The Arab (rear RTL العربية, Al arabīya in traditional transcription) is the Langue spoken originally by the Arab . It is a Semitic Langue (like the Akkadien, the Hebrew , the Syriaque, the Phénicien and the Araméen) and flexional whose alphabet is a Abjad. Arabic is written from right to left.
One makes go up the origin of the Arab language at the 2nd century. The oral tradition considers however that it is about a directly revealed language with Ismaël, wire of Abraham, in a form rather close to the Classical Arabic current. The tradition gives per moments of the quite former origins: the Queen of Sheba, old the Yemen as of the disappeared tribes would have spoken Arabic in an older form. The first traces of the Arab writing, such as it nowadays is known, go back to the 3rd century like it attested Healey and Smith by the Inscriptions of Raqush (Jaussen-Savignac 17): The oldest Arab inscriptions Préislamiques (date 267). .
Varieties of Arabic
Arabic is a generic term which gathers many varieties:
- the Classical Arabic : the language of Coran, spoken at the time of the expansion arabo-Moslem woman;
- the Written Arabic : a form modernized but little differentiated from the classical Arabic, who is the common written language of all the countries Arabic-speaking people;
- the Arab dialects: oral languages spoken in the Arab Countries, resulting from the classical Arabic, with substrates, superstrata and loans different according to the areas, and about the dialects spoken in distant areas are not easily comprehensible without training (which can take place by the means of the Egyptian series on television, for example, for the Egyptian dialect). Thus for an Iraqi, the Arab Morrocan will be as different as the Spanish for a French, which go in addition against the definition of Dialecte. The differences between dialects less moved away, like Algerian, Tunisian and the Morrocan, are less large but nevertheless represent an important handicap for the communication, as between French of Quebec and French of Europe. Generally the speakers of different dialects use the written Arabic rather, or the simplified shape of the written Arabic.
Arab country of language
See also: Arab Countries, List of the Arab country of language
Arab and Islam
The language of the Islam being Arabic, of many words of the religious field initially appeared in Arabic. Thus, certain religious words exist only in Arabic, or have an Arabic direction much more precise.
See also: Vocabulary of Islam, Arab Terms used in Islam
Cultural radiationNonArab writers used the Arab language for their publications, for example the doctor and Persian philosopher Ibn Sina. The Norman kings of Sicily pricked themselves of speaking Arabic.
Today, though the international statute of this language remains undeniable, it has evil to be exported out of the Arab world. Its teaching abroad remains rather marginal. The political lack of will to promote the language, as well as a too large gap between written Arabic and dialectical Arabic are also obstacles with the real internationalization of Arabic. But recently, the appearance of new chains of information panarabes, such Al Jazeera or Al Arabia lets predict a revival of the Arab language through the media. It is as to note as Arabic remained a liturgical language in the majority of the Moslem countries, although Arabic ic Coran is far away from the modern Arab language today.
Languages derived from Arabic
Diversity of the loansArabic bequeathed a series of words to the Romance Langues (and, from there, to the other languages of Europe), especially with the Spanish , the Italian and the Portuguese.
Loans in the French language
See also: French Words of Arab origin
Many French words are thus found Arab. These loans is fact is:
- directly ( alkali , esparto , alizari , almée , admiral , arak , azimuth , baobab tree , luck , weephole , bards , Bedouin , village , bordj , bouracan , burnous , cadi , cockroach , caïd , caliph , camaieu , cam , camelote , caoua , chott , dog , fellah , gazelle , harem , chance , henné , skirt , kandjar , brass , lute , loony , Maghrebian , store , wadi , salamalec , doctor , zenith , etc);
- starting from the Dialectical Arabic , especially Algerian ( gear , bezef , kif-kif , bludgeon , spree , raid , youdi , etc) and Egyptian ( cange , tar , Mameluke );
- via the Latin medieval or scientific ( alcohol , algebra , azimuth reading device , amalgamates , amber , red ocher , revive , benzoin , benzine , borage , camphor , figure , mummy , orcanette , saffron , syrup , etc);
- starting from the Dialectical Arabic , especially Moroccan ( argan , lamb barbecue , tajine , couscous , haschich , leather working .)
- via other European languages, mainly the Spanish ( mayor , alcarraza , alcove , chestnut horse , long-leaved lettuce , algarade , alguazil , mercy , arroba , azerole , basaner , spinach , felouque , etc), the Italian ( arsenal , artichoke , assassin , downstream , affront , damages , berner , coffee , to block up , gauges , carafe , cotton , giraffe , hégire , store , sirocco , tariff , zero , etc), the Of Provence ( boutargue , earthenware jar , madrague , poutargue ) and the Portuguese ( warder );
- via the Turkish ( minaret , muezzin ), of the Hindi ( nabob ) or of the Persan ( rogue ).
In addition, Arabic transmitted to the French words originating in other languages, in particular the Hindî ( bonduc , crystallized ), the Persan ( winter-cherry , alkermes , aniline , eggplant , azure , Turkish slipper , borax , boron , customs , orange , drinking cup , etc), but also the Greek ( still , almanac , antimony , etc).
Let us quote finally the case of the word apricot , which comes from the Latin praecoquum (which gave the early doublet ) and which returned in French in this form after a voyage via the Greek (πραικόκιον praikókion ), of Arabic (rear RTL أَلْبَرْقُوق ʾ Al barqūq ) and of the Spanish ( albaricoque ; an intermediary Catalan albercoc had given aubercot , word which however was not essential against Abricot ).
With regard to the proper names, much from star names also come from Arabic: Aldébaran , Bételgeuse , ALGOL , Alioth , Véga , Mizar , Fomalhaut , etc
Presence of the articleOne recognizes certain loans with Arabic in the Western languages with the fact that they often start with has or Al , which is not other than the Definite article in this language (one has Al normally and has when the Arab word started with a “solar consonant”, i.e. D , R , S , T and Z mainly; for more details, to consult Arabic alphabet ).
The Westerners by not being aware (phenomenon of Métanalyse), they sometimes preserved this article and have it bound with the mot. It is however notable that all the languages did not always preserve the article for the same mot. Ainsi, the Spanish and the Portuguese preserved some more than French: to algodón or azúcar in Spanish corresponds cotton and sugar , for example, or, one finds dogana in Italian opposite aduana in Spanish.
Loan of the figuresThe Arab numerals, used in Western classification, were borrowed from the Arab , which themselves had borrowed them from the Indiens.
Currently, in the Arab World, only the Maghreb countries (Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Libya, Mauritania) use these figures, the other countries use others of them, called “Indians” (where the 5 resembles our 0).
The “Arab numerals” in their current form were introduced in Europe by the Italian mathematician Fibonacci which learned from it the use in the town of Béjaïa capital of small Kabylie (Algérie) to the Moyen-âge. In 1202, Fibonacci publishes Liber Abaci (“books of calculations”), a Traité on the Calculs and the Comptabilité founded on the decimal Calcul with one time when all the Occident still used the Roman numerals and calculated on Abaque. This book is strongly influenced by its life in the Arab countries; it is written besides partly from right to left. By this publication, Fibonacci introduces the Arab marking system in Europe. This system is much more powerful and rapid that the Roman notation, and Fibonacci in is fully conscious. He however pained to be essential before several centuries. The invention will be badly received because the public did not include/understand any more calculations that made the tradesmen. In 1280, Florence prohibits even the use of the Arab numerals by the bankers. It was judged that the 0 brought confusion and of the difficulties so much so that they called this system will cifra (" sifr" , zero in Arabic), who took the significance of “secret code” in Latin.
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