Albert Marius Soboul , born the April 27th 1914 in Ammi Foamed (Oran), dead the September 11th 1982 with Nimes, is a Historien French, specialist in the revolutionary period and Napoleon.


Born close to Oran, Soboul loses his/her father in November 1914, during the First World War. He and his/her Gisele older sister live initially in Algérie, before settling with Nimes, with their aunt Marie, after the death of their mother in 1922. It receives a solid education with the college of Nimes, then with the Louis-the-Large Lycée of Paris, before joining the Sorbonne.

Under the pseudonym of Pierre Derocles, it publishes into 1937 with the international social Editions a dedicated work with the revolutionist Saint-Just. Implied for some time in a communist activity, it adheres to the French Communist party in 1939. Called the same year to make its military service, it is useful in horse-drawn artillery, without never seeing the combat, until its demobilization in 1940. Professor of history to the college of Montpellier, it is stopped and dislocated his functions in July 1942 by the administration of Vichy to have taken part in the organization of a demonstration coed. Missionné by the National museum of Arts and Traditions, Soboul passes the main part of the years of war to inquire in all France into the rural settlement. The facility of displacement offered by its statute of researcher enable him to approach resistance.

After the Release, in 1944, Soboul finds its post of professor with the college of Montpellier, before being named with the Marcellin-Berthelot college, then with the Lycée Henri-Iv. Soboul binds friendship with the eminent historian Georges Lefebvre and prepares, under its direction, its thesis on the Parisian sans-culottes in year II (1958). Soboul is named with the university of Clermont-Ferrand, then reaches in 1967 the pulpit of history of the French revolution the Sorbonne.

During the fifteen following years, it publishes many historical work, of which Civilization and the French revolution . In the years 1970-80, it must face the increasing opposition of the “school Révisionniste”, around François Furet and of Denis Richet or of the Anglo-Saxons like William Doyle. Consequently, if its great thesis on the sans-culottes is an undeniable monument of scholarship and little disputed, its syntheses or handbooks, short its general interpretation of the revolutionary moment is more prone to second readings and discussions. Since its death in Nimes in 1982, the visibility and the reputation of work of Soboul decreased with the profit of diagrams explanatory often less mechanical. It does not remain about it less than its great works, marked by a substantial research and a clear style, remain a major contribution to the study of the history by in-low.

Soboul was buried with the Cimetière of the Father-Lachaise, not far from the tomb of the main leaders of the Communist party and the Mur of Federate the, where the last Communards had been shot in May 1871.


The publications are classified according to the year of first publication.
  • the National army under the Revolution, 1789-1794 , Editions France initially, 1945.
  • the French revolution, 1789-1799 , social Editions, 1948.
  • Parisian Sans-culottes in year II. Popular movement and revolutionary government (1793-1794) , the Roche-sur-Yon, 1958 (republished Threshold, 2004,248 p.).
  • History of the French revolution , 2 volumes, social Editions, 1962.
  • the Lawsuit of Louis XVI , Paris, Julliard, 1966,267 p.
  • the Directory and the consulate , PUF, coll Which do I know? , 1967,126 p.
  • the First Republic: 1792-1804 , Paris, Calmann-Levy, 1968,365 p.
  • Civilization and the French revolution. The crisis of the Old Mode , Arthaud, 1970 (republished Arthaud, 1993,471 p.).
  • Precise of history of the French revolution , Paris, Social Editions, 1972,530 p.
  • 1789, the year one of freedom , social Editions, 1973,351 p.
  • To include/understand the revolution , collection of articles, Paris, Maspero, 1981.
  • country Problems of the Revolution (1789-1848) , Paris, Maspero, 1983 (republished the Discovery, 2001,442 p.).
  • the French revolution , Gallimard, 1984 (republished PUF, Quadriga, 2005,121 p.).
  • Portraits of revolutionists , Messidor, 1986,312 p.
  • historical Dictionary of the French revolution , PUF, 1989 (republished PUF, Quadriga, 2005,1132 p.).
  • Napoleonean France , Arthaud, 1990,419 p.
  • the French rural House , Paris, Committee of historical and scientific work, 1995,171 p.

See too

  • Claude Mazauric, Soboul a historian in his time. Test of moral and intellectual biography , Editions of Albret, 2004.

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