A arboretum is a garden Botanique specialized generally conceived like a space landscape. It presents many Espèce S of Arbre S or woody gasolines in the form of collections generally sets of themes.
There exist arboretums of approval resulting from a large last activity but which do not have any more scientific expeditions.
A garden presenting of the collections of shrubs is called " Fruticetum " and " is called; Pinetum " a arboretum specialized in the Coniferous S.
HistoryThe scientific first arboretum was created in France, in the middle of the 17th century, by a French naval officer which gathered important collections of trees of Europe and of North America.
RolesThe missions of a arboretum obey the general rules of a Botanical garden what means that all the woody species are carefully étiquettées to inform the visitors.
AcademySome arboretum have a goal of conservation and gasoline safeguard threatened of disappearance, generally of origin foreign to the country. The whole of the arboretums constitutes a forest woody gasoline natural heritage or not.
Scientific researchThe part of the botany which is specialized in the study of the trees calls the Dendrologie.
OperationAs in the botanical gardens, a truth arboretum has a grainetery which stores seeds of the woody gasolines of its country and its area. It also stores the seeds collected in the arboretum (even if, because of the presence of a great number of species on a restricted space, the recovered seeds often give Hybride S).
Generally the arboretum, when it has an activity of multiplication, makes it possible to preserve by multiplying the rare woody species thanks to the exchange of seed S between different the arboretums and botanical gardens throughout the world and this thanks to an index séminum.
It is generally opened with the public and thus constitutes a kind of “museum with trees”.
One distinguishes four categories of arboretums:
the arboretum of general collections: it is a collection which gathers a maximum of species of the whole world; each species is represented by a number limited individuals, often only one; it is a design close to that of the Botanical garden;
the forest arboretum: the collection of species is extended, but each one is represented by a more significant number individuals, from 25 to 100, even more; the objective is more to test and compare the forest behavior of new species introduced into a given area; In France the arboretum of ONF of Royat in the department of Puy de Dôme (63) in is very an good example.
the arboretum with topic: it gathers various varieties of the same species (apple trees, fig trees, etc); the objective is then to constitute an academy of the diversity of a species;
the landscape arboretum: it is a arboretum of collection which takes into account esthetic dimension in the choice and the distribution of the plantations; the Arboretum de Balaine in the Allier (03) is a landscape example of arboretum.
Arboretum importantLargest arboretum of France is the national Arboretum of the Bars located at Nogent-on-Vernisson.
In the rest of the world, one can also announce:
- in England created in 1828 (www)
- the arboretum of Trsteno located in the area of Dubrovnik in Croatia date of the 15th century (1492), they is oldest of the World but it was partially destroyed at the time of the war in ex-Yugoslavia
- the arboretum Kámoni of Szombathely in Hungary
- the arboretum currently conceived by the Polish type-setter and chief Krzysztof Penderecki with Luslawice in Poland
- the Bambouseraie of Prafrance in France near Anduze ( Gard), collections of Bamboo S.
- the arboretum Aubonne in Switzerland (www)
With the the United States:
- Zhongshan Arboretum in China
- the village arboretum
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