A graticiel ( freeware ) is a Logiciel placed free at the disposal by its creator either as a Free software, or as a Logiciel owner, in which case it is subjected to certain constraints as for its diffusion. The graticiels should not be confused with the diffused commercial software in manner attached in terms of functionalities (known as of demonstration ), or in terms of utilization period (Partagiciel, shareware in English). They are sometimes financed by the publicity which they contain ( Adware ).
HistoryOrigins of the Data-processing to beginning of the year 70, the Logiciel primarily free and was regarded by the manufacturers (for example IBM) as a simple means of managing to sell their material. In addition, the source - in format Assembler - was also delivered and modifiable. Indeed, a computer involved an important investment intended - believe-one - to last very a long time, and it was not necessary that a possible disappearance of the manufacturer prohibits with his purchaser to make maintenance of it. At that time, one was data processing specialist only by knowing to program.
Thereafter, it was decided in the United States that to provide software free contravened a principle of free Concurrence and prevented by nature of the Entreprise S of software from developing. The software became paying then.
The free software itself started with the Free Software Foundation, which, around Richard Stallman estimated abnormal to have to pay to acquire a license UNIX which partly resulted from university work Bénévole S of developments around what was then a software property of AT&T (but whose Source code was public).
Not to confuse graticiel, Partagiciel and Free softwareThe word graticiel is a québecquoise proposal to replace English freeware , of which the use remains the standard all the same. One also finds gratuiciel and distribuciel. The general Commission of terminology and neology advises to employ " software gratuit".
One should not confuse graticiel and Partagiciel ( shareware ), where one can use the software complete or attached free but during one limited duration: for example, a data-processing software could prohibit the safeguard of the files created, or function only during the 2 months which follow its installation.
It is also necessary to distinguish the graticiel from the Free software. The free software, which is often free, offers freedoms additional to the simple exemption from payment, such as the diffusion of its sources: the majority of the nonfree graticiels use licenses of more restrictive distribution (not of diffusion on cédérom, or only on certain Internet sites).
Nonfree examples of graticiels with mention of their limitationThis software includes/understands particular limitations, indicated between brackets, in addition to having the usual limitations of the Logiciel owner.
- Antivirus AVG: antivirus (limited to an individual and not-commercial use, Anti-spies and Pare-feu are not available in the free version)
- AD-aware SE: anti Espiogiciel (the analysis in real-time of version AD-aware does not contain MORE)
- DEMON Tools: emulator of Reader CD (a Espiogiciel contains on its version 4.0)
- Spybot: anti-espiogiciel
Free examples of graticielsThe limitations of this software are summarized most of the time by the fact that if they were to be modified or redistributed, then the sources will have to be provided and subjected to the same license as the original version.
- The Gimp : image processing
- OpenOffice.org: office automation continuation, including word processing, spreadsheet…
- Filezilla: customer ftp
- semi-free Free software
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