Old strengthened city, Ancône has a port on the Adriatic Sea. Its activities consist primarily of the fishing, industries of Raffinage of the Hydrocarbure S and of naval constructions. It is also a Seaside resort.
GeographyThe city is located 210 km at the North-East of Rome and 200 km in the South-east of Bologna.
It finds a site convenient in the curve between the two ends of the headland of Assembles Conero, Monte Astagno which the Citadel occupies and Assembles Guasco on which rises the cathedral (150 m). This one (the dome), dedicated to Saint Cyriaque d' Ancône, is supposed to occupy the site of a Venus temple which is mentioned by Catulle (poetry XXXVI) and Juvénal (Satire IV, 37-52) as the titular divinity of the place whose temple dominates the site.
AntiquityAncône was founded by Syracuse towards 390 before J. - C. which gave him its name: Ancône is the light modification of the Αγκων Greek who means “the elbow”. The port in the east of the city, was protected at the origin by the Northern headland, in the shape of elbow. The Greek merchants established here a factory of crimson tyrénéenne (Sil. Ital. viii. 438). At the time Roman, it continued to print its own currency with the effigy of the curved arm carrying a branch and a head of Aphrodite on the face crushes. It continued to use the Greek.
The doubt remains on the date where it became Roman colony. It was occupied as bases naval during the war of Istrie of 178 before J. - C. (Tite-Live, Roman Histoire , Livre XLI, 1). Jules Cesar took possession of it immediately after its crossing of the Rubicon in 49 av. J.C. Its port was of considerable importance at the time imperial because of its proximity of the Dalmatie and was increased by Trajan, which built its northern quay, its architect being Apollodore of Damas. At its entry rises the Triumphal arch out of marble with only one arch and without Bas-relief S set up into 115 by the Senate and the people.
The Middle Ages and modern timeAfter the fall of the Roman Empire, Ancône was successively attacked by the Goths, the Lombards and the Sarrasins but took again its power and its importance. It was one of the cities of the Pentapole of the Exarchat de Ravenne and became finally an important maritime city. It was given with the exarchat to the pope Etienne II by Pépin the Brief, in 756.
The city is destroyed by the Vénitiens in 848, but is raised quickly. It resists the seat of Lothaire III in 1137, then of Frederic Barberousse in 1167 and of Venice in 1174. This last seat lasted of April 1st mid-October.
The city becomes an important commercial republic, growing rich by the trade with the East, in spite of the frightening competition of Venice. Thus, the May 29th 1264, Ancône, which is the main port of the area of the Marches, had to grant a treaty imposed by the République of Venice, which confined it in a situation of commercial dependence. By this treaty, Ancône completely renonçait to transport men and goods on its own ships in direction of the ports located at north; moreover, the importation of goods produced outside the Adriatic Sea was prohibited to the merchants anconitains, except exemption, together with a customs rate of 20%!
During the the Middle Ages, the city became an important commercial city.
- In 1532, the city loses its independence and becomes property of the Papal States under the pope Clément VII.
The pope Clément XII prolonged the quay and an imitation in less better of the Arc of Trajan was set up. It also set up the Lazzaretto in the south of the port. Luigi Vanvitelli was the architect as a chief.
- In 1800 the city was taken to the pope by the Italian fleet. In 1805, it was taken again by Napoleon and was returned to the pope in 1815.
- the city was re-occupied by the French of 1832 to 1838 during the '' crisis of Italy ''.
Born in Ancône
- Frederic II Hohenstaufen (1194 - 1250). He became king de Sicile in 1197 and Germanic emperor in 1212.
- Augustin d' Ancône (1241 - 1328), medieval Theologist . He is famous for his defense of the Théocratie and the papal capacity.
- Cyriaque d' Ancône or ( Ciriaco de' Pizzicolli ) (v. 1391 - v. 1455), Humanistic merchant and Italy N.
- Free Corelli (1921 - 2003), Italian Tenor , whose career proceeded of 1950 with 1976.
- Victor Del Litto, (1911 - 2004), university French of Italian origin, eminent specialist in Stendhal.
- Virna Lisi (1937 -), actress
- Vito Volterra
- Paul Tanned
Died in Ancône
- Olivier d' Ancône (? - 1050), saint celebrated the February 3rd. He was monk Bénédictin of Holy-Marie-of-the-Carry-News, in Ancône.
- Federigo Zuccaro, painter (1542 - 1609)
Monuments and inheritance
- Cathedral Saint Ciriaco romano-Byzantine devoted in 1128 and completed in 1189. Certain authors put forward the idea that the initial church was in the shape of Latin cross and found its origin in VIIIe century. An early restoration was added in 1234. It is a beautiful Romance building out of gray stone built in the shape of Greek cross dominated by a dome. The frontage has a Gothic door allotted to Giorgio da Como (1228) which has the characteristic of two side arches.
The interior which has a crypt under each transept preserved as a whole its initial character. It has ten columns allotted at the origin with the Venus Temple. The church was restored carefully during the Années 1980.
Arc of Trajan : of 18 meters in height, it was set up towards 114-115 of our era as entered of the harbor enclosure in the honor of the Emperor Trajan who created it. It is one of the most beautiful Roman monuments of the Steps. The majority as of its original bronze ornaments disappeared. It is drawn up on a high headland to which a broad line of steps gives access. The passage of 3 meters only broad is flanked of two Corinthian columns on the pedestal ones. Another, attic, carries inscriptions. The size is that of the Arc of Titus in Rome but in larger, so that the characters bronzes some who surmount it, Trajan, its wife Plotine and his/her Marcia sister was used as reference mark for the ships which approached the largest port of the Adriatic of Rome.
- Lazzaretto (Laemocomium gold " Vanvitelliana" mole;) conceived in 1732 is a pentagonal building forming an island surrounded by ditches of more than 20.000 m ² of surface. It was used as forty to protect military defense from contagious diseases which would arrive since the sea. Later, it was also been used as military hospital and is useful currently at the time of cultural events and a festival of the cinema of summer.
Theater of the Muses (Teatro delle MUSE)
Communes borderingAgugliano, Camerano, Camerata Picena, Falconara Marittima, Offagna, Osimo, Polverigi, Sirolo
See tooCyriaque d' Ancône -----
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