The Alsace ( Alsatian Elsass in , das German Elsass in ) is one of the 22 administrative areas of the Metropolitan France which gathers two departments: the the Low-Rhine in north and the Haut-Rhin in the south. Its chief town is Strasbourg, which is also its more big city, followed by Mulhouse (sub-prefecture of Haut-Rhin), and Colmar, prefecture of Haut-Rhin.
It is also a historical area which includes/understands moreover current the Territoire of Belfort. The historical province is subdivided in High-Alsace and Low-Alsace. The translation German Oberelsass and Unterelsass is always used by the German-speaking ones respectively to indicate the departments of Haut-Rhin and the Low-Rhine.
EtymologyThe etymological significance of the word Alsace comes from the word in Vieux high German: Ali-sazzo (inhabitant of other bank).
- Ali- comes from alja (other) resulting from proto-Germanic (Gotique: aljis - Old high German: eli - Anglo-Saxon: they - English: else )
- sazzo is the preterite of the verb sizzan (to be) resulting from the old man high German Proto-Germanic: setjanan - preterite of German: saß - preterite of the English viel: sæt ).
ClimateThe Alsatian climate is “semi-continental of shelter”. The winds of west undergo an orographical forcing on the Western slope of the the Vosges, struck orographical rains. The air is thus found discharged out of water, drier, when it crossed the Vosgean barrier: it is the Effet of fœhn, to which Alsace is subjected.
Consequence: the winter is cold there and dry, the hot summer and there are few precipitations. Colmar profits from a sunny and dry microclimate: it is the second driest city of France (after Perpignan) with 550 mm of precipitations per annum what in fact an ideal environment for the culture of the vine and the wine of Alsace. Its Ground water important avoids however the consequences to him of possible Sécheresse S.
TopographyAlsace covers a surface of 8.280 km ² (190 km length on 50 km broad are 1,5% of the surface of France), which makes of it smallest of the administrative areas of metropolitan France, the Corsica having about same surface. It extends from the south in north along the the Rhine which borders it in the east.
It is limited to north by the river Lauter, where the German Palatinat starts, and in the east by the Rhine, with the right-hand side of which the Bade-Wurtemberg extends, in the south by the Suisse, in south-west by the area Franche-Comté and in the west by the area Lorraine.
Its space is cut out in several whole of relief:
- in the east, the plain of Alsace drained by the Ill and devoted to the cereal field crop. The forest still occupies there of important spaces: forest of Haguenau in north and that of the Hardt in the south;
- between the Rhine and Ill, Ried . This marshy zone and wet preserve its remarkable natural characters worked by the old formerly wild river (Rhenish forests traversed by the arms of the Rhine, easily flooded meadows, phreatic sources, rivers), where protected natural reserves and sites fill with wonder the significant heart.
- in the west dominates the the Vosges or the notched Vosgean solid mass of broad valleys of the affluents of Ill; here in fact the pastures of altitude (High Thatches) alternate with the forest; the Grand Balloon 1424 m (ex balloon of Guebwiller) is the culminating point of Alsace, it is located in the Haut-Rhin;
- the under-Vosgean hills establish the link between the two units. This Vosgean Piedmont is occupied by the Alsatian vineyard.
- the Sundgau , area of hills in the south of Mulhouse.
- the the Alsatian Jura in the extreme-south of the area.
GeologyAlsace is the part of the plain of the Rhine located at the West of the Rhine, on its left bank. It is a trough fault, also called rift or graben, of age Oligocène, associated with its side shoulders: the Vosges and the Black Forest. The Massive of the Jura, formed by slip (induced by the alpine uplift) of the Mesozoic cover on the triassic formations (" savon" layers;) recut the area of Belfort.
the Rhenish ditch thus crumbled during the tertiary , consequently the area was several times invaded by the sea, which explains a varied sedimentation: Calcareous marl, , Rock salt, Marble. Moreover, with the Quaternary , wind deposits of Lœss take place.
- Sundgau which was then a vast calcareous plate was covered by the secondary seas, at the beginning of the tertiary era. With the beginning of Oligocene, one witnesses a depression of the Rhenish ditch at the origin of the marine penetration. At the end of Oligocene, the sea is withdrawn definitively leaving deposits of very fine sediments. At the end of the tertiary sector and the beginning of quaternary surélèvement of the Vosges and Black Forest the formation of the Jura involves which is the result of several phases of crumplings, intersected by phases of erosion. The tablecloth of gravel of alpine origin that one finds in Sundgau is due to the very intense erosion of the Jura by the Rhine which, taken in a corridor then joined the current valley of Doubs. It is only the depression of the Rhenish ditch which modified the course of the Rhine and the hydrographic mode by the phenomena of capture.
- the Vosges are made up in north by sandstone (Lorraine Plateau) and in the south by Granite; the granites are structures hercyniennes exhumed during the side risings united with the collapse of the rift.
- the Jura, raised more tardily (with the Miocène) consists of limestones and marnes of generally Jurassic age, therefore much older than the formations of the alluvial plain of the Rhine.
Layers of Pétrole were exploited in north (with Pechelbronn, close to Niederbronn, one of the first layers in the world with being exploited, in 1740), as well as layers of Potasse dating from the Oligocène close to Mulhouse. Mines of money were also worked until the beginning of 20th century close to Holy-Marie-with-Mines.
Lastly, the fort géotherme, consequence of the mantellic increase which took place plumb with the rift, allow a geothermic exploitation experimental Soultz-under-Forests.
See also: Demography of Alsace
Alsace is an area mainly covered by the urban surfaces with Strasbourg and Mulhouse, to a lesser extent Colmar and also influenced by the close big cities foreign, like Basle (Swiss), Freiburg-in-Brisgau and Karlsruhe (Germany), which makes of it an area to strong population density (except in the North-West of the Low-Rhine and on the Vosgean tops). The population rises with 1.794.000 inhabitants at the end of 2004. It rose with 1.734.145 inhabitants in 1999. Ground of humanism, Alsace facilitated the meetings of people. The population regularly increased during time (except for the periods of war) at the same time by natural surplus and migratory surplus. This increase even accelerated at the end of the 20th century. With a density of 209 inhabitants per square kilometer, Alsace is the third area densément populated metropolitan France.
INSEE estimates that the Alsatian population will increase by 12,9% to 19,5% of 1999 with 2030 and will reach the 2 million inhabitants.
The basins of population and activity (employment, trade, services, transport, studies, entertainments etc) are concentrated around the agglomerations of Strasbourg, Mulhouse and Colmar, which extend their respective zones of influence more and more.
See also: History of Alsace
With the difference in its close provinces and areas, Alsace forever known of period of combined unit and political autonomy. Characterized a long time by an important political parcelling out, the area was mainly under the more or less theoretical authority of the Saint Germanic Roman Empire of 962, date of its creation, until in 1648, then of France, after its progressive annexation at the 17th century.
Some reference marks:
- 12 av JC: Creation of the Roman strengthened Camp of Argentoratum, birth of the town of Strasbourg.
- 842 : the Oaths of Strasbourg , pronounced by Charles the Bald person and Louis Germanic the against their older brother Lothaire divide the Kingdom of Charlemagne into three. Alsace belongs to Lotharingie.
- 962 : Alsace belongs to the Saint Empire.
- 1354 : Foundation of the Décapole, league of ten free cities of Alsace.
- 1386 (July 9th): Battle of Sempach
- 1526: War of the peasants. : 25000 massacred “bumpkins” with Saverne.
- 1648 : Following the treated of Westphalia the kingdom of France annexes part of Alsace (mainly south of Alsace).
- 1681 : the imperial free city of Strasbourg is besieged by the troops of king de France and must go.
- 1790 : Alsace is divided between the departments of the the Low-Rhine and the Haut-Rhin.
- 1798 : The free Republic of Mulhouse, allied with the Swiss Confederation must capitulate to an economic blockade carried out by France. The city becomes in its French turn.
- 1871 (April 18th): Compulsory education in Alsace
- 1871: by the Treated of Frankfurt, the German Empire appendix Alsace, except the surroundings of Belfort, as well as part of the Lorraine .
- 1872 (April 28th): an imperial rescrit institutes the German university of Strasbourg.
- 1874 (October 29th): a decree establishes an Regional assembly of Alsace-Lorraine.
- 1911 (May 31st): adoption of the Constitution of Alsace-Lorraine.
- 1915 : engagements around the rocky outcrop of the Hartmannswillerkopf (also called the Old Armand) to 17 km of Mulhouse become national monument.
- 1918 (11 November 21st): Republic of Alsace-Lorraine
- 1919: Alsace becomes again French, following the ratification of the Traité of Versailles.
- 1940 - 1944: during the occupation Nazi E, Alsace is annexed in fact in Reich.
- 1944 (November): the 2nd dB of the general Leclerc releases Strasbourg on November 23rd, the 1 French Army of the general of Lattre de Tassigny releases Mulhouse on November 21st while the Americans try to push back more in North the German counter-offensive (known as Opération Nordwind ).
- 1945 : the French forces block the German attack on Strasbourg, at time of the offensive of the Ardennes, in January, then play an important role in the catch of Colmar, on February 2nd.
See also: Economy of Alsace
With nearly 3% of GDP, Alsace places itself at the second rank of the French areas with a GDP per capita of more than 20.750 of euros.
In the past, the Area was specialized in the textile. One extracted from oil in north and potash in the south.
With international, 35% of the companies have a foreign participation (in particular German, Suisse, states-unien, Scandinavian Japan ease and ). The Germany represented nearly 38,5% of the Alsatian imports in 2002.
Relatively low unemployment rate increased in 2002-2003 because of an industry in crisis. Alsace reconverts itself towards the tertiary sector:
- research and the New technologies through the new pole: the pole IMAGE (iconoval).
- biotechnologies through the therapeutic pole innovation for Strasbourg
- the automobile pole of the future with manufacturer PSA with Sausheim and Montbeliard
- the plasturgie through this new technological platform (PFT): PFT Extrusion with Saverne (http://www.poletechnologique-extrusion.fr)
Since June 10th, 2007, the TGV Is European links Paris with Strasbourg in 2:20.
See also: Culture of Alsace
Except in some communes being next to the Territory of Belfort and the country welche, thus the valleys of Weiss (Orbey) and Liepvrette (Holy-Marie-with-Mines) in the solid mass of the Vosges (traditionally of speeches " oil" Lorraine), in Uneven Alsace or around Wissembourg (where the respective practices of the Rhenish Francique and francic Southerner south-Westerner though declining remain proven), part of the population speaks still today usually the local language, the Alsacien, Dialecte Alémanique. The Alsatian one makes some lexical loans with French and was a long time the Native tongue of the majority of the inhabitants. French is however the single official language in force. High German ( Hochdeutsch ), used as language written since the 16th century , was the alone official language of 1871 to 1918 and 1940 to 1944. During the period of 1871 to 1918, the French language remained taught in the Romance enclaves (located at the bottom of four high valleys of the Vosges and in the French-speaking villages of the current department of the Moselle ).
With an aim of preserving the Alsatian , there exists, since 1992, of the equal bilingual sections in Alsace where teaching is exempted for half in French and half in German Hochdeutsch (having the advantage of having a fixed orthography and a strong presence in the written or audio-visual media). At present, they concern will environt 5% of the pupils. To the college, the pupils can pass the abibac. The Alsatian one can be spoken there in nursery school and can be taught or spoken in primary education. However the writing is in German, considering that this one is the common written version of the whole of the Alsatian dialects.
Plays into Alsatian are still represented.
One will be able to also consult the list establishing the Correspondance of Alsatian German and French toponymies.
Alsace has a strong cultural identity, at the same time French and Germanic (it was a long time the object of territorial claims on behalf of Germany and France).
In fact, it is what shows the geographer Paul Vidal of Blache in France of the East , the adhesion of the Alsatian population in France was sealed on a basis more political than cultural. There was initially Louis XIV, with his royal justice which often took party for the peasants in their conflicts with the lords; but it is especially celebrates it sign placed on the bridge from the Rhine, in Strasbourg, on July 14th, 1791, for the festival of the Federation, Ici begins the country of the Freedom , which symbolizes the accession of Alsace at the national community. It is not a chance if Alsace provides many officers to France under the Revolution (Kleber, Kellermann); it is notable that Frederic Bartholdi, the creator of the statue of freedom, was Alsatian of Colmar.
This Alsatian political characteristic has obviously cultural corollaries: Alsace was a country of tradesmen, craftsmen, of independent middle-class men who supported the Revolution and the Republics. Cities like Mulhouse and Belfort were particularly marked by this feature. The resistance of Belfort, which was not annexed by the Prussians, is not foreign with this consideration.
In the same way, the Alsatian agrarian structures - at least before the advent of agriculture productivist - with pieces laniérées by multiple heritages, often not exceeding a hectare, strongly reflected the attachment with the small personal property. The compartmental land one sliced thus strongly with that of Right Bank of the Rhine, characterized by a openfield where the collective discipline will perdura a long time.
See also: Gastronomy in Alsace
Among the traditional dishes of Alsace, one cannot forget the Baeckeoffe, the Tarte flambe, the Choucroute, the schiffala or the Fleischschnacka S. the territory of the Sundgau is characterized by delicious fried Carpe S. To note, goose foie gras who is produced since the 17th century.
Side of the traditional desserts: Kugelhopf, tart with the Soft white cheese and large variety of cookies and small cakes, called brédalas , as well as gingerbread. The whole sprinkled with mineral water and local beer, wine moderation.
Lastly, the large chief cooks Paul and Marc Haeberlin (father and wire) represent the elite of the Alsatian gastronomy and French with the Inn of Ill (family inn since 1882) to 15 km in the north of Colmar. Three stars with the Guide Michelin since 1967.
ConstructionThe traditional habitat of the Alsatian plain consists of houses built with walls in Colombage and Torchis and roofs in tiles punts. Half-timbering and cobs meet, certainly, in other houses of France, but their particular abundance in Alsace is due to several reasons:
1°) the proximity of the Vosges made wood cheap and easy to trouver.
2°) Because of the seismic risk wood was adapted more than the stone because, more flexible, it resisted better.
3°) During the periods of war and of invasion the villages were often set fire to, which involved the collapse of the upper floors. This is why one had taken the practice to build out of stone the ground floors on which one rebuilt the top in half-timberings once the last storm. It is what explains why certain communes were raised so quickly as soon as peace had returned.
However apparent half-timberings worsened the fire hazards, this is why, as from the XIXe century one started to cover them with rough coat. It is only at one recent time that one started to release them; more recently still the Art schools required, to grant a subsidy, that the rough coat remaining was not painted in white, as one had been put to do it, but in varied colors, in order to return to the former use. The inhabitants followed, more for financial reasons that by conviction. In any case one is struck today by the difference between the villages Alsatian, now whitewashed, and the villages badois which face them and where the white always reigns as a Master.
See also: List of the museums of Alsace
Administration and social organization
See also: District council of Alsace
Local rightIn certain fields as hunting, associations, the religious worships, the social security, etc, the duty applied in Alsace, like in the Moselle, is a mixture of national right and local right.
After the period 1870-1918 during which Alsace was German certain Napoleonean laws were maintained into force and are remained applied; certain French laws carried out between 1870 and 1918, on the contrary, do not apply. It does not act thus, contrary to the generally accepted idea, of the maintenance of German laws.
For more details, to see the article local Right in Alsace and the Moselle.
SymbolThe Stork, bird to which certain legends told with the children allotted the contribution of the babies in the families. Almost disappeared there is about thirty years (1970), it was the subject of an associative strategy of effective repopulation. One finds some from now on on many roofs of the churches and other public edifices of Alsace and even sometimes on roofs of houses of private individuals.
Flag of Alsace
See also: Flag of Alsace
The historical Alsatian flag consists of two horizontal bands: a red (in top) and white (in bottom). It is spread at the 19th century and finds its origin in the strong red recurrence of the colors (mouths) and white (money) in the Blasons of the noble families and the Alsatian cities. At the time of the period 1871-1918, the flag is affirmed like the symbol of Alsace, in particular in reaction with respect to the centralizing aimings of Prussia. June 25th, 1912, the Parliament of Alsace-Lorraine adopts it like national symbol. Today this historical flag of Alsace is put in competition with the flag copied on the Alsatian blazon, recent creation without true historical base. The flag of Alsace is called in Alsatian dialect " Belch Wiss " (literally: red and white).
Heraldicmouths with the money band accompanied by two cotices blossomed by same and accosted of six crowns of gold posed in orle, those of the point opposed to those of the chief.
This blazon is the meeting of that of the Low-Rhine (the money band accompanied by the two cotices blossomed by same on field of mouths) and of Haut-Rhin (the six crowns of gold posed in orle on field of mouths, the gold band being omitted)
See also: Transport in Alsace
Transport in Alsace is rather well developed considering the density of the population but of the projects of enlarging are still being studied in order to continue the development of the area. It should be noted that the principal rail-bound transport is done on a North-South line connecting Strasbourg to Saint-Louis and that transport in bus or the tram is under development full in the main cities of the area (Strasbourg, Colmar, Mulhouse)
- List of people born in Strasbourg
- List of people having resided at Strasbourg
- Site of the District council Alsace
- Tourism Alsace
- Site of Alsatian the expats
- Films on Alsace
- Alsace , film carried out by Henri Pouctal, 1916
- the Alsatian ones or Both Mathilde , film carried out by Michel Favart, 1996
- Müetter , film carried out by Dominique Lienhard, 2006
- confidence reigns , film carried out by Etienne Chatiliez
- My children are not like the others , film carried out by Denis Dercourt
- the extraordinary Decade , film carried out by Claude Chabrol
- Mr Klein , film carried out by Joseph Losey
- Limes of Lautenbach , adaptation TV of the novel of Jean Egen carried out by Bernard Saint-Jacob, 1983
- the Friend Fritz film TV of Jean-Louis Lorenzi, 2001; film TV of Georges Folgoas, 1967; film of Jacques de Baroncelli 1933; film of Rene Hervil, 1920
- Films made to Alsace
|Random links:||Fumichon | Patents cinematogrÃ¡ficas Company | Malintrat | Barbastella | En Watanabe | Head of government | Miyanoura | Centre_carré_de_maison_de_théâtre|