The America is a Continent or the meeting of two continents, the North America and the South America, according to the point of view. It is separated from the Asia by the Bering Strait and by the Pacific Ocean and of the Europe and the Africa by the Atlantic Ocean, and delimited with the Northern by the Arctic Ocean, with the Southern by the Antarctic Ocean.
Population The total population of Americas would be approximately 885.600.000 people.
Origin of the name
The oldest known mention of the name “America” goes back to the year 1507. It appears on a map of the world drawn by the cartographer Martin Waldseemüller within the Vosgean Gymnase of the Saint-Dié-of-Vosges, an assembly joined together around the Chanoine Vautrin Lud. The book Cosmographiae Introductio explains that the word comes from a Latin deformation of the name of the navigator Amerigo Vespucci, Americus Vespucius , one of the pioneers of the exploration of the “New World” by Europeans, (we do not speak any more a “discovery” insofar as men were on this continent on arrival of Europeans, which means that the Man had reached that point well before). Amerigo Vespucci reached the continent in July 1497, unquestionable to arrive on an unknown ground of old, while Christophe Colomb did it in April 1492 by believing that it had just discovered the Western coasts of the the Indies. The Italian first name Amerigo comes itself from Germanic the Haimirich .
See also: Geography of the American continent
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With a surface of 42 189 120 km ², America is the largest continent after the Asia. It counts 897.460.319 inhabitants.
In Geopolitical, one distinguishes in the American continent two parts, the North America with anglophone majority but also Spanish-speaking and French-speaking and but the South America with Spanish-speaking majority also Portuguese-speaking. The two parts are connected only by one narrow strip of land. One can also speak about Central America to indicate the countries located between these two blocks.
The North America (superficie : 24 343 681 km ²) is composed:
- of the Greenland
- of the Canada
- of the the United States
- of the Mexico
- of the Central America
- of the the Antilles
The South America (superficie : 17 845 439 km ²) is composed:
- of the Argentinian
- of the Bolivia
- of the Brazil
- of the Chile
- of the Colombia
- of the Guyana
- of the French Guiana
- of the Ecuador
- of the Paraguay
- of the Peru
- of the Suriname
- of the Uruguay
- of the Venezuela
One uses sometimes the Amerindian word “” to indicate the Indiens of America and to distinguish them from the inhabitants of the India.
The 270 M of Americans are distributed very unequally on the territory (average of the densities 28 hab.km2). Half of pop is concentrated in the East of the meridian 100ème with Mégalopolis, banks of the Big lakes, the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic littoral. Beyond the meridian 100ème, the density weaken for historical reasons (the settlement was done of is in West) and natural (aridity). The peaceful frontage is denser with the Californian axis (San Francisco/L.A.) and Puget Sound (Seattle/Portland).
One often employs, by abuse language, the America term to indicate the the United States, and American, to indicate the States-uniens, or Étasuniens.
Famous places and sites
- Statue of Freedom, New York City,
- Hollywood Sign, Los Angeles,
- Sears Tower, Chicago,
- CN Tower, Toronto, Canada
- White House,
- Pyramids of the Aztec Mayas & Olmèques inter alia, Mexico
- Christ of Rio de Janeiro,
- Town of Quebec, Canada
- Forest of the Amazonia,
- Lake Titicaca, Rock Bolivia
- , Canada, the United States
- Park of Yellowstone,
- Town of Montreal `Canada
- See also Conquest of America
It is generally thought that the settlement of America was carried out by migration since the Asia: one imagines that for the glacial period, of the people crossed the Bering Strait, and gradually occupied all the continent, since the Alaska until the Ground of Fire.
But the discoveries of the skeletons of the Man of Kennewick (the United States) and of the Woman of Peñon (Mexico), which could be of Caucasian origin like those of Luzia and Cerca large in Brazil of origin Australoïde or mélanésienne, bring a new lighting on the migrations in prehistory.
the human presence on the archeological site of Topper in South Carolina (the United States) would date of more than 20.000 years, even 50.000 years according to the last analyzes carried out. (References, to see: Topper)
the Cave of Pendejo located at the New Mexico and lengthily studied by the laboratories of the universities of California, would have accommodated its first inhabitants, 55.000 years ago, a dating which remains still contestée. (References, to see: Cave of Pendejo)
In South America, of the cave paintings of the cave of Pedra Furada in the National park of Tightened da Capivara located at the South-east of State of Piaui (center of Brazil), would be old from 55.000 to 60.000 years, according to a research published into 1993 which was still not republished. This area is rich in supposed prehistoric sites so old being.
the many prints of steps fossilized on the site of the volcano Cerro Toluquilla (with Puebla with the Mexico), were discovered in 2005. These human traces would be old 40.000 years, just like those of Hueyatlaco which raised a certain polemic when certain archeologists went back them to 250.000 ans. (References, to see: Hueyatlaco)
the many prehistoric sites of Baja California located in the peninsula of Low Mexican California, reveal a human occupation going back to 40.000 years, a dating which, there still, remains contestée. (References, to see: Baja California)
the site of Assembles Verde to the Chile, makes it possible to date out of any doubt the human occupation at 13.500 years. Some go up to 35.000 years. (References, to see: Assembles Verde)
- the bones of animals now disappeared and the worked tools, such as points of lances related to the animals, would indicate a 22.000 years date for the site of Pikimachay located in the Peruvian Andes, an also disputed dating.
the site of El Cedral, in Mexico, reveals the presence of several hearths and a continuity of the human occupation since nearly 40.000 years, a dating which confirmed forever.
the discovery of the skeleton of Luzia and its study makes it possible to go back the oldest skeleton to South America at 35.000 years. The morphology of Luiza is connected at an origin of the African négroïde type or mélanésien. The 250 skeletons and craniums discovered in the site of Cerca large located in the karst of Lagoa Santa in the Minas Gerais at the Brazil, assure to the origins non-mongoloïdes these first populations, according to these researchers.
These scientific results revolutionize the generally acquired idea of the settlement of South America. The skeleton of the Man of Kennewick gone back to 9600 years and discovered in North America and that, older, of the Cave of the spirit in Nevada, are all both of europoïde type or Caucasian and give a new orientation on the settlement of North America.
the skeleton of the Woman of Peñon 13.000 years (Mexico City) and that of the Homme of Tlapacoya (District of Mexico City) gone back to 11.000 years reveal morphological characteristics close at the same time to the type Europoïde and Australoïde.
the discovery of other skeletons in the State of Mexico City, the woman of Tepexpan gone back to (11000 years) as well as the Man of Chimalhuacan (11000 years) make it possible to consider a new assumption. According to professor Javier Romero, " del Instituto de Antropología E Historia of Mexico City, these skeletons has the characteristics to be of indigenous a Homo-sapiens origin. The theory does not rest however on nothing substantial, in particular the absence of a filiation between Homo indigenous sapiens and a pre-human ancestor.
Of the archeologists discovered, with the beginning of the year 2006, Calçoene in the State of Amapá, with the Brésil, close to the French Guiana, an astronomical observatory dating from the prehistoric time of the Holocène. This “Amazonian Stonehenge” consists of 127 blocks of granite, each one a 3 meters height, laid out in regular circles on a field. The ceramics fragments found near the site, make it possible to the archeologists to estimate at 2000 years the age of this astronomical observatory.
By the publication on June 19th, 2007 in the Proceedings off the National Academy off Sciences off the United States ( PNAS ), of a study entitled “Radiocarbon and DNA obviousness for has off pre-Columbian introduction Polynesian chickens to Chile”, it was proven that the cock ( Gallus gallus ) was introduced by Polynésiens with the Chile, a few centuries before the discovered European of the continent.
Among the lithic cultures of America one can quote those known as of Clovis as attest it the sites Clovis, Sandia, Folsom and Scottsbluff.
detailed Articles: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Amerindian civilizationsdetailed Articles: Maya People ~ Maya Civilization ~ Aztec ~ Aztec Religion ~ History of Mexico ~ INCA ~ History of Peru ~ Toltèques ~ Tépanèques
New contributions of America in Europe
- vegetable: Potato, Tomato, Corn (popcorn), Sweet pepper, Quinoa, Cocoa (whose the Chocolat in Europe was invented, heat as in shelves), Tabac, Grenadille (maracuja, or fruit of passion), Pitaya, Ananas
- pets: Turkey, Guinea-pig.
Political organizations and economic of Americas
Several organizations join together the states of the American continent:
- Organization of the American States
- Summit of Americas
- Agreement of North-American Free trade (ALENA)
- the Andean Community
- the South American Community of nations
- Alternative bolivarienne for Americas (ALBA, competitor project of the precedent)
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