The animation consists in giving the illusion of the movement using a succession of images. These images can be drawn, painted, photographed, numerical, etc
- Image by image : it is necessary to represent each phase of the movement realized and recorded image by image, whatever the system of representation chosen, whatever the means of acquisition employed, whatever the finally process of visual restitution of animation.
- Frequency of restitution : the images are restored at a sufficient regular frequency so that the brain and the inertia of the phenomena entering the vision, whose retinal Persistance, plays their parts in the illusion. In cinema the minimal frequency was established at 12 images/second. But to avoid an unpleasant flicker the 16 images/second frequency was essential like a minimum.
For simple forms, 2 images/second is obviously not sufficient for a fluid animation but such a frequency, desired for artistic effects, can be regarded as animation, taking into account the general context of work.
Figure 2 Decomposition of the 6 images of figures 1.1 and 1.2, allowing the restitution of the mouvement
To save images (frequent when they were traced manually), it is possible to duplicate each image. The jerk will be perceptible or not according to the contents of the image, the difference between two images which are followed.
The animation in Infographie is the part of the graphic creative process which consists in making be driven the various objects created at the time of the stage of the modeling in 3D or of the Dessin in traditional animation.
The cartoon film is a technique worked out starting from drawn images, of images created by computer or photographs which “are assembled” in an obvious result allowing an impression of activity and movement.
History of animation
See also: History of animation
Animation started to exist well before the cinema. The Folioscope which gives the illusion of movement when it is divided into sheets, is one of the first methods of animation. It is necessary to wait the 19th century to see the appearance of optical apparatuses (called optical toys) which make it possible to see continuations of animated images. The first projection of Cartoon was carried out by Emile Reynaud, which took place the October 28th 1892 with the Musée Grévin, that is to say 3 years before the meeting of the cinematograph of the Frères Light.
The cinema of animation in the worldThe majority of the large studios of animation of the 20th century appeared in first half of this one in some countries around planet, and kept an important place during all the century. During years 1990, new studios of animation started to be born, often small studios (like Folimage in France or of large studios of old country subcontractor, as in Korea.
- History of Austrian animation;
- History of Belgian animation;
- History of British animation;
- History of Canadian animation;
- History of Chinese animation;
- History of Korean animation;
- History of Danish animation;
- History of Spanish animation;
- History of Finnish animation;
- History of French animation;
- History of Italian animation;
- History of Japanese animation;
- History of Norwegian animation;
- History of Russian animation;
- History of Swedish animation
Personalities of the field of animation
- List of personalities of the cinema of animation
- : Category: Personality of the field of animation
Studios of animation
- List of cartoon film companies
- : Category: Studio of animation
Techniques of animation
See also: Technical of animation
About all can be used to make a cartoon film, the principal element being often imagination. Here a list of the principal techniques.
- Handling of objects 2D
- Animation in volume (objects 3D)
- Puppet S
- Modeling clay
- Figurine S
- various Object S (Headstock S, Toy S, Fruit S and Vegetable S, etc)
- numerical Synthesized image
Software of animation
- Beneton Movie GIF Software free completion of animation GIF.
- Animates Studio (in the past Moho) Software, with the affordable price for the general public, specialized in animation 2D including some functionalities 3D.
- Blender Free software of animation 3D, returned, compositing.
- ToonBoom Software specialist in animation 2D used by Warner Bros and Disney.
- Toonz used by the Studio Ghibli.
- Adobe Flash in the past Macromedia flash. Software of 2D, very good quality, being able to go until very thorough animations.
- Swift Software 3D of 3D particularly.
- Ktoon Free software of animation under linux.
- Media PEGS of the studio of animation Pixibox was, towards the end of the year 1990 a professional software of animation 2D and color application cash among most widespread within many international studios.
Schools, festivals and associations
- List of schools of cinema of animation
Associations of cinema of animationSee: : Category: Association of the field of animation
- the French Association of the cinema of animation (AFCA)
- the International association of cartoon film (ASIFA), founded by the AFCA
- the international Center of the cinema of animation (CICA)
- Screens Vo, the association of the cinemas independent of the Val-d'Oise
- Cellofan', association for the promotion of the cinema of animation site
Cinema festivals of animationSee: : Category: Festival of animation
- the national Festival of cartoon film of Auch
- the Festival of cartoon film of Baillargues
- the Festival of cartoon film of * The Festival Animated, with Brussels (Belgium)
- the Festival Internacional del Nuevo Cine Latinoamericano, with Havana (Cuba)
- the International Leipzig Festival for Documentary and Animated Film, with Leipzig (Germany)
- the Fête of Animation, with Lille
- the Festival Ars Electronica, with Linz (Austria)
- the International festival of cinema of animation of Meknès (Morocco)
- the Festival Imagina, with Monaco
- the Festival Animated Mundi, with Rio de Janeiro (Brésil)
- the Holland Animation Film Festival of Utrecht (Netherlands)
- the International festival of cartoon film of Zagreb (Croatia)
- the Anifest Festival - International festival of cartoon film to Třeboň, Tchéquie
- Festival the one Day (Valence)
- the Festival Image by Image of cinema of animation of the Val-d'Oise
- the Festival Glance on the short film in Saguenay Quebec, Canada
- the Festival small magic lanterns Tournefeuille, France
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