Anatoli Ievguenievitch Karpov (in), born the May 23rd 1951 with Zlatoust, Oblast de Tcheliabinsk (the USSR), is a player of failures Soviet, then Russian. He is international Large-Master of failures and former world champion. He has the greatest prize list of the history of the play with, in July 2005, the first 161 places in tournament with his credit.
BiographySmall Tolia learned how to play at age the 4 years and at 11 years he became candidate with the control. At 12 years, it was allowed in the prestigious school of failures of Mikhaïl Botvinnik with Moscow. This last would then have said about it: “ This boy does not include/understand anything with the failures and it does not have any future in this profession ”. But the teaching of the father of the Soviet failures developed its comprehension of the theory quickly, since, at age the 15 years, Karpov became national Maître and thus equalized the record of precocity that Boris Spassky had established in 1952. After some tournaments juniors disputed and gained in Soviet Union and abroad (Třinec, 1966 and Groningue, 1967), it gained in 1969 the championship of the world junior to Stockholm with 10 points out of 11 (+9 -0 =2). By this victory, it obtained the title of international Maître and became the first Soviet since Boris Spassky in 1955 to gain this championship.
In 1968, it entered to the University of State of Moscow to study mathematics, then it asked its transfer towards the University of State of Leningrad from where it left with a diploma economy. The primary reason of this removal was to approach its trainer Semion Fourman.
In 1971, it gained the semi-final of the 39e championship of the USSR with 13 points out of 17 (+9 -0 =8), then allocated the 4th place of the known as championship to Leningrad (+7 -2 =12) which qualified it for one of the two interzonal tournaments.
Its first great exit among the international elite at the time of the Memorial Alekhine in Moscow in 1971 was crowned success. It divided 1 place (+5 -0 =12) ex-aequo with Leonid Stein by preceding Vassily Smyslov, Tigran Pétrossian, Boris Spassky and Mikhaïl Tal, all four ex-champions of the world. And three weeks later, it gained, ex-aequo with Viktor Kortchnoï, the tournament of Christmas of Hastings (+8 -1 =6).
The year 1972 was especially devoted to the competitions by teams (Olympiad of the students with Graz and Olympiade of Skopje). It took part only in the tournament of San Antonio (Texas - the United States) where it finished 1st ex-aequo with Tigran Pétrossian and Lajos Portisch (+7 -1 =7).
The year 1973 began with one 2nd place with Budapest (+4 -0 =11), then it carried on its road towards the matches candidates by gaining ex-aequo with Viktor Kortchnoï the interzonal tournament of Leningrad in 1973 (+10 -0 =7).
At the end of this same year it disputed the 41e championship from the USSR to Moscow where it finishes 2 - 6ère (+5 -1 =11) and gained the tournament of Madrid (+7 -0 =8).
StyleDuring its earliest youth, Karpov had as a book of bedside a collection of parts of Jose Raúl Capablanca. The parts of the large cuban player deeply influenced his play which was directed towards a pure positional style.
Karpov always said to play “truths failures” and not to leave room to the “chance” as did it, for example, Mikhaïl Tal with its circling attacks and its incredible sacrifices, though sometimes doubtful, which shook its adversaries psychologically. The characteristic of Karpov was to obtain small, even tiny, favors in the opening, then to gradually increase it by the pressure on a weakness created in the camp of the adversary until the position of the latter collapsed.
Moreover, it was characterized by the great speed and the precision from its calculations, which enabled him to play quickly and to thus prevent its adversaries from working out their plans over his own time of reflection.
The conquest of the titleAt the time of the matches of the candidates in 1974, it beat successively Lev Polougaïevsky (+3 -0 =5), Boris Spassky (+4 -1 =6), then Viktor Kortchnoï (+3 -2 =19) and became world champion of failures in 1975 following the fixed price of holding of the title, Bobby Fischer.
This victory “over green carpet” and the mockeries which followed in Occident where the press described it as “paper champion” led Karpov to contribute in the tournaments where the opposition was strongest. From 1975 to 1983, rare were those where the victory escaped to him. During this period it took part in the following tournaments:
- Skopje: 1st (+10 -0 =5)
- Amsterdam: 1st (+3 -0 =4)
- Manila: 2ère (+1 -1 =4)
- Montilla: 1st (+5 -0 =4)
- Moscow (Championship of the USSR): 1st (+8 -1 =8)
- Bad Lauterberg: 1st (+9 -0 =6)
- Las Palmas: 1st (+12 -0 =3)
- Leningrad: 4 - 5ère (+5 -2 =10)
- London: 1st (+3 -0 =3)
- Tilburg: 1st (+6 -0 =5)
- Bugojno: 1st - 2ère (+6 -1 =8)
- Munich: (+2 -0 =3); it had to withdraw tournament following the death of his father.
- Montreal: 1st - 2ère (+7 -1 =10)
- $the Hague: 1st (+4 -0 =2)
- Tilburg: 1st (+4 -0 =7)
- Bad Kissingen: 1st (+3 -0 =3)
- Bugojno: 1st (+5 -0 =6)
- Amsterdam: 1st (+7 -1 =6)
- Tilburg: 1st (+5 -1 =5)
- Buenos-Surfaces: 4 - 5ère (+4 -2 =7)
- Linares: 1st (+5 -0 =6)
- Moscow: 1st (+5 -0 =8)
- Amsterdam: 2ère (+5 -1 =5)
- Mar del Plata: 3 - 5ère (+4 -2 =7)
- London: 1st - 2ère (+5 -1 =7)
- Turin: 1st (+3 -1 =8)
- Hamburg: 1st (+5 -1 =4)
- Tilburg: 1st (+5 -1 =5)
Championships of the worldIn 1978, his/her friend and trainer since 1968 Semion Fourman died and the same year, with Baguio (Filipino), Karpov defended its title against Kortchnoï which, since 1976, had fled the USSR, had become stateless person and had lost his supports and assisting usual. The Soviet federation of the failures made very to draw aside the dissident of the professional circuit and the match took forms of science fiction and spy novel, because Karpov would have used the services of a para-psychologist, famous Dr. Zoukhar, and two local yogis came to help Kortchnoï to counter its influence. This last also protested against the yoghourt contribution during the parts with Karpov where its assisting could have dissimulated suggestions of the best blows to be played. This match lasted 3 months, marked as much by the attempts at destabilization psychological as by the parts. This confrontation which was played in six gaining parts was gained with the 32ère part by Karpov over the score of 6 victories to 5 (+6 -5 =21).
With the following cycle, in 1981 with Merano (Italy), Karpov faced the same adversary in a shorter match and preserved the title “at regular” in 18 parts on the score of 6 victories at 2 (+6 -2 =10).
In 1985 in Moscow, it met Garry Kasparov in a match marathon. As previously, the match was completed as soon as a player obtained six victories, the null parts not counting. They remained very a long time to 5 - 0 then 5 - 1, but when Kasparov went back to 5 - 3, the match was stopped after the 48ère part, without a winner being designated. One showed the president of FIDE, Florencio Campomanes to protect Karpov.
In 1986 took place a second match, disputed in London and Leningrad which saw the victory of Kasparov over the score of 13 - 11 (+5 -3 =16).
Karpov tried by twice recovering the crown. In 1987, after it had drawn aside Andreï Sokolov of the race (+4 -0 =7), its confrontation of Seville against Kasparov disputed in 24 parts and was completed on an equality 12 - 12 (+4 -4 =16) which supported holding it of the title.
During the cycle of the candidates according to, it eliminated successively Johann Hjartarson (+2 -0 =3), Arthur Youssoupov (+2 -1 =5) and Jan Timman (+4 -0 =5) and was qualified again for the final of 1990 disputed with New York and Lyon which it lost 11 ½ - 12 ½ (+3 -4 =17).
In 1993, after having beaten Viswanathan Anand (+2 -1 =5), it lost against any waiting its match in semi-final of the candidates against Nigel Short (+2 -4 =4), but could recover the vacant title against Jan Timman (+6 -2 =13), because Garry Kasparov had been scrambled with the FIDE, had given up its title and had created a championship of the “parallel” world (PCA = Professionnal Chess Association) with Nigel Short.
This until in 1999 which saw the introduction of a new type of tournament to direct elimination to decree the title and either a match between the champion and a candidate. Karpov refused to take part in this new formula.
In 1994, it gained the prestigious Tournoi of Linares which in general gathers the best players of failures in the world and establishes in the passing a still unequalled record to date. Indeed, at the time of this tournament in which took part inter alia Garry Kasparov, Vladimir Kramnik and Viswanathan Anand, it did not lose only one part and marked 11 points out of 13 possible (+9 -0 =4). Its performance which left its prosecutors Garry Kasparov and Alexeï Chirov to 2 ½ points was equivalent to a coefficient Elo of 2985, highest ever reached by a player in the history of the failures.
Matches the USSR and Russia against the Rest of the worldToo much young person and inexperienced to take part in the first meeting of Belgrade in 1970, it represented the USSR with the first chess-board at the time of the match of London in 1984 and dominated Ulf Andersson (+1 =3) in their individual match.
After the disappearance of the USSR, Russia was again opposed to its best foreign opponents in Moscow in 2002. Karpov marked only 5 points out of 9 (+3 -2 =4) against nine different adversaries.
Since 2004It is done rarer in front of the chess-boards (it took part only in eleven slow parts since 2004) and is classified 13ère Russian player with the Classement Elo of October 2007 with a coefficient of 2670. It does not have any more, at this date, of international classification.
It founded in 1999 a small named oil company Pétromir. At the beginning of 2007, this one announced the discovery of an enormous natural gas layer in Eastern Siberia, in the area of Irkoutsk, but is shown of fraud.
Its échiquéenne activity is directed towards teaching. It founded many schools in the countries of CEI, but also in Europe, in the United States and in South America.
OlympiadsWith six recoveries, Karpov represented the USSR at the time of the Olympiads, considered as the Championship of the world by teams. Each time, the USSR gained the gold medal.
Since 1972, with Skopje, in 1st substitute, it marked 13 points out of 15 (+12 -1 =2).
has Nice in 1974, with the 1st chess-board, it obtained 12 points out of 14 (+10 -0 =4).
In 1978, Buenos-Surfaces, Karpov could not play for its team, because its match for the championship of the world against Kortchnoï had been just completed. Its absence had as a consequence that, for the first time since 1952, the USSR had to be satisfied with the 2nd place, preceded by the Hungary.
It was of return in 1980 to Valetta and marked 9 points out of 12 with the 1st chess-board (+6 -0 =6).
has Lucerne in 1982, always with the 1st chess-board, it marked 6 ½ points out of 8 (+5 -0 =3).
It did not take part in the Olympiad of Thessalonique of 1984, because it prepared then for its match against Kasparov which did not take part either.
In 1986 with Dubai, the 2ère chess-board, it registered 6 points out of 9 (+4 -1 =4).
For its last participation, in 1988 in Thessalonique, it obtained 8 points out of 10 with the 2ère chess-board (+6 -0 =4).
On the whole, Karpov disputed 68 parts within the framework of the Olympiads for a result of +43 -2 =23.
- Maître be sport of the USSR in 1966
- Grand Master of the USSR and International since 1970
- highly skilled Maître be sport of the USSR in 1974
- World champion FIDE of them 1975,1978,1981,1993,1996 and 1998
- Champion of the USSR of them 1976,1983 and 1988 (ex-aequo with Kasparov)
- Vainqueur of the Olympiads in 1972,1974,1980,1982,1986 and 1988
- Détenteur of the Oscar of the best player of the year in 1973,1974,1975,1976,1977,1979,1980 and 1981.
OthersKarpov is also eminent a Philatéliste, specialist in Belgium from which it has the richest collection in the world and in Russia/Soviet Union whose its collection is located at the 3ère world rank. It has also a large collection set of themes on the failures.
Its philatelic activity places it on the world plan among the ten larger current collectors.
At the time of the Soviet Union, he was Member of the Commission of the Foreign affairs of the Supreme Soviet and very committed in the organization of Communist youths Komsomol.
In addition, it was during many years Soviet director of the Funds for peace and preserved this function in a similar structure after disappearance of the Soviet Union.
A part(Anatoli Karpov - Veselin Topalov, Tournament of Linares, 1994)
This part, played during the best tournament of the career of Karpov, sees this last offering its tower to three recoveries.
1. d4 Cf6 2. c4 c5 3. Cf3 cxd4 4. Cxd4 e6 5. g3 Cc6 6. Fg2 Fc5 7. Cb3 Fe7 8. Cc3 O-O 9. O-O d6 10. FF 4 Ch 5 11. e3 Cxf4 12. exf4 Fd7 13. Dd2 Db8 14. Tfe1! g6 15. h4 a6 16. h5 b5 17. hxg6 hxg6 18. Cc5 dxc5 19. Dxd7 Tc8
20. Txe6!! Ta7 21.Fxc6 Ta7 22.Dxe6+ Rg7 23.Fd7 the white keep their material advantage 21. Txg6+! fxg6 22. De6+ Rg7 23. Fxc6 Td8 24. cxb5 Ff6 25. Ce4 Fd4 26. bxa6 Db6 27. Td1 Dxa6 28. Txd4!! Txd4 29.Df6+ Rh6 30.Dh4+ Rg7 31.Dxd8 Dxc6 32.Dxd4+ and the white are better 29. Df6+ Rg8 30. Dxg6+ Rf8 31. De8+ Rg7 32. De5+ Rg8 33. Cf6+ Rf7 34. Fe8+ Rf8 35. Dxc5+ Dd6 36. Dxa7 Dxf6 37. Fh5 Td2 38. b3 Tb2 39. Rg2 1-0
- All Karpov Ranges
- Photographs of Karpov in 2006
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