A antidote is a substance or a chemical element being able to cure a person or an animal of a Poison or a Maladie (being able to cause a Empoisonnement, a Maladie…). Generally, the antidote consists in neutralizing one or more form (S) given (S) of poisoning.
Clothes industry of an antidoteSometimes, the antidote for a particular Toxine is manufactured by injecting toxin in an animal with small amounts and the Anticorps resulting are extracted from the Sang from the animals.
However, some toxins do not have any known antidote. For example, the Poison ricinus, which is produced superfluous by-product of manufacture of Castor oil, does not have any antidote and is consequently often fatal if it enters to the human body sufficient quantities.
PoisonThe Poison S introduced are frequently treated by the oral activated charcoal administration, which absorbs the poison. Then, a Lavage of stomach is carried out (washing with large water of the digestive extent), removing most of toxin.
The poisons which are injected into the body (like those of bites or the punctures of poisonous animals) are usually treated by the use of a band of constriction or a manual point of compression ( to see the gestures of first aid ) which limits the flow of lymph and blood in the touched sector and thus slowing down the circulation of the poison around the body.
List known antidotes
The intoxications with the Alcaloïde S often requires a digestive evacuation or digestive purification (caused Vomissement S - gastric washing - adsorption of toxic substances by the Activated carbon - acceleration of the Intestinal transit time) associated with a cardiac monitoring.
One can, moreover, to put the patient under oxygen, under Respiratory assistance, to make him undergo several blood transfusions (for example, in the case of radioactive substance ingestion).
Classification of the antidotes
1) Antidote of toxicocinetic action
Antidote limiting the biodisponibility of the poison: Activated carbon…
- Antidote supporting the elimination of the poison in unchanged form,
- At the pulmonary level: Oxygenation for the acute intoxications with the Carbon monoxide,
- At the renal level: Déféroxamine for the acute intoxications by the Iron,
- Antidote supporting a metabolism inactivator of the poison: N-acétylcystéine for the acute intoxications with the Paracetamol; Methylene blue for the Méthémoglobine S poisons,
- Antidote inhibiting a metabolism activator of the poison: ethanol or 4-methyl-pyrazole for the acute intoxications with the Methanol and the ethylene glycol,
- Antidote modifying the distribution of the poison in the organization: Thiosulfate, dicobaltic EDTA and Hydroxocobalamine for the acute intoxications with the Cyanide S; Fab for the digitalic acute intoxications.
2) Antidote of toxicodynamic action
- Antidote shunting the toxic liason - receiver: Glucagon for the acute intoxications by β-blocking or Bétabloquant S),
- Antidote correcting the effects of the poison: Vitamin B6 for the acute intoxications by the INH; Vitamin K for the acute intoxications by the Anti-vitamin S K.
Bibliography (Books, Articles…)
To survive , Doctor Xavier Maniguet, Albin Michel, 1988.
- Classification of the antidotes according to their mode of action: First part (Classification off antidotes based one mechanism off action. Leaves I) , LAPOSTOLLE F., BISMUTH C., BAUD F., Source : Pathology of the Pregnancy. French day of Medicine No20, Paris, FRANCE (10/23/1998), 1999, vol. 75, No 1-2, pp. 60-64 (29 ref.), pp. the 45-52., Re-examined Week of the hospitals of Paris, ED. Scientific expansion, Paris.
- Conference '' DIGESTIVE PURIFICATION AT THE TIME OF the ACUTE INTOXICATIONS '', Nimes, on November 27th, 1992.
|Random links:||Chéran | InvestigaciÃ³n | Count of the Unicode/U0D00 characters | E Cozzile massed | Nicolas Groult d' Arcy | Guy Laval | Liste_d'ordres_de_chordate|