse, Miro, max Ernst and of many movements like the Surréalisme, the Oulipo, the New wave. In France with modernity the painters are detached little by little from the system of the Salon S and the influence of the middle-class. The large contemporary collectors, the Gallery S and the critical S play a big role. The Marché of art is internationalized.
Marcel Duchamp represents the objector founder of the conceptual art. He is not attached more to his precursors which its intention is not to establish an art of the object. What he seeks on the contrary is to leave Article Pourtant the objet trouv3e of Duchamp (of which he is the originator) and its kinetic objects brings a new dimension to the esthetic conscience, as well as an immense contribution to the historiography of the modern sculpture, well against its will.
The Contemporary art (performance, Land Art, free Figuration, installation S, etc) by being diverted representations, wanted to express the tools of knowledge, the principles specific to Article This diversion of the function of art concerns then an appropriation of the tools to build another form of communication, always near to the world Sensible, but impressed of a nonformal logic.
The painter Dubuffet, theorist of the rough Art which worked the matter to give off from it the gasoline even of the work of art, wrote: “Art must be born from material and of the tool, it must keep the trace of the fight of the tool with material. The man must speak but the tool also and the material too. ”
All the complexity of art is that he seeks to correspond to the Création of a singular work, likely to wake up the attention. The innovation, the innovation, in the content as in the form, are the engines of the evolution. The Créativité of the artist cannot be attached by the rules of suitability, courtesy, mode of exposure imposed of outside (yesterday by the treaties, today by the actors of the market of art). In this irrefutable fact, the art financed by the company is probably an art which cannot entirely express its generosity, by the very fact that it is bought by some initiates.
Art evolves/moves with the company. The contemporary artist assumes sometimes a social function or even policy to try to act on the world. In same time, the schools of art train today artists ground well with the processes of communication and marketing, and art is an policy issue of state, policy issue and merchant. One at present observes a loss of reference mark compared to the autonomy and to the sincerity of the creator.
“Art is in turn, external reality, plastic reality and interior reality. ” - Rene Huyghe
The artistic and social protest movement Dada then the Surréalisme was essential moments of the modern art, which with Fluxus in the Années 1970 announces what one called “Contemporary art”, which corresponds to one period of appearance of new supports: Video art, numerical Art and with an accelerated diffusion of art (especially of its most visible signs and symbols), Design and fashion thanks to the new media of the contemporary company. Current art, mediatized or not is plentiful and hybrid, to become artist remains always a risky social adventure. The tools for creation never were as much with the range of the greatest number but the possibilities of diffusion of the artistic messages are threatened by jamming and the multiplication of the supports. The role of the artist like intellectual and social avant-garde appears also disputed. Artistic education and the awakening of the sensitivity remain poor relations of the current policies and contradiction “Market-profitability/Production of the free spirit” remains long-lived. Certain creators however seem to manage to combine singular creativity, requirement, talent and a certain media recognition (obligatory for a popular recognition) in their field in particular in music, literature or cinema.
The contemporary art is crossed by the concepts and the topics which agitate the contemporary company: dematerialization of the work brought by (Yves Klein), in the Years 1960, even of the “artists without works”, major ecology (Hundertwasser), visual propaganda and publicity (Warhol), the company work of art or vice versa (Hybert), activism and terrorism (Parreno), fascination for the technical revolution and biotechnologies, cosmetic surgery and the body re-creation of oneself (Orlan), Graffiti - art, the Slam, the Piercing and the Rap.
Number and name of arts during timesto also Voir the article History of art, the category '' Art '' and the gate of the arts.
In Antiquity, arts were symbolized by the Muses 9:
- Calliope : epic poetry;
- Clio: history;
- Érato : lyric poetry;
- Euterpe : music;
- Melpomène : the tragedy;
- Polymnie : art to write and mime;
- Terpsichore : dance;
- Thalie : the comedy;
- Uranie : astronomy.
Hésiode to the VIII E (in '' Théogonie '', 53-57 and 915-917) makes known to us their names, but it is Plato (in '' Ion '') towards 401 av. J. - C., then the Neo-Platonists, who makes Muses the mediating ones between the god and the poet or any intellectual creator. This design of art (the poet is had, stiff by the god) will be disputed by the Classicisme of Nicolas Boileau, the movement of the Art for Art or the praise of the effort of Paul Valéry.
the Middle Ages
Since the 8th century the classification of the knowledge was different (see Alcuin) and one did not distinguish arts from sciences.
The Liberal arts seven, were classified in two groups:
- the trivium (sciences of the language, but corresponds rather to our current Philosophie): Rhetoric, Dialectical Grammar and ;
- the Quadrivium (mathematical sciences ): Arithmetic, Geometry, Astronomy and Music.
The Mechanical arts (practical activities, opposed to those intellectual) indicated the Architecture, the Sculpture, the Peinture and the Orfèvrerie.
The disciplines which in common have the transformation of a tangible matter (those of the craftsmen and artists - the artefices opposed to the artista practitioner liberal arts) are then arranged among the servile arts . However Plotin at the 3rd century (in its Ennéades ) made an apology for the activity of the artist and follows, with the Middle Ages, a certain tradition admitting with the artist the capacity to exceed only significant realities.
RebirthAt the beginning of the Italian Rebirth or the pre-Rebirth, Arts still indicate the manual knowledge and the cultures of the trades. Thus in Florence, the Arti indicate the commercial corporations defending their positions with respect to the aristocracy and of the popolo grasso . The artistic activities practiced by the artists (supported by their power and the Médicis) will establish the distinction and the name of Art schools will define their position with respect to the only current artisanal activities.
At that time arte LED designo recovers arts of volume (sculpture, architecture) and those of surface (drawing, painting, engraving), opposition which one will find later in the expressions " arts plastiques" and " arts graphiques" (J. - R. Gaborit). The common point of these manual practices was then the action on the matter.
The time of the Lights
Later, the term “Art schools” appeared in 1752 in the Encyclopédie of Diderot and Alembert and exclusively indicated four arts which one nowadays calls plastics: structure, sculpture, painting and engraving. To note that the Académie of the Art schools comprises eight sections today: four traditional fine arts, the musical composition, the cinema and the audio-visual one, photography and a free section.
Hegel, in its '' Esthétique '' towards 1818 - 1829, class arts according to a stepladder of decreasing materiality and increasing expressivity. It distinguishes six arts thus, in this order:
The cinema is an expression suggested in 1919 by Ricciotto Canudo to indicate the cinematographic art.
Ricciotto Canudo was an Italian intellectual, installed in France, friend of Apollinaire, which was one of the first film critics. He wrote a first book in 1911 which was entitled “the birth of the sixth art”, in which he considered that the cinema carried out the synthesis of “arts of space” (architecture, painting and sculpture) and of “arts of time” (music and dance), that is to say 5 before him. The cinema thus appears as a synthesis of all arts which preceded it (arts of time and space). The cinema is an instrument of a new rebirth.
Then had it read Hegel meanwhile? he added poetry like art founder and wrote the proclamation of 7 arts which devoted the expression the “7th art” for the cinema. In 1922, it founded the Gazette of seven arts which is one of the first reviews of cinema.
To note that Jean Cocteau, which called the cinema it “tenth MUSE” had less success.
Sometimes the Theater (or “play of the actor”), sometimes the Photography, the eighth place is enough disputed but in general returns to the Télévision, although the professionals claim little of this expression. One could agree to say that the the eighth art is “the art of the service”.
The expression the ninth art which designates the cartoon is often allotted, wrongly, with Francis Lacassin for a book which it published in 1971, entitled For the ninth art, the cartoon . In fact, the expression the “ninth art” is due to Morris (pseudonym of Maurice de Bévère and creator of Lucky Luke) and Pierre Vankeer who animated, three years lasting within the Journal of Spirou (of the number 1392 with the number 1523) a heading entitled the Ninth Art , subtitled Musée of the cartoon , who made it tower of the international cartoon and her history. The heading appears for the first time in number 1392 of Spirou, of December 17th, 1964, a number special Christmas of 100 pages. During the creation of the heading, Morris and Vankeer thought of the eighth art before learning by technicians from the dance, that name was already taken. It would seem whereas the drafting of the newspaper chose the ninth art . In their introduction of the first publication of the Ninth art , the authors justify the choice of the ninth art by announcing that the the eighth art indicates already television.
In addition to this classification of arts, according to Alain Beyrand, the denomination the ninth art “was launched by Morris and Vankeer to be able to as well treat accounts in images as of the data base” (matter of Alain Beyrand). Indeed, this expression allows, just like “sequential Art” or “narrative Figuration”, to retract the internal quarrel which animate the medium of the cartoon concerning the birth of this art and the definition of what is or is not a cartoon; what underlines the authors during the creation of the heading: “The cartoons were born before the cinematograph from Misters Lumière. But one hardly took them with serious during the first decades of their existence, and this is why the series of articles which begins today will call 9th Article”
the school of Athens
- the Arts of Islam
- the medieval Sacred art
- the rebirth
- the Mannerism
- the Baroque and the Rococo
- the Neoclassicism
- the Academism
- the Naturalism
- the Romanticism
- the symbolism
- the Impressionism, the néo impressionism and the Fauvisme
- the Art nouveau
- the Cubism and the Abstract art
- the Suprématisme
- the constructivism
- the Dadaism and the Surrealism
- the Fauvisme
- the Expressionnisme
- the Futurism
- the rough Art
- the Trompe-l'oeil
- the Lettrisme
- the International situationnist
- the Minimalisme
- the Lyric abstraction
- the New realism
- the New illustration
- the Land-Art, the Pop art and the Hyperréalisme
- the Conceptual art
- It Sociological art and the Esthetic of the communication
- the Art performance
- Fluxus and Art and Language
- the New figuration
- the free Figuration
- the Art in line
- the pop Néo
- the Bioart
- the Email-Art
- the Planétarisme
- the animalist Art
to also Voir, inter alia, the gate of the history of art and the category.
Some famous works
- the Mona Lisa of Léonard de Vinci Rebirth 1503 - 1507 Louvre Paris.
- the raft of the Jellyfish , Géricault 1819 Louvre Paris.
- Young ladies of Avignon of Pablo Picasso 1907 Museum off Modern Art of New York.
- the Victoire de Samothrace Greek Antiquity -200 -170 Louvre Paris.
- the dying Slave Michel-Angel (1513 - 1515) Rebirth Italy Louvre Paris.
- poetic Work of art
- Applied arts
- Contemporary art
- Martial art
- Art of mass
- Official art
- the representation of naked in art
- plastic Music
- Paper-cut out Chinese
External bonds and resources
- Dominique Castle, Art , Dictionaries the Robert, 2003.
Beats-smg: Lie Be-X-old: Мастацтва Roa-rup: Artã Simple: Art Zh-yue: 藝術
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