Albert Szent-Györgyi de Nagyrápolt (September 16th 1893 with Budapest - October 22nd 1986 with Woods Hole in the Massachusetts) is a scientist Hungarian. He received in 1937 the Nobel Prize of physiology or medicine to have discovered the Vitamine C and the Flavonoïde S and to have explored their biochemical properties .
At the origin, it gave to the flavonoïdes the name “Vitamine P” because of their effectiveness to reduce the Perméabilité blood-vessels. This denomination was abandoned when one realized that these substances did not correspond to the official definition of the Vitamine S, insofar as one does not regard them as being essential with the life.
Life in HungarySzent-Györgyi was born in Budapest, in Austria-Hungary. His/her father, Miklós Szent-Györgyi, were a landowner. His/her mother, Jozefin, were girl of József Lenhossék and sister of Mihály Lenhossék; both were professors of anatomy at the University of Budapest. Szent-Györgyi began its studies at the Medical college of Budapest, but, annoyed soon by the courses, it started to make research in the laboratory of anatomy of his uncle. Its studies were stopped in 1914 and it had to be useful as military male nurse during the First World War. In 1916, disgusted war, it drew a ball in the arm and claimed to be wounded by an enemy shooting; it was then returned at his place on medical leave. It could thus finish its studies of medicine and receive its doctorate in 1917. It Maria the same year with Kornélia Demény, girl of the Managing director of the Hungarian Post offices. She accompanied it with her following assignment, a military private clinic of Italy of North.
After the war, Szent-Györgyi began its career of research in Hungarian Pressbourg (: Pozsony, today: Bratislava). When the city was annexed by Czechoslovakia in January 1919, it left it at the same time as part of the Hungarian population. He taught in several Universities the following years, finding himself finally at the University of Groningen, where its work concentrated on the chemistry of cellular breathing. This work enabled him to become member of the Rockefeller Foundation at the University of Cambridge. It accepted its doctorate of Cambridge in 1927 for its work on the insulation of what it had then called “acid hexuronic” of fabric of the glands suprarenals.
It accepted a station at the University of Szeged in 1931. It is there, working with Joseph Svirbely, whom it noted that the “acid hexuronic” was actually the vitamin C (the L enantiomer of the ascorbic acid) and it foot-note its anti-scorbutic activity. In some experiments they used the Paprika like source of vitamin C. During this time, it continued its work on cellular breathing, identifying the fumaric acid and progressing towards what later would be known under the name of Cycle of Krebs.
In 1937, it accepted the Nobel Prize of Medicine “For its discoveries concerning the process of combustion biological, particularly the vitamin C and the catalysis of the fumaric acid”. In 1938, it began its work on the biophysics of the muscular movement and it noted that the muscles contain actine, which, combined with another protein, the Myosine and in the presence of Adénosine triphosphate, an energy source, causes the contraction of muscle fibers.
As the fascists had seized the power in Hungary, Szent-Györgyi helped of the Jewish friends to flee of the country. During the Second world war, it joined the Hungarian resistance movement. Although Hungary was officially allied Axis, Hungarian the Prime Minister Miklós Kállay sent Szent-Györgyi to Istanbul in 1944, under cover of a scientific conference, to start secret negotiations with the Allies. The Germans had wind of the plot and Adolf Hitler itself delivered a warrant for arrest against Szent-Györgyi. He escaped his house arrest and, until the end of the German occupation, had to hide of Gestapo.
After the war, Szent-Györgyi was recognized like a public figure and some went even until thinking that it could become President de Hongrie, if the Soviets allowed him. He created a laboratory at the University of Budapest and became director of the department of biochemistry. He was elected appointed and contributed to restore the Academy of Science, but not being able to accept the communist domination on Hungary, he emigrated in the United States in 1947.
The immigrant in the United StatesIn 1947, Szent-Györgyi created a laboratory with the Laboratoire of biology marinades (MBL) with Woods Hole (Massachusetts) with the financial support of the Hungarian business man István Ráth. However, it had to face during several years with difficulties of financing, because of its statute from abroad and his old relations with the government of a communist country. In 1948, it off accepted a post of researcher to the National Institutes Health (NIH) with Bethesda (Maryland) and started to share its time between this work and Woods Hole. In 1950, the subsidies of the Armor Company Meatus, specialized company in the production of meat, and the American Association of Cardiology (American Heart Association) enabled him to create the Institute for muscular Research.
During years 1950, Szent-Györgyi started to use electron microscopes to study the muscles on a more precise level. It accepted the Lasker Price in 1954. In 1955, it was naturalized citizen of the United States. He became member of the national Academy of Sciences in 1956.
Towards the end of the year 1950, Szent-Györgyi was interested more and more in research on cancer and developed ideas in which it applied the theories of the Quantum physics to biochemistry of cancer. The death of Rath, which managed finances of the Institute for muscular Research threw Szent-Györgyi in the embarrassment, because it refused to be subjected to the payments which required for the granting of governmental subsidies that it specified with the details most meticulous what it had exactly the intention to make and what it hoped to discover. After having exposed his financial problems in an interview published in the press in 1971, the lawyer Franklin Salisbury contacted Szent-Györgyi and helped it thereafter to create a deprived organization with nonlucrative goal, the National Foundation for Cancer Research. Towards the end of its life, Szent-Györgyi started to seek in the free radicals a potential cause of cancer. In 1974, showing its interest for the quantum physics, he proposed that the term “Syntropie” replaced that of “Néguentropie”.
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