The ammonia is a chemical compound, of formula. It is a trigonal pyramidal molecule: the Azote (NR) is in the center while the Hydrogène (H) occupies three of the four tops, the fourth being occupied by 2 electrons.
In gas form, the ammonia is used by industry for the manufacture of Engrais, of Explosif S and of Polymère S. the gas ammonia, which gives nitrogen 82%, is also used as nitrate fertilizer; it is injected directly into the ground in the form of ammonia liquefied under pressure. Once dissolved in water, the gas ammonia forms a bases, the Ammoniaque , of formula. The Ion Ammonium + then comprise a Atome of Hydrogène at the four tops of the Tétraèdre. One also finds it in the Cigarette.
The industrial production of ammonia is done primarily by direct synthesis starting from Dihydrogène and of Diazote (proceeded developed by the German Fritz Haber, Nobel Prize of chemistry in 1918). The nitrogen is provided by the air and dihydrogene by vaporéformage of the Méthane (natural gas).
air (source of diazotizes) + dihydrogene + water → ammonia + Carbon dioxide
Who can break up into:
Production of dihydrogene by vaporéformage (see the article Dihydrogène):
Synthesis of the ammonia
Old manufacturing methodIn the past, the ammonia was obtained by distillation of liquid manure and the manure.
Sentences of risk and councils of prudence according to the INRS
See also: Indication of the dangerous substances
R10 - Flammable.
R23 - Poison by inhalation.
R34 - Causes burns.
R50 - Very toxic for the watery organizations.
S9 - To preserve the container in a well broken down place.
S16 - To preserve well off any flame or source of spark. Not to smoke.
S26 - In the event of contact with the eyes to wash immediately and abundantly with water and to consult a specialist.
S36/37/39 - To wear protective clothing adapted, gloves and an apparatus of protection of the yeux/du face.
S45 - In the event of accident or of faintness, to consult a doctor immediately (if possible to show him the label).
S61 - To avoid the rejection in the environment. To consult the special instructions/the card of data of safety.
toxicological Card of the INRS
- international Card of safety
Reference UNO for the transport of the dangerous matters
- Class 2
- 1005 (ammonia anhydride)
- 3318 (ammonia in aqueous solution of density lower than 0,880 to 15 °C containing more than ammonia 50%)
- 2073 (ammonia in aqueous solution of density lower than 0,880 to 15 °C containing more than 35% but the maximum 50% of ammonia)
- Class 8
- number 2672 (ammonia in aqueous solution of density ranging between 0,880 and 0,957 to 15 °C containing more than 10% but the maximum 35% of ammonia)
Notes and references of the article
|Random links:||Victor Ier | Eddie Irvine | Alphonse Boistel | Project SAKAI | Günther Schwarberg | Association_européenne_de_libre-échange|