The Principality of Andorra ( Principat d' Andorra in Catalan) - or the Andorra - is a small country of the South-west of the Europe located in the the Pyrenees, between the Spain (Catalogne) and the France (the Midday-Pyrenees with the Département of Ariège and Languedoc-Roussillon with that of the the Eastern Pyrenees).
See also: History of Andorra
According to a legend of the 11th century, Charlemagne would have granted a charter to Andorran to reward them for their engagements against the Moors. The control of the territory passed to the Count d' Urgell then to the Bishop of the Diocese of Urgell, in division with the family of Caboet, then the heritage passed to the Viscounts of Castellbó, then with the Counts de Foix. The two Co-Lords (laic and ecclesiastical) often clashed in connection with their rights on the Valleys of Andorra.
In 1278, the conflict was solved by the signature of a treaty founding the shared sovereignty of Andorra between the Count de Foix and the bishop of Urgell, in Catalonia. This gave to the small principality its territory and its political form.
The years passing, the title was transmitted to the Kings of the Kingdom of Navarre then to King de France Henri IV of France. An edict in 1607 establishes the Head of the French State and the bishop of Urgell as Co-princes d' Andorre.
During the period 1812-1814, the French empire annexed Spanish Catalonia, divided it into four departments (Segre, Ter, Montserrat and Boques of Èbre). Andorra was also annexed and attached district of Puigcerdà (department of Segre).
July 6th, 1934, Russian Boris Skossyreff was proclaimed King of the Government of Andorra. July 14th, a group of Civil Guardia (the Spanish Military Police force) directed by the marquis Silva de Balboa, entered to Andorra, stopped it to dispatch it towards Barcelona, later towards Madrid to be expelled towards Portugal.
September 25th, 1939, Andorra signed a peace treaty with Germany, because its not-ratification of the treaty of Versailles had legally left it in war with this country. Thus, the small country remained neutral during the Second world war.
Being given its relative insulation, Andorra remained in margin of the European history for a long time, cultivating a certain mystery. In the years 1950, the country started to attract the visitors. Since, its tourism thrives as well as the development of its means of access and lodging, leaving the country its anonymity.
See also: Political of Andorra
The first Constitution of Andorra was adopted by referendum the March 14th 1993. The mode of Andorra the is coprincipauté parliamentary one, remote heritage of the '' pareatge '' (paréage) of 1278 between Évêché of Urgell and the Count of Foix. According to the Constitution, the Coprinces are, jointly and in an undivided way, the Head of the State and incarnate the highest representation of it. .
- the Bishop of Urgell (Seu d' Urgell - Catalonia/Spain),
- the President of the French Republic, “heritage” of the Count of Foix (Occitanie/France, Department of Ariège) and of the successive Kings of France.
They delegate their powers with two Viguiers:
- the Episcopal Viguier and the Viguier Français.
- the Prime Minister is resulting from the Council of the Valleys made up of 28 members elected by the 7 parishes at a rate of 4 advisers per parish.
Chief of the Andorran government
- of 1994 with 2005: Marc Forné Molné (Liberal party of Andorra)
- since 2005: Albert Pintat Santolària (Liberal party of Andorra)
See also: Parishes of Andorra
See also: Geography of Andorra
Because of its localization in the solid mass of the Eastern Pyrenees, Andorra is made up mainly of high mountains an average height of 1.997 m whose highest point is the Pedrosa Coma to 2.946 Mr. the territory is divided into three narrow valleys in form of Y which gather in only one following the principal current, the river Valira, running towards Spanish Catalonia (at the point low of Andorra which is to 870 m). Surface of Andorra east of 468 km.
The climate of Andorra is similar to the moderate climate of its neighbors, but its high-altitude means that there is on average more snow in winter and that the weather is slightly fresher in summer.
The road which leads France (the Midday-Pyrenees and Languedoc-Roussillon) to the capital (Andorra-the-Old woman) passes by the Port of Envalira (2 409 m) which is the most road collar of the Pyrenees (but also highest of Europe maintained open all the year). This collar is doubled of a tunnel, opened with circulation since the September 29th 2002.
Andorra shelters 5 ski stations (62 tops of more than 2.000 m).
Andorra counts a little more than one about thirty lakes: list of the lakes of Andorra.
See also: Economy of Andorra
Andorra, although “wedged” between the France and the Spain and although using like them it euro, does not form part of the European Union, while having relations and certain agreements with it. This being, the products are sold there with a less taxation.
Andorra is regarded by certain countries with high taxation as a Tax shelter, because it raises neither VAT nor tax on the income or fortune, that it has only 2% civils servant and that it practices a light taxation, main part of the financial resources of the state coming from a tax on the imports ( impost of mercaderies indirect ). This being, several moderate taxations are recently in force or in project…
The economy rests mainly on two forms of tourism; tourism of passage which benefits from the prices (a little) low than in Spain or France (tobacco and alcohol 2.5 times less expensive than in France all the same) and “white” tourism, which while benefitting from these some tariff advantages, comes especially for the offer from the winter sports. The latter are practiced there in 4 ski stations alpine: Not Put-Grau Roig and Soldeu-El Tarter (today 2 skiables fields joined together under the mark Gran Valira), Stake-Arinsal and Ordino-Arcalis (2 fields joined together under the VallNord mark) and 1 basic ski station: Rabassa. In addition, the architectural, religious heritage in particular, is remarkable and is one of the other tourist motivations. Many small churches with beautiful paintings of Romance inspiration (Sant Joan de Caselles, Cortinada, Sant Roma of the Goods,…) the country strews. They testify to traditional enthusiasm and the attachment of the population to its various soils. The recent revival of hydrotherapy in Escaldes with " Caldea" supplements an offer rich in leisures and discovered varied (gastronomy inter alia).
See also: Demography of Andorra
Andorra would have one of the highest life expectancies in the world.
The following data, except contrary mention, are estimates going back to 2004:
Population: 81.222 inhabitants (2006)
- including 29.535 Andorran nationals, 26.638 Spanish nationals, 5.104 French nationals, 12.789 Portuguese nationals
- 0-14 years: 15,1% (men: 6.177; women: 5.655) (statistical at the 12/31/2005)
- 15-64 years: 73,1% (men: 30.207; women: 27.234)
- + 65 years: 11,8% (men: 4.590; women: 4.686)
- Life expectancy: 83,51 years (men: 80,61 years; women: 86,61 years)
- Growth rate: 0,9%
- Birth rate: 8,71 ‰ (2006)
- Death rate: 6,25 ‰ (2006)
- infantile Death rate: 4,04 ‰ (2006)
- Fertility rate: 1,3 child by woman (2006)
- Rate of migration: 6,47 ‰ (2006)
See also: Culture in Andorra
Media (Public service); Radio
- Radió Nacional d' Andorra (RNA)
- Andorra Televisió (ATV)
- Surface: 468 km
- Land borders: 120 km Spain 64 km; fixed France 56 km
- Telephone lines: 36.507 (2006)
- Cellphones: 69.004 (2006)
- Radios: 16.000 (1997)
- Television stations: 27.000 (1997)
- Users of Internet: 5.000 (2000) minimum triple in 2006: 14.616 lines ADSL
- Many suppliers of access Internet: 1 (2000) a parapublic company
- Roads: 269 km (including 198 tarred km) (1994)
- Railways: 0 km. Andorra has an important park of ski lifts, whose cable cars add up more than 12 km length.
- inland Waterways: 0 km
- Many airports: 0 (discussions since several years with the Catalan and Spanish Government for the reopening of the airport of Seu d' Urgell)
- Order Nobiliare d' Andorre
- Co-princes d' Andorre
- Tax shelters
- Federation of Andorra of football
- the official site of the '' Govern d' Andorra '' (Government of Andorra)
- the site of the '' General Consell '' (General advice - Parliament)
- the Andorran Constitution translated into French
- Photographs of Andorra
- Stamps of Andorra
- the Andorran flag ('' will bandage it '') through the ages…
- the Andorran currency
- Legends of Andorra
Beats-smg: Andora Be-X-old: Андора Fiu-vro: Andorra Simple: Andorra Zh-min-nan: Andorra Zh-yue: 安道爾
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