The Andalusia ( Spanish Andalucía in ) is one of the seventeen autonomous communities of Spain. It is in the south of the Iberian peninsula. It is bordered in north by the Estrémadure and the community of Castille it Manche, in the east by the autonomous Communauté of Murcie, in the south by the Mediterranean and Gibraltar, and in the west by the Portugal.
See also: History of Andalusia
In the Antiquity, Andalusia is populated by the Ibères (come from minor Asia, " north of Turquie"), the Phéniciens (ancestors of the Lebanon board), Carthaginian (former inhabitants of current Tunisia) and the Tartessiens.
During the Early middle ages, the strait of Gibraltar (which owes its name with Tariq ibn Ziyad, conquering it) is the point of passage of the Moslem invasions of Western Europe, as from 711.
The medieval time is Islamic for this area; Ferdinand III of Castille seized Cordoue in 1236. Seville was taken in 1248 and Grenade in 1492, after a pause of the Reconquista during two centuries. The Moorish Spain will be completed by this area, when the Moors who had remained were persecuted violently until in 1609 where, under the order of Philippe III, they were banished Spanish grounds.
See also: Reconquista; Al-Andalus ; note important: the country under Moorish domination largely exceeded the current territory of Andalusia. Al-Andalus extended until the limits from the Asturies in its maximum extension.
During the modern Time, Andalusia provides the conquistadors leaving to the conquest the " New Monde" (see the book the emigracion Andaluza has America ; the descendants of the Andalusians currently are called " Latinos Americanos") via the Balearic Islands, starting from the rows of the army of Castille which put an end to the Royaume of Grenade in 1492. In 1704, the Spanish crown lost Gibraltar which became a British enclave.
During the contemporary Time, the Bataille of Trafalgar was held close to Cadiz in 1805.
The proximity with the Spanish colonies of Morocco became again a geographical and historical fact major when in 1936, burst the Spanish civil war: the army of Francisco Franco was unloaded in Andalusia. At the beginning of the insurrection it seized Seville, and on August 11th, 1936 shot Blas Infante, principal instigator of the Andalusian regionalistic movement. Then supported by the Italian bombardments, Malaga fell it.
The World Fair of 1992 was held with Seville.
In February 2007 the Andalusians adopted by referendum a new statute of autonomy, comparable with that of Catalonia on many points, which reinforces the regional prerogatives and modifies the way of financing of the regional administration, in particular by granting to him half of the product of income tax (IRPF).
The capital of Andalusia is the town of Seville. The seat of the Court Higher of Justice of Andalusia east than Grenade.
The Spanish Constitution of 1978 recognized that the autonomous communities could have a certain independence while remaining integrated at the Spanish State. The first statute of autonomy of Andalusia came into effect in 1981. Since then of the elections regularly are organized to renew the Andalusian Parliament. A new statute of autonomy was approved by the Andalusian people on February 18th, 2007.
The Parliament is composed of 109 seats. With the last regional elections which were held it, PSOE obtained 61 seats, the PP 37 seats, IULV-CA 6 seats, and Partido Andalucista 5 seats.
A President is with the head of Junta (or the Council) of Andalusia, i.e. government of the autonomous community. Manual María Chaves González, president since the year 2004 for the fifth consecutive time. He had already been elected at this station in 1990, 1994 and 1996.
Andalusia is the second greater community autonomous of Spain and the most populated with a total population of: 7948249 inhabitants for a surface of: 87591 square kilometers, with a density of 86 inhabitants to the km ².
Andalusia is divided into eight provinces (the provincial capital):
- Province of Cadiz (Cadiz) (: 7442 km ²: 1140793 inhabitants in 2005);
- Province of Cordoue (Cordoue) (: 13769 km ²: 771131 inhabitants in 2005);
- Province of Grenade (Grenade) (: 12635 km ²: 818959 inhabitants in 2005);
- Province of Huelva (Huelva) (: 10148 km ²: 464934 inhabitants in 2005);
- Province of Jaén (Jaén) (: 13484 km ²: 647387 inhabitants in 2005);
- Province of Málaga (Málaga) (: 7308 km ²: 1330010 inhabitants in 2005);
- Province of Seville (Seville) (: 14036 km ²: 1750720 inhabitants in 2005);
The Guadalquivir, of Arabic Al Ouad Al Kabir or the large river, length 657 km, is one of large the Fleuve S of Spain. Its principal affluents are the Jándula, Yeguas, Guadalmellato, Guadiato, Genil and Bembézar.
Guadalquivir runs between two assembly lines, the Sierra Morena and the Bétique System. The Sierra Nevada is in the Bétique System.
One distinguishes the Mediterranean Andalusia , of the provinces of Almeria, Malaga and parts of the provinces of Grenade and Cadiz, of the valley of Guadalquivir (provinces of Jaen, Cordoue, Huelva, Seville and started from Malaga, Cadiz and Grenade). The two entities are separated by the system betic which forms a natural barrier. The principal points of passage are the collar of the Soupir of the Moor and the town of Antequera.
EconomyEven if she experienced a spectacular economic development these twenty last years, Andalusia remains the second least rich area of Spain. It has like asset to be the most populated area and to be very tourist about it with more than 7 million visitors each year. It became the third area of Spain for new technologies of information. But in spite of that, employment remains little qualified, the area remains very dependant on tourism and construction. Moved away from the large European markets, she also suffers from a lack from industrial fabric and overseas investments. Classified by the objective European Union in zone of 1, it is eligible with the most important assistances (12,8 billion euros envisaged between 2007 and 2013).
Andalusia is the first producing area of Olive S in Europe (in particular in the Province of Jaén). The other principal productions are the fruit and vegetables (Campo de Dalías or the Fraise S of Huelva), the cereals and the oilseeds (Tournesol) in the plain of Guadalquivir, the bovine and porcine breeding (ham serrano), wine (vineyard of Montilla - Moriles and of Malaga in particular). The cane with sugar is also cultivated in a marginal way close to Motril and Malaga.
GDP: 146 billion euros (estimates for 2007)
- GDP /hab: : 17251 euros
- Growth of the GDP between 1995 and 2005 (bases 100 into 95): 154 (Spain 143, euro area 122)
- Growth rate of the GDP in 2006:3,9% (Average euro area: 2,8%)
- Unemployment rate: 11,96% (Source INNATE 2nd quarter 2007)
- Trade deficit: 13,9 billion euros (2006)
CultureSpanish spoken in America is largely influenced by that spoken in Andalusia.
Several vestiges Moors are in the east of Andalusia, since it was the last territory of the Moors before they are expelled of Spain in 1492. The Moorish buildings most famous of Andalusia are the Alhambra with Grenade, the Mosque-Cathedral of Cordoue, the Torre del Oro and the Giralda with Seville, and Gibralfaro in Malaga.
Andalusia is the fatherland of the Flamenco.
It is also the area of origin of the horse of Pure Spanish race.
See also: Andalusian Kitchen
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