Albrecht von To haul
See also: To haul
Albrecht von Haller (born the October 16th 1708 with Bern, dead the December 12th 1777 with Bern) was a Médecin, Poète and Naturaliste Suisse, of which work, as well in the field of the Anatomie and the Bibliographie as Histoire of medicine, was of great importance. The author of the poem Die Alpen is also known like poet and critical of literature of the Age of Enlightenment. To haul, whose field of activity was very vast, is regarded as a universal genius. He was the son-in-law of the doctor Hermann Friedrich Teichmeyer (1685-1746).
Starting from 1723, Haller studied the Natural science and the Médecine with Tubingen then starting from 1725 at the university of Leyde, in the famous professor Hermann Boerhaave (1668-1738), where it made his doctorate in 1727. In Leyde it became acquainted with Johannes Gessner (1709-1790). Then it supplemented its formation in England and France where it found Gessner with Paris. During winter 1727-1728 they made studies in anatomy and follow-up a teaching in surgery in famous schools and hospitals. In 1728 they have both follow-up the courses of mathematics of Jean Bernoulli (1667-1748) at the university of Basle and went on together a journey in Suisse which became famous for the poem Die Alpen To haul. During the winter 1728-1729 Haller replaced the professor of anatomy J.R. Mieg, falls ill, then it is, still in 1729, established in Bern as doctor. He postulated in vain for a place of doctor of the city and for a pulpit of eloquence (1734), but was named librarian of the town of Bern in 1735. Also in 1735, it could obtain Bernese authorities the creation of an anatomical theater for the improvement as of its fellow-members.
In 1736, it left Bern for Göttingen where it occupied the pulpit of Anatomie, of Chirurgie and Botanique until in 1753 and where it created the institute of anatomy and the botanical garden. It was appointed doctor honoris causa and doctor of the court of England. To haul is invited to settle with Utrecht and to Oxford but did not give following these requests. With the support to swage it Isaak Steiger, it was allowed in 1745 with the Great Council, although absent. In 1747, it took again the direction of the Göttingischen Zeitungen von gelehrten Sachen , and refused again a place with Berlin. The April 23rd 1749 it was anobli by the emperor François Ier. In 1753 Haller obtained the load of Amman of the municipality ( Rathausammann ) (until in 1757) and on that it is gone back to Bern with its family. He was also president of the economic Company and cofounder of the orphanage. He was director of the Salines to Roche (Vaud) of 1758 with 1764 and vice-governor of Aigle in 1762 - 1763. Starting from 1764 Haller again lived in Bern. It is 9 times presented to the elections for the Small Council, without success. When in 1769, it was destined once again for Goettingue, this time for the post of chancellor, the town of Bern exceptionally named it Assessor perpetuus of the medical council and the annual income of 400 crowns finally encouraged Haller to refuse the station with Goettingue. Its family would highly have opposed her departure. Its last years were remembered by the disease. His/her son is the botanist Albrecht von Haller (1758-1823).
The funds manuscript To haul is with the Library of the Middle-class of Bern.
Importance for medicine and the literatureThe importance To haul for the history of medicine is before very seeking in part which he played in anatomy. By the preparation of approximately four hundred corpses it succeeded in describing the arterial network of the human body. It devoted other studies to the blood circulation and the development of the embryo (formation of the heart and bones, appearance of malformations). Many tests on animals enabled him to allot the sensitivity to the nerves and irritability to the muscles. He thus became the father of modern experimental physiology. The results of these tests were very discussed in all Europe. In its standard work Elementa physiologiae corporis humani (1757 - 1766), which knew republications until in the 20th century, Haller gives an overall picture criticizes anatomical and physiological knowledge of its time. For the Institute of Yverdon and the supplement of the Encyclopedia of Diderot/d' Alembert, Haller wrote approximately 200 entries concerning the anatomy and physiology. To haul also established four Bibliothecae (1771-1788), critical repertories of all the medical literature, since its origins. As a poet, Haller was especially pointed out by its collection of poem entitled Versuch Schweizerischer Gedichte and published for the first time in 1732, in which figure celebrates it poem Die Alpe , gone back (by Haller itself) to 1729. Its texts on the principal questions of the religion, ethics and metaphysics ( Über den Ursprung of Übels , 1734 and Unvollkommenes Gedicht über die Ewigkeit , 1736) had a character of model at the century of the lights. To haul wrote as well of account-returned as the fama wanted than it even read with horse. In its old days, Haller wrote a series of political novels in which it exposed models of forms of State by having recourse to remote times.
To haul among its contemporaries
To haul was at its time the disciple more recognized school Hermann Boerhaave (1668-1738), and considered by the Encyclopédie as " the largest theorist whom we never have eu" on the basis of " its institutions of medicine, by which Doctor Haller enriched the comment by an infinite number of observations" (p. 538).
It shared its life between Göttingen where he was president of the college of the surgeons of the Royal Company of the city and professor at the university founded by Frederic II of 1736 to 1753; and Bern where he was member of the Council of the city, provincial captain of the canton, and where he finishes finally his life.
Extremely respected, he is the spiritualistic son of Boerhaave and large thinker of the Physiologie which he defines itself as " the description of the events which agitate the machine animée" , i.e. without the aspect of the function which results only like consequence from exact anatomical knowledge.
He is opposed by his approach, and more generally by the life than he carries out, with Julien Offray of Mettrie (1709-1751) which is essential contrary like wire materialist to Boerhaave. Besides Mettrie will dedicate ironically to its work the Machine man to him, dedication that Haller refused in two letters of challenge, of which one appeared in the Journal of the Scientists in May 1749.
Terms of anatomy which go up with A. v. Haller:
- Tripus Halleri: The separation of Truncus coeliacus in its three branches: A. hepatica communis, A. splenica (seu lienalis), A. gastrica will sinistra.
- Ansa Halleri: Anastomosis of Nervus glossopharyngeus with Nervus facialis.
- Ansa To haul - Sappey: Anastomosis of Nervus glossopharyngeus with Ramus auricularis of Nervus vagus for the innervation of the external ear.
- Arcus lumbocostalis medialis and lateralis seu Ligamentum arcuatum internum and externum diaphragmatis Halleri: Ligamentum arcuatum mediale and Ligamentum arcuatum side, which form together the Vintages side of Pars lumbalis the diaphragm.
- A. abdominalis subcutanea von To haul: Called A. epigastrica superficialis today.
- A. alaris Halleri seu alaris glandulosa axillaris seu alaris thoracica: Connect artery for the skin and the ganglia of the armpits. It is not mentioned any more in the modern books of anatomy and must be a branch of a. thoracica superior or A. thoracica lateralis which does not have today any more a specific name.
- Circulus callosus Halleri: Anulus fibrosus cordis between the right auricle and the ventricle right of the heart where the valve tricuspide is fixed.
- Circulus venosus mamillae Halleri: the network of veins around the nipple.
- Coni vasculosi Halleri: By there Haller does not understand not only Coni vasculosi sensu strictu but all the tubes of the testicles.
- Fretum Halleri: The narrow passage enters the heart embryonal and Bulbus aortae, where is formed the pockets of the aortic valves thereafter.
- Glandulae Halleri: Follicules of lymph isolated in the intestines.
- Habenula Halleri: The rudimentary Process vaginalis of the peritoneum.
- Ligamentum colicum Halleri: The right part of Ligamentum gastrocolicum, therefore part of Omentum majus.
- Pons hepaticus Halleri: A fabric bond of the liver (which does not have a function) at the end of Ligamentum teres hepatis.
- Rete vasculosum testis (v. To haul): Rete testis in Mediastinum testis (testicles).
- Taenia semicircularis thalami (v. To haul): A layer in the Corpus geniculatum side of the intermediate brain.
- Vasa aberrantia Halleri: Name for Ductuli efferent, which persists as urinary passages but which are not connected to Ductus mesonephricus
- Velum plexus chorioidei interpositum Halleri: Tela chorioidea in the third ventricle of the intermediate brain.
- To haul Hernia: Hernia vaginalis. Hernia very rare Hernia through Diaphragma pelvis.
- Erläuterungen zu Boerhaaves Institutiones (7 volumes), 1739-44
- Enumeratio methodica stirpium Helveticae indigenarum (description of the Swiss alpine flora) 1742
- Primae lineae physiologiae , 1747
- Of partibus corporis humani sensilibus and irritabilibus , 1752
- Elementa physiologiae corporis humani (8 volumes), 1757-66
- Historia stirpium Helvetiae über die schweizerische Alpenflora , 1768
- Versuch Schweizerischer Gedichten (!), Bern 1732 (contains inter alia the poem Die Alpen of 1729); Zweyte, vermehrte und veränderte Auflage u.d.T. Versuch von Schweizerischen Gedichten von 1734 (contains inter alia the poems Über den Ursprung of Übels and Unvollkommenes Gedicht über die Ewigkeit ); there were other editions of which each one was re-examined; the versions which refer are those of the 9th edition, review and increased, published under the title Versuch Schweizerischer Gedichte de Usong. Eine morgenländische Geschichte, 1771
- Alfred, König der Angelsachsen, 1773
- Fabius und Cato, 1774
- Briefe über einige Einwürfe nochlebender Freygeister wieder die Offenbarung (3 Harl), 1775-77
- biographical Article in the historical Dictionary of Switzerland
- bibliographical Biography and reference to the numerical sources in project VLP of the Institute max Planck of history of sciences
- Works To haul digitized by the SCD of [[University Louis Pasteur] of Strasbourg] the
- Full text of the historical novels To haul
November 1st 1739 -->
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