Antioche (in Turkish Antakya , in Greek Αντιόχεια , in Arab انتاكيّة ) is a town of Turkey near to the border Syria, chief town of the province of Hatay. It counts 139 000 inhabitants (2001), the Antiochiens .
It is located at the edge of the river Oronte at.
Founded towards 300 av. J. - C. by Séleucos Ier Nicator after its victory of Ipsos over Antigone One-eyed the, it calls it Antiocheia (Ἀντιόχεια) in remembering his/her father Antiochos. The city makes fast demographic great strides because it is created by Synœcisme several neighbouring villages (lopolis, Jope, Meroe and Bottia) and especially of 3 500 families Greek Macedonians and moved Antigonie, the old capital of its rival located 9 km upstream on Oronte. Built initially in shrinking of left bank of the River because of the risks of Flood S and conceived on a Plan hippodamien with the image of Alexandria of which she wants to be the competitor in the area, Antioche becomes one of the big cities of the time. The immigrants and, made rare in particular, the Jewish S, obtain the same rights there as the other inhabitants.
One also knows it under the names of Antioche on Oronte in order to distinguish it from the 15 others Antioche created by the monarch and of Antioche ear of Daphne , of the name of a nearby crowned wood devoted to Apollon and in which Séleucos raised a Temple with the guardian god of the Séleucides.
First Antioche, whose Séleucos entrusted construction at a commission of three supervisors, Attaios, Péritas and Anaxicratès, included/understood only two districts: what was to become the royal district, in the southern island, and district. It was surrounded by an enclosure (of which there remain nothing) designed by the Xénaïos architect.
Late legend or memory of a barbarian rite? Jean Malalas explains that the foundation of Antioche was marked by a human sacrifice, that of a named young girl Aimathè. She was then regarded as a goddess, the Tychè (the Destiny), and its sanctuary founded by Séleucos became one of most important city. The king ordered a statue with the sculptor Eutychidès de Sicyone, work monumental which was going to become one of most famous Greek world: she represented the veiled young girl, crowned turns, holding with the hand of corn ears, sitting on a rock which symbolizes the Silpios mount; with his feet starting from the size a young swimmer extending the arms, and representing appears the Oronte. The king founded also other sanctuaries for the new city: that of Zeus Bottaios, a god Macedonian, and in the surroundings temple of Athéna with beautiful bronze statue for the Athenian colonists come from Antigonéia, as well as a crowned wood of cypress near Daphneion, the “Sanctuary of the Bay-tree” devoted to Apollo, on the heights of Daphne in south-west.
Located particularly well, with the hinge of the ways leading towards the Anatolia, the Mésopotamie and the Palestine, and on the Oronte then navigable, Antioche became the capital of the kingdom séleucide and one of the principal centers of diffusion of the hellenistic culture. The city is very early posed as a rival Alexandria.
The city is in the fertile plain of the Amuq, sheltered by small mountainous solid masses ( the Staurin mount and the mount Silpion ) which defend its approach and provide piémonts easy to strengthen. It is unceasingly increased, which is worth to him the nickname of Tétrapolis (quoted quadruple) by the geographer Strabon. In the middle of Oronte there was an island arranged under Antiochos III with the construction of the palate or royal district. In the south of this island the city founded by Séleucos with its streets parallel with the river. More in the south still the district of Epiphaneia whose Antiochos IV Epiphane wanted to make the political center of the city. It is populated Greeks, Syrians quickly hellenized and Jews. It is a flourishing and prosperous city (textile industry, jewelry, luxury items) but which could compete neither with Alexandria nor with Pergame like hearth literary and artistic.
The city counted 300 000 with 400 000 inhabitants at the end of the hellenistic period. Its town planning (streets with right angle) and its institutions (swell and archontes) are those of polishes (quoted), which can behave on the occasion like a Sovereign state, especially in the event of weakening of the royal capacity. In 83 av. J. - C., Antiochiens did not hesitate to release the dynasty séleucide and to require the protection of king d' Arménie Tigrane.
Roman AntiocheAfter the Roman conquest in -64 by Pumped, it became the capital of the province of Syria and, far from weakening, preserved the nickname of Couronne of the East . Under the reign of Tibère, the city is extended towards north, receives a single enclosure and its center of gravity becomes an avenue of approximately 30 meters of width comprising 3.200 columns, almost parallel in Oronte, separating the district from Epiphany of the remainder of the city, and offered by Hérode the Large one. This type of town planning was then imitated by almost all the cities of the East. Antioche, which counts approximately 500.000 inhabitants then, is the third city of the empire, behind Rome and Alexandria.
This decoration, already exceptional, had to suffer from the seism of 37. The monuments were restored, and the emperor Caïus César “Caligula” made build with Daphné thermal baths with their aqueduct. Titus added a theater in the vicinity. Domitien, in Antioche, made build thermal baths and a temple of Asclépios; Trajan a new bridge, a circus, still of the thermal baths. The very serious seism of occurred 115: Trajan in person was then downtown and failed well to take the ceiling on the head. The destruction was considerable, but Trajan then Hadrian rebuilt the city more sumptuous than front. The large colonnade, heart trading of the city, was entirely remade over rubble over all its length. The central roadway had a width of 9 m, the side gantries an almost equivalent width, and the shops a depth of 4 Mr. C' is under the gantries that one circulated, with the shelter of the sun and the bad weather; the central roadway was undoubtedly encumbered goods and small dismountable stands, of which to the 4th century Libanios gave an alive evocation. Hadrian made build two temples, with Artémis and Trajan divinized. Between 162 and 166, during its war against Parthes, Lucius Verus remained primarily in Antioche, surrounded by a brilliant court. His/her adoptive brother, Marc-Aurèle made restore thermal baths, and especially build the Nymphée, decorated monumental fountain like a stage set. The city had however supported the usurpation of Avidius Cassius, Marc-Aurèle however did not take retaliatory measures other than symbolic systems: he visited the city only with the return of his voyage in the East in 176. His/her son-in-law Claudius Pompeianus was originating in the city. Commode made build new thermal baths so monumental that the emperor Caracalla made use of it to give his audiences, of the temples with Zeus Olympien and Athéna, and especially the Xystos which was a covered stage.
In 193 - 194 the city took party for its governor Pescennius Niger during the civil war which opposed it to Septime Sévère. After the victory of this last, Antioche was punished, retrogressed with the row of simple borough of the territory of Laodicée (Lattaqiyyeh), but quickly covered its statute with city and capital of Syria. Better still, with the multiplication of the conflicts between the Empire Romain and the Parthian Empire, then the Empire Sassanide, Antioche became more and more often imperial residence and base camp of the Roman campaigns in Mésopotamie. Caracalla, Macrin, Héliogabale, Severe Alexandre, Gordian III, Philippe the Arab, Valérien, Aurélien, Carus, Dioclétien, Galère and Maximin Daïa remained there.
During the invasion of Syria by Persians Sassanides of Shapur Ier in 252 the city, including one notable named Mariadès had taken control, collaborated a time with Persians, which were ravisèrent and destroyed it basic in roof, off-setting in Iran most of the population. It was rebuilt by Valérien, and perhaps taken again by Persians in 260. At the 4th century it found its importance, and was imperial residence of the César Constantius Gallus towards 350, which made reign in the city an atmosphere of police terror. It is that Antiochiens were readily critical, not hesitating to criticize the emperors like Julien the Apostate (360-363). In 387, a new tax started the revolt of the statues , during which the population reversed the statues of the imperial family.
Antioche was one of the first supports of the incipient Christianisme. A community the faithful ones of the Christ developed to with it as of the first years of the Christianisme and, according to the Acts of the Apostles (11: 26), it is there that the disciples of Jesus accepted for the first time the name of “Christians”.
Antioche was, very early, the seat of one of the Christian patriarchates of the East claiming apostolate of holy Pierre, whose tradition makes the first bishop of the city. According to the tradition (the Golden Legend), Saint Pierre was named bishop of antioche after having converted its prince into ressuscitant his son died since fourteen years. At the beginning of the 2nd century, the Church of Antioche is already extremely organized, with holy Ignace for bishop since the year 69. Towards 270 the Christians of Antioche divided, some supporting their bishop very discussed Paul de Samosate while others called upon the arbitration of the emperor Aurélien to drive out it its episcopal residence. At the 4th century, the Church of Antioche was regarded as most important of Christendom after Rome and Alexandria. It is one of the first cities of the empire to build an important cathedral (between 327 and 341) with cupola and mosaics.
The religious importance of Antioche decreased gradually with the rise of Constantinople and the erection of Jerusalem in patriarchate. Moreover, the Church of Antioche was weakened by the Hérésie S arienne (Council of Antioche of 324), then nestorienne and monophysite.
In 4th and 5th centuries, a brilliant exegetic school takes part in the theological controversies of the time by supporting in particular the need for a literal interpretation of the texts of the Bible. Its principal representatives are Diodore de Tarse, Theodore de Mopsueste, Théodoret de Cyr and especially Jean Chrysostome. They are opposed mainly to the allegorical school of Alexandria.
Antioche with the Middle Ages
The city was destroyed mainly by terrible a Earthquake in 526, which would have made more than 250.000 victims, then taken and plundered again by the Perses in 538 which off-set most of its population in the surroundings of Ecbatane, the city was rebuilt by Justinien, which raised a new wall, but on more reduced surface, and the refonda under the name of Théoupolis (Quoted of God).
Begun again by Persians Sassanides at the 7th century, it is a time reconquered by Héraclius, before being taken by the Arabs in 638, under the caliphate of Omar. Antioche becomes again Byzantine in 966 at the time of the phase of reconquest undertaken by Nicéphore Phocas. But one century later, in 1084, the Turks Seldjoukides seize some.
The city is conquered by the cross the June 2nd 1098. They made of it the capital of a principality with the profit of Bohémond Ier de Tarente, oldest son of Robert Guiscard. This principality declines rather quickly and is limited rather quickly to the suburbs of Antioche. The city is finally taken again by the sultan Mamelouk Baybars in 1268. Its fall then announces the end of the Christian domination in Syria.
The Turkish S took it in 1517 and installed there a garrison of Janissaires. Antioche is from now on a simple village, with the variation of the shopping streets which converge from now on towards Alep. It is with Alexandrette that at the 17th century the vessels from Europe unload, and the goods take then the road of Alep where the European powers, whose France since François Ier, are represented by consuls. One does not stop even more in Antioche, the businesses are done elsewhere.
In 1832, Ibrahim Pasha seized some in the name of his/her father Mehemet Ali, viceroy of Egypt, but Antioche was restored with the Paix of Koutayeh, the May 14th 1833. At that time the population of Antioche consists of quite various communities. The Syrians seem to constitute large population, the Turks are increasingly numerous, and one finds strong Christian communities, in particular Greeks but especially of the Armenians.
This diversity ethnico-nun was at the origin of tearings of Antioche at the beginning of the 20th century. Choosing to resist by the weapons persecutions of which they were victims starting from 1915, the Armenians were cut off from the Musa Dagh (“the mountain of Brace”), between the city and the sea, and last being in extremis evacuated by the French navy. In 1918 the Sandjak d' Alexandrette, of which Antioche formed part, was occupied by the French Army, like Cilicie and Syria. The Société of the Nations thought of integrating Antioche into Syria, placed under French mandate, but the presence of a strong Turkish population imposed the organization of a referendum of self-determination. To spare Turkey which one wished neutrality in the event of new war, the government of Edouard Daladier let the Turkish army penetrate in Sandjak in July 1938 and deal with the census of the voters. That gave Turk 63%.
In 1939, Antioche and its area were thus integrated into Turkey under the name of Province of Hatay. Ethnic cleaning was done carefully: 14 000 Armenians (on the 23 000 listed in 1933) chose to emigrate, like besides of many Arabic-speaking people. Nowadays Antioche remains a bone of contention between Syria and Turkey: the Syrians regard officially the city and the Hatay as a province irrédente, as well as the plate of Jawlan (Golan in Hebrew). In the town of Antakya there was about 1970 a little less 46 000 inhabitants (against close to 400 000 at the 2nd century of our era).
Monuments and other places
- the Saint-Pierre church, dug in the rock, undoubtedly the first Christian church. It comprises in particular an underground which would have made it possible to the first Christians to flee in the event of continuations
- the Beshikli cave, which shelters rupestral tombs
- the column of Yunus
- the museum of the Mosaic
- the mosque Habib Neccar
- the Bazar
- the Roman Pont
- the Citadelle which dominates the city
- Haghios Petros Paulos, a sanctuary
Famous natives of Antioche
- Holy Holy Maroun
- Ignace d' Antioche
- Holy Flavien d' Antioche
- Holy Theophilus d' Antioche
- Holy Holy Dorothée
- Ephrem d' Antioche
- Holy Lucien d' Antioche
- Holy Romain d' Antioche
- Holy Jean Chrysostome
- Holy Etienne of Antioche
- Holy Cyr of Antioche
- Holy Pelagie d' Antioche
- Holy Marguerite
- Aphmonius, rhetor of the IIIe century after J: C.
- Ammien Marcellin, Latin historian
- Jean Malalas, Greek historian
- the pope Jean V
- the pope Évariste
- Marie d' Antioche
- Georges d' Antioche
|Random links:||Larry King | 1954 as a cartoon | Yawata | Amundsen forwarding | Bernhard Romberg | 1340s|