Ales , sometimes named the Ale-in-Cevennes, is a common French located in the department of the Gard and the area Languedoc-Roussillon. Ales is regarded as the capital of the the Cevennes. The town of Ales profits from three flowers to the Concours from the cities and flowered villages grace in particular to an significant effort of decoration of the roundabouts and esplanades.
The Ale inhabitants are called the Alésiens .
HistoryAles is an old city on the way Régordane between Saint-Gilles and Puy. On the hill of the Hermitage which dominates it, one finds caves attended with Prehistory and vestiges of habitat protohistoric. Certain denominations of districts, like Larnac or Croupilhac, testify to the existence of farms at the time Gallo-Roman.
In 1629, Louis XIII besieged the city, then high-place of the resistance Protestante, which capitulated after nine days. On Sunday, June 17, 1629 in the morning, Alès goes, the few 2300 men present in its walls could not anything in front of the army king. Louis XIII fact his entry with the head of its troops by the door of the Castling, accompanied by Richelieu out of military dress. The huguenots were authorized by the king to leave for Anduze with the promise express not to carry the weapons against the king more. The June 28th 1629, Richelieu granted to the Protestants the Paix of Ales or the Edict of grace. This edict which withdrew to them confirmed the fortified towns but them the religious guarantees of the edict of Nantes was signed by Richelieu with the camp of Lédignan. One says that Louis XIII placed with the inn of the Bold Cock, in Grand' Rue. This street, now demolished, was located at the bottom of the current street Jules-Cazot. One can see the blazon at the restaurant of the Bold Cock, street Mandajors.
A fort of the type Vauban was built after the revocation of the edict of Nantes on a high point of the old city, with the site of the old castles of the lords in order to install there a garrison in the middle of the zone held by the Protestants. It sheltered a time a prison. In the first years of the XVIIIe century popular the revolt known as " burst; Camisards ". In 1694, had been created évêché of Ales, whose most active holders were Mgr of Avéjan and Mgr of Beauteville. The last bishop, Mgr of Beausset, gave up his station during the Revolution and évêché was removed a little later into 1790. Near the city, the camisards reflect the royal troops in rout.
The September 22nd 1843, a royal decree instituted in Alès a practical school intended to train Master-workman-minors. It is only in November 1845 which the first promotion was installed in the buildings of the Ale college. This establishment is today a considered school of engineers, the Ale école des Mines EMMA.
In June 1865, Jean-Baptiste Dumas calls upon her former student, Louis Pasteur to come to study an unknown disease which decimates the breedings of worms with silk. Louis Pasteur arrives at Alès on June 7th, 1865 and is installed with the field of Bridge of Gisquet on the road which leads to Saint-Jean-of-Pine. There will remain 5 months there. After four years of research, he discovers how to identify the sick butterflies and thus allows their eradication before all the breeding is not infested. He thus saves the industry of silk in the Cevennes.
From the middle of the XIXe century and until the medium of XXe, the history of the city is closely related to the extraction of the coal. Ales was an important industrial center of the area Languedoc-Roussillon especially starting from 1840, date on which Alès is connected to the railroad by the inauguration of the line Beaucaire - Large-Combe the (one of the first in France) by the engineer and industrial Paulin Talabot. Other lines were then created of which in particular the Ligne Ales-Bessèges.
The town of Ales was the principal pole of the coal basin of the Cevennes. The site of Rochebelle, in the commune, on Right Bank of Gardon, ceased its activity in 1968.
In 1926, the orthography of the name of the city, fixed at the XVIIe century, is restored. Alais becomes again Alès .
In the years 1950 - 1960, most of the Ale historical center, particularly unhealthy and dilapidated, was demolished to leave room to a typical architecture of the " large ensembles" years 1960. This operation of town planning was very disputed, bars HLM deeply disfigured the downtown area.
GeographyAles is located in the plain, with the foot of the the Cevennes, and undergoes a fast and disordered geographical extension towards the south. The city is sprinkled by the Gardon. The local geography associated with the sometimes violent behavior of the climate (Cevennes episode) and with the fast urbanization make the city particularly sensitive to the risks of floods.
In the North-West of the city, with the doors of the dwellings, the mount Ricateau rises (name of a former director of the local collieries), dump of the old mining site of Rochebelle. Since a fire (July 24th, 2004), this spoil heap entered in underground combustion.
- joint Grid system NTECC
- Connected to the network the SNCF (line Nimes - Clermont-Ferrand) stage of the train " Cévenol" on the Line of the Cevennes
- Junction towards Bessèges (Line Ales-Bessèges).
Administration| align=left| June 14th, 1855 -|| || Etienne Duclaux-Monteil || ||Lawyer and Notary |- | align=left| 1925 -|| || Fernand Valat || PCF || Deputy of Gard (1936-1942) |- | align=left| 19-- || 1965 || Paul Béchard || SFIO || Deputy of Gard (1945-1948, 1951-1955, 1958-1967), Senator of Gard (1955-1958), President of the General advice (1961-1973), Secretary of State on several occasions (between 1946 and 1948) |- | align=left| 1965 || 1985 || Roger Roucaute || PCF || Deputy of Ardeche (1945-1951, 1956-1958), Appointed of Gard (1962-1978) |- | align=left| 1985 || 1989 || Gilbert Millet || PCF || Deputy of Gard (1967-1968, 1973-1981, 1988-1993) |- | align=left| 1989 || 1995 || Alain Fabre || PS || |- | align=left| 1995 - || || max Roustan || UMP || Deputy of Gard (1993-1997 and since 2002) Ales is one of both Sous-préfecture S of Gard, with Vigan. The Arrondissement of Ales includes/understands twelve cantons.
The commune of Ales is divided into 3 cantons:
Ales is the seat of a Court of Bankruptcy.
Alès is member since his creation in 2000 of the Communauté of agglomeration of Large the Ales
- Alès is member since his creation in 2004 of the Mixed trade-union of the Pays the Cevennes
The Community of agglomeration: Approximately 80.000 inhabitants
Urban surface: approximately 84.000 inhabitants
District: 136.000 inhabitants
Ales is the seat of the Chamber of commerce and Ale industry the Cevennes. It manages the Aerodrome Ales Deaux, the training center of the apprentices, the exhibition site.
FairsThree traditional fairs take place each year the January 17th, April 27th and August 24th. These dates are deferred to the next day if they correspond to one Sunday or one bank holiday.
Mechanical Pole : 10 circuits ground and asphalt federate an industrial activity centered on mechanics car/motor bike.
PGO car manufacturer specialized in the small series: Speesdter II, the Cevennes 180 (presented to World of the Car 2004). The rate/rhythm of production of PGO is of a car per day.
Crouzet Automatisms (Group Schneider Electric): Manufacture of electric Micro engines.
Merlin Gerin (Group Schneider Electric): Manufacture of circuit breakers
Pleyel independent factor of piano in France, closed its establishment alésienne (43 paid) in 2007.
the Cevennes Waste specialized in the collection of recycling.
Conti/AGV France specialized in the helmets and additional motor bikes
Scorpa Manufacturer of motor bikes for the trial
Higher education and research
- École des Mines of Ales, university of engineers.
- the physicist Louis Leprince-Ringuet (1901-2000), from the French Academy, passed to Alès its early childhood…
- the chemist Jean-Baptiste Dumas (http://www.infoscience.fr/histoire/biograph/biograph.php3?Ref=91)
- the doctor and botanist François Boissier de Sauvages (1706-1763)
- the mathematician Antoine Deparcieux born in Portes close to Ales (1703-1768)
Arts and letters
- the scholar Pierre Augustin Boissier de Sauvages (XVIIIe century), author of a dictionary Languedocien-French
- the trumpet player Maurice Andre
- the director Jean-Louis Benoit
- the editor and collector of modern art Pierre Andre Benoit
- the writer Jean-Pierre Chabrol, born in 1922 with Chamborigaud, made its schooling with Alès.
- the writer André Chamson
- the actress Alexandra Lamy
- the painter Jean Gac
- the journalist of radio Jean-Jacques Bourdin
- the singer lately elected gaining new star 2007 Julien Gilds
- the athletes Khalid Zouba, Hassan El Lasshini, Kevin Paulsen, Thierry & Pierrot Pantel
- the footballer of Rousson and not of Ales Laurent Blanc
- former players of Olympic of Ales in the Cevennes having evolved/moved in the more high level, Gerard Gilli, Victor Da Silva, Olivier Dal' Oglio, Sabri Lamouchi, James Debah, Didier Monczuck, Didier Agathe, Frank Ribéry, Jose Pasqueletti and Bernard Bosquiet
- the pongist of Salindres and not of Ales Jean-Philippe Gatien
- the pilots Stephan Sarrazin and Romain Dumas
- the athlete Dominique Andre, bronze medal with the Championships of the world handisports 2003
- the athlete Raphaël Pujazon 1st with the Championships European of the 3000 steeple in 1946 and 1947
- the Gay pongist Valerie, world champion by team with the first Championships of the world handisports of the category in 2002, champion of France 2006.
- the tennis player Bourlon Adelaide, champion of Gard in 2006
- the military engineer Pierre de Conty of Mothe d' Argencourt (1575 - 1655)
- the general Edgard de Larminat (1895-1962) companion of the Release
Tourist monuments and places
Remarkable buildings and public places
- XIVe Cathedral, XVIIe and XVIIIe centuries, classified historic building.
- Arènes of Moderated.
- Hill of the Hermitage (vestiges of a Gallo-Roman Oppidum). With its statue of the Virgin, known as " Notre-Dame of Mines" , it offers a single point of view on the city.
- Extremely Vauban. Surrounded by its park, it is the place, in summer, of many spectacles in its open-air theater and around.
- Park of the old Tower. Botanical park, mini golf and plays for children.
- Cathedral Midsummer's Day
Remarkable monuments in the vicinity
Castle of Rousson
Bécamel Turn of Salindres
House museum known as " museum of Désert" in Mialet - History of Protestantism in the Cevennes
- pilot Mine which recalls the history of coal in the area
- Musée library P.A.B. museum library Pierre Andre Mineralogical Benoit
- Museum of the Ale École des Mines. This museum includes/understands three collections:
Museum of the Dovecote
- Stage Pierre Pibarot
- Stage of athletics R. nautical Pujazon
- Center (2 basins including 1 ludic), Public swimming pool of summer of Cauvel (2 basins)
- Skating rink on ice
- Room of Roller
- Sportland (in construction)
- the Mechanical Pole
Art and Culture
- At the beginning of March, cinema festival Itinérances including a competition of short films.
Weekend of the Rise, Feria of Ales .
Week of the Singing Insane Ales , last week of July. 1000 chorus-singers work together during a week under the direction of international chiefs of chorus a musical homage to a large French-speaking singer. Final concert last Saturday of July.
National scene Crater theater of Ales
- Mediterranean Center of Oral Literature. Regional resource center. Information center, of formation.
- the Atypical ones, theatrical days of the Friends of the Popular Theater.
- Professional Company of Theater Action Commedia
- associative Radio station: Radio Open Grid (88.2 FM) of Protestant inspiration.
- At the beginning of July, festival of arts of street Cratère surfaces .
- Common of Gard
- Régordane Way or Way of St Gilles
- Way of Stevenson GR. 70
- Wars of religion: Huguenot S and Camisard S in the Common Cevennes
- of Gard
- Line the SNCF Ales-Bessèges
- Town hall of Ales
- WebTV Ales the Cevennes
- Site of the media library of Ales
- Site of the agglomeration of Large the Ales
- Site of the chamber of commerce and of Ale industry
- Tourist bureau of the Ale-in-Cevennes
- Site of the crater, the theater of Ales
- Ales on the site of the National Geographical Institute
- Ales on the site of INSEE
- Ales on the site of Quid
- Localization of Ales on a chart of France and communes bordering Ale
- Plane on Mapquest
- Regordane Information the official gate of the Way of Régordane or Way of St Gilles in France. (French English/)
- Chemin of Stevenson GR70
- GR700 Sees Régordane or Way of St Gilles
Bibliography (nonexhaustive list)
- Ales with the passing of years and of the men: chronology and lexicon of the Ale history of the origins at 1900 /Jean Medard. - Ales: Friends of old Went, 1992
- Alès plural and singular /Jean Carrière, Jean-Pierre Chabrol; photogr. Alain Gas. - Marguerittes: Equinox, 1991
- the Cathedral Midsummer's Day d' Alès /Paul-Jean Russet-red. - Avignon: Aubanel, 1953
- A hundred and fifty years of the École des Mines of Ales /photogr. Raymond Depardon, photogr. Tony Iacoponelli. - Ales: École des Mines of Ales, 1993.
- Description of the town of Went and its surroundings /François Bonnal-Olive. - Avignon: Niel, 1788
- Etude on the city of Went: origins of the city, its successive enlargings /Large Amédée. - Ales: Martin, 1893
- Histoire of the city of Went: from 1250 to 1340 /Achilles Bardon. - Nimes: Lacour, 1988
- Histoire of the city of Went: 1341-1461 /Achilles Bardon. - Nimes: Lacour, 1990
- Precise of the uses and habits of the district of Ales /I. Plato. - Nimes: Lacour, 1991
- Walk in Ales /Alain André; préf. Auguste Roustan. - Montpellier: Presses of the Languedoc, 1995
- Historical research on the city of Went /Duclaux-Monteil; J.M. Marette; Maximin Dhombres. - Ales: Martin, 1860
- the Old one Went disappeared /Jean Medard; ill. Michel Vincent. - Ales: Friends of old Went, 1988
- the Old one Went forgotten , T.I and T. II/Jean Medard, Michel Vincent. - Ales: Friends of old Went, 1989 Strange
- Alès /Alain André/préf. Thierry Montaner. - Montpellier New Presses of Languedoc, 2006.
Sources, notes and references
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