Annaba (in rear Arabic RTL عنابة) (old Bône ), called today commonly Bouna , is located at the extreme North-East of the Algérie between the river Seybouse and the border Tunisia nne, distant of a hundred kilometers. It is the fourth town of Algeria of many inhabitants in 2003. Annaba counts approximately 350.000 inhabitants, known as Annabis but more usually Bônois and Bônoises. “Formerly it was called Bilad Al Unnâb, i.e. the city of the Jujube S, because of the great abundance of this fruit in this place”. Annaba is a coastal town of the Algerian North-East, 4th principal city after the capital Algiers, Oran and Constantine. The city is twinned with.
The memory of the town of Annaba is at the intersection of the great human times in Algérie since mists of time. The man appeared in the perimeter of Annaba since the Paléolithique, in the Short-nap cloth-Al-Hamra zone (Cape de Garde), in the hills of Bouhamra… The prehistoric men left many testimonys in the area of Bône: cut or polished flints, menhirs, cromlechs, dolmens, that it is with Roknia for more known or even with Guelma, Tarf or Chapuis. Rupestral inscriptions close to Lamy and Guelma, of the libyques inscriptions in the valley of Cheffia attest seniority of the human presence. The internal evolution of the Eastern Numidie, combined with the position of the site in connection with the the Mediterranean, would be at the origin of the birth of the first establishment of sedentarisation towards Hippone would be the result of the evolution of this point of fixing towards a stopover and a harbor counter of certain importance in particular when the commercial relations developed with Phéniciens. 6th to, Hippone is subjected to Carthaginian hegemony. With, the consolidation of the kingdom numide, in particular under the reign of Massinissa and its successors, involves the integration of Hippone to the kingdom numide; it becomes a royal city, Hippo Regius . This row is undoubtedly due to him to its role of port which ensures the connections between the back-country and the Mediterranean. Two centuries later, the shocks between Carthaginian and Roman empires on the one hand, and between the latter and the kingdom numide on the other hand, are completed by the triumph of the Roman expansion and the annexation of Hippone.
The latter becomes one of the greatest centers of the new province numide submitted to the Romans; Africa Nova. The vestiges of today represent the Roman phase and its after-effects Byzantine vandal and . What makes the individuality of Hippone during this time, it is that it became a center of radiation of the theological thought augustinienne under the impulse of the bishop of Hippone Saint Augustin. The death of this eminent figure coincides with the Roman defeat in the areas under the blows of the Vandals and the atrophy of Hippone on all the levels. The Byzantines, in spite of their attempt, do not give again at the city its glare of antan, at most can it constitute a stopover or a point of supply for the Byzantine fleet. The 7th century marks the beginning of a new era of the history of the city, when this one is occupied by the Moslems.
The ancient site of Hippone will be Islam ic also until the end of the 10th century. The city takes the official name of Bouna; but one gives him also the name of Madinat Saybous (the town of Seybouse) according to Al-Bakri. At the beginning of the 11th century, the ancient city is abandoned for a new site to 3 km in the north of the first (undoubtedly because of the floods). It became Bouna Al Haditha (Bouna the new one). The new city is installed on a 40 meters height approximately of altitude, unlike the antique which is in the dish (1 to 3 meters of altitude); and since 1040 the approximately city surrounds itself by ramparts to reinforce its natural defense. The Sanhadja S, which found it, make of it a station of defense and monitoring of these double land borders and maritime. Parallel to this function, Bouna will be also a wearing of commercial exchanges. This double function, the city guard under Muwahidines (12th century), under the Hafsides (13th at the 15th century), and under the Deys (16th at the 19th century).
It is also this function which exposes it to the aggressions, of which most important is that of the Spaniards of Charles Quint, which occupy the citadel of Annaba of 1535 to 1540. As of this date, the city and its area are included within the limits of modern Algeria. Bouna (Bona) is avoided of a new qualifier: “Madinat Al Unnab”, or Annaba which replaces its old name gradually, especially at the end of the 19th century and today.
The function of point of commercial exchanges, in particular with the foreigner, fact of Annaba and its area one of the plates of the establishment of European commercial concessions, first steps of a more important economic development. The French troops, at their head, Anne Jean Marie Rene Savary, duke of Rovigo, which orders from Algiers, would like to extend the action of France towards the East and to take again Bône, occupied the first time by the general Damrémont in 1830, and second once in 1831, by the commander Huder; but by twice, it had been necessary to evacuate the city under rather difficult conditions because of absence of protected transportation routes.
In April 1832, the captain D' Armandy settles in Bône with his gunners. D' Armandy sends to the duke of Rovigo, in Algiers, a ticket explaining to him why thanks to the thirty sailors of the Inhabitant of Béarn, they took the citadel of Bône but are vis-a-vis the 5.000 men of the Bey de Constantine. They await reinforcements. The first days are difficult and the vivres miss. Lastly, on April 8th, the reinforcements arrive with the brig " Surprise". The marshal Nicolas Jean-of-God Soult, Minister for the War to the platform of the Room affirms “the catch of Bône is the most beautiful feat of arms of the century”.
Economic development can then continue with the development by great work of the plain bônoise which, in the marshy beginning, had become a very prosperous area of market gardenings, wine and arboricolous. The Seybouse wadi, which sprinkles this plain, allowed the intensive irrigation of the neighbouring grounds. Industry had also largely developed with a treatment plant of phosphates, the agricultural cooperatives, its commercial port, equipped with the most recent material of handling, from which the various ores originating in Kouif left and of Ouenza, towards France, and all the equipment for all the area arrived there Is of Constantinois. The whole of the human and regional assets made of Bône, one of the richest cities of the departments of Algeria.
The two world wars, in addition to the mobilizations of the young men in the army, reached the town of Bône. August 4th, 1914, Bône, just as Philippeville, was bombarded by the German cruisers Goeben and Bresland making of many deaths. During the Second world war, the city was used as a basis of operations for the armies British and American, arrived on November 13rd, 1942. It undergoes violent one bombardments during the winter 1942-43. The Military Cross will be given to the in June 1949 city by the President of the Republic, Vincent Auriol.
In 1958, Bône counted 110.000 inhabitants. The town of Bône saw being born the marshal Alphonse Juin (1888), the draftsman humorist Roger Widenlocher (1953) and the singer of variety Phil Barney (1957). The independence of Algeria in 1962 involved the departure of the populations European and Jewish of the city. In independent Algeria, the city knows a fast increase in its population supplied with the rural migration, to reach more than 500.000 inhabitants today.
Geography and various
Wilaya de Annaba is located at 600 km of the Algiers capital, to the extreme Is country which it divides with its El-Tarf neighbor, open on the Mediterranean coastline on 80 km. It extends on 1412 km ² is 0,06% of the national territory.
It is limited geographically by:
- the Mediterranean, in North
- Wilaya de Guelma, in the South
- Wilaya d' El-Tarf, in the East
- Wilaya de Skikda in the West.
Its relief is made up mainly of:
- Mountains with forest vocation: 52,16%
- Hills and piémonts: 25,82%
- Flat: 18,08%
The area is richly sprinkled (650 to 1000 mm/An), its average temperature is of 18°c. It has a lake, Fezzara which covers 6600 ha and the Seybouse Wadi, 255 km length, finds its mouth there. It is organized administratively in 12 communes and 06 daïrate (under prefectures): Annaba, Seraïdi, El-Bouni, El-hadjar, Sidi Bitter, Ain Berda, cheurfa, El-Eulma, Berrahal, El-Aneb Wadi, Tréat, Chétaïbi. It shelters meadows of 585000 inhabitants, that is to say 415 hab/Km ².
Its coasts lengthen on 80 km, are halieutics, whose biomass is estimated at a few 30.000 tons. The appropriatenesses of the fisheries sector are multiple. To promote, in particular the transformation and conservation, the aquicultural breeding, the craft industry and marine tourism.
The basement offers appreciable resources as for the sedimentary rocks, in the areas of Seraïdi and Chetaïbi in particular. Its forests lend themselves to a forestry activity, especially for cork (30.000 qx/an) and it wood of eucalyptus (20.000 tonnes/an). They cover nearly 75.500 ha including 15.000 ha of cork oak and agree perfectly with the tourist activity. The potential agropedologic represents nearly 58.600 ha, in particular in the plains of Seybouse and the lake Fezzara. Nearly 58% of the cultivable grounds are located in the zones of Piedmont (38.700 ha of S.A.U).
The water resources are estimated at 162 Hm ³ of which 30% come from the stopping of Cheffia (El-Tarf) in equal proportion with the underground resources.
Annaba shelters an important industrial pole with:
- the steelworks of El-Hadjar, privatized in 2001 with the profit of Mittal Steel Inc.
- the complex phosphate miner of Seybouse: Asmidal privatized in 2005 with the profit of a Spanish company
- the metallurgical complex of Allelik
- Factory of assembly of laptops (laptop) of mark Zala (300 000 unités/an)
- Nearly 260 PME/PMI in the fields of subcontracting and agricultural processing industry.
As for private industry, it concentrates in particular in the agro-alimentary one, the metallurgy, wood and its derivatives, the main gearbox.
Annaba is also a pole of services which start to experience a great development, in particular with regard to tourism, health, education, professional training and the council.
For this reason it is the tourist pole and has the most important private clinics (Al Farabi, Jasmines, Abou Marwan, El Aurassi, Seybouse, etc) and private schools (Didactica, Al Awael, Al Qualam, A.L.C., the glycines; etc) at the national level and the most important offices of council.
The economy is diversified there.
Le port occupies the first rank for the ore export.
Its industrial parks occupy nearly 400 ha between Pont Bouchet, Meboudja, Berrahal, Kherraza Of the zones of activities supplement them in Sidi Salem, El-Eulma, Oued El-Aneb.
Wilaya is electrified to 91%. It has 10 hospitals including 4 in Annaba, 10 polyclinics, 6 maternities, 7 private clinics, 5 laboratories private, 172 pharmacies.
Son modern phone network is satisfactory, the mobile of than in is more used more, the Internet remains timid.
Il is with the measurement of its geographical position on the mountainous littoral and its relief. Its cornice and its coast offer best opportunities to balneal tourism. As for the commune of Seraïdi, which culminates with 1008 meters, it remains a potentiality major for tourism of mountain and climatic.
Three zones of tourist extension exist ready for the investment:
- Cornice of Annaba (course of Guard): 375 ha
- Bay of the West (Chetaïbi): 382 ha.
- Djenane El - Bey (Wadi Begrat, Seraïdi): 137 ha.
Annaba lays out of important tourist infrastructures including 13 classified hotels, (Hotel Majestic, Hôtel Seybousse, Hôtel Rym El Djamil), 30 other not classified, 60 about to be completed, 20 classified restaurants, 14 travel agencies.
Like Algiers and Oran, Annaba has a sea front, a center town - where is located the course of the Revolution (Bertagna ex-course) - animated, overflowing of arcades in all kinds where restaurants shelter, terraces, kiosks. In spite of new constructions, the sea front kept its seal. Annaba is most beautiful and the oldest city of Algeria, founded 1295 years before J. - C., known under the successive names of Ubon, Hippo Regius, Hippone, Bouna, Bled El Aneb, Bône, and finally, Annaba. It is the pearl of the Algerian littoral, the city of the Jujubier. This city advances with step of giant and will reach the level of Casablanca Morrocan woman in a few years.
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