The Albania ( Shqipëri , “country of the eagle”) is a République south-east of the Europe, in the west of the peninsula of the Balkans, with an opening on the Adriatic Sea and the Ionian Mer. The country has a border in north with the Montenegro, in the North-East with the Kosovo, in the east with the République of Macedonia and in the south with the Greece.
Its population is approximately 3,5 million in 2005, on a mountainous territory with 70% (according to the INED this figure is only of 3,2 million in 2007).
Tirana is the capital, with almost 1 million inhabitants; the others principal cities of the country are: Durrës (approximately 190.000 inhabitants), Elbasan and Shkodër each one with approximately 100.000 inhabitants, Vlora (95 000), Korçë (80 000) and Berat (70 000).
Constituted as a State at the conclusion of the Balkan Wars in 1912, Albania remains a badly known country because of its political insulation during second half of the 20th century.
See also: History of Albania
The Albanians would probably descend from the It, people Indo-European which settled in the area of the coast Dalmate to the XX E A kingdom it extended from the Dalmatian coast with the coastal regions of current Albania and reached the apogee of its power under the reign of the king Agron, in the middle of the III E It became a strong maritime power, thus endangering the trade of the Roman Republic in the area. In -168, Rome conquers the It, which is under its authority during more than five centuries. Albania becomes an important center connecting Rome and Byzance by the Via Egnatia. At this period, the Albanian ports like Dyrrachium (Durrës), Apollonie or Oricum become important commercial places. The name of Albanoï appears for the first time at the 2nd century of our era, in a text of the Géographe Ptolémée. This name reappears then regularly, as from the 10th century, under the feather of the Byzantine chronicler S .
Antiquity and the Middle AgesFollowing the division of the Roman Empire in 395 apr. J. - C., Albania is integrated into the Byzantine Empire. The provinces it are devastated by tribe S Nomades, the Goths and the Huns at the 4th century, the Bulgares at the 5th century and the Slaves with S. Fearing to be submerged, the Albanians (converted with the Christianisme) migrate towards the south and concentrate in the escarpées mountainous regions where they remain under the theoretical supervision of the Byzantine Empire. With the S, Albania is invaded by the Normands. In 1190, the Albanian prince Progon succeeds in founding an independent State which is maintained until half of the 13th century. Then the country is conquered by the Serbes at the 14th century. With the collapse of the Serb Empire of Etienne IX Douchan, into 1355, Albania is divided between Seigneur S feudal buildings.
At the end of the 15th century, Albania is invaded by the Othomans, in spite of a savage resistance gathered behind Gjergj Kastriot Skanderbeg (Georges Castriota Skanderbeg, v. 1403 - 1468) wire of Gjon Kastrioti (Jean Castriota). (…) During nearly a quarter century, this national hero - greeted by the Pope Nicolas V of the name of “champion of the Christ” - inflicts hard defeats with the Turkish troops, without however managing to drive out them. Gjergj Kastrioti was removed at the 10 years age by the Turks so that it becomes Janissaire like many young boys of the invaded countries. The Turks have it famous “Skender” and the name “Beg” is added to him afterwards because he was recognized like a good strategist. Arrived at the adulthood, they understand that it is Albanian and not Turkish: Gjergj turns over then to Albania to fight the Turks. After the death of Skanderbeg, Albania falls down in feudal tearings, and the sultan Murat II completes to cut down this rampart of the Chrétienté.
The history of Albania under the Othoman occupation , of the 16th century until 1912, is a succession of revolts which failed all; most famous remain that of the Bushati in Shkodër (1796), and that of Ali Pasha (1822). During, Albania Islamized itself mainly, and provides many soldiers and civils servant (in particular several Vizier S and five top dogs) to the Ottoman Empire. The reasons of these conversions lay primarily in the social status and the economic interests which rose from the profession of faith in the Islam, but also resulted from the plays of alliance between the Clans.
The Russo-Turkish war of 1877 - 1878, concluded by the Treated from San Stefano, causes the alarm clock of the Albanian national feeling. Indeed, this treaty yields to the local powers and the victorious Russia of the conquered territories of Albania: the South with the Greeks, North with Serb and Are with the Bulgarian ones. Vis-a-vis this dismemberment, while the congress of Berlin (June 13rd 1878) prepares, the Albanian representatives of the various communities meet in Prizren and decide to create a Ligue armed with an aim of defending the country and of obtaining the Autonomie. Known under the name of League of Prizren. This league was destroyed by the European powers but it was a big step in the rebirth of the Albanian national feeling.
Independent since 1912, except for the periods of occupation by the Italy in 1916 - 1920 and 1939 - 1944, Albania completed in 1990 one 46 years period of communist mode under the direction of Enver Hoxha and three decades of political and economic insulation with the Europe.
The transition towards a multi-party Democracy and a market economy proved to be difficult: Government S weak and sometimes corrupted having had to face a very strong rate of Unemployment (estimated at 40% after the economic crisis of 1989 - 1992), a consecutive chaos with the fraudulent collapse of a system of national scale of pyramidal investment (March 1997), a great insecurity and important movements of emigration (mainly towards the Greece and the Italy) then of Immigration following the conflict of the close Kosovo, in 1998 - 1999.
There initially was the political emigration which began with the communist Dictature in 1944, bound for the Europe and of the the United States, to be completed in 1991 with its collapse. Followed an economic emigration which perdure until our days.
Relations with the European UnionAlbania carries out with the European Union the course of adhesion to the Union. During last years of progress more or less the vast ones in the various fields contributing to the process of adhesion (democracy, rule of law, economy) could be observed. The following stages were already reached:
- June 12th, 2006: signature of the Agreement of stabilization and association;
- November 9th, 2006: transmission near the general secretary of the European Union of the means having to allow to ratify the Agreement of stabilization and association;
See also: Political of Albania
The Head of the State is the President of the Republic, which is elected for 5 years by the indirect suffrage by the popular assembly, the Kuvendi Popullor . He appoints the Prime Minister and the government (17 ministers and 9 Secretaries of State), which is finally subjected to the approval of the Kuvendi.
The Popular Assembly, the Kuvendi, constitutes the Legislative power, person in charge of the domestic policies and external of the country and the modifications of the Constitution. Elected every 4 years, it counts:
100 Appointed, elected with the absolute majority.
- 40 deputies, chosen by the parties on a basis Proportional (threshold: 2,5%).
The legal system has of a Constitutional court, a Court of appeal, Cours of call and course of District. The constitutional court is made up of 9 members, designated by the popular Assemblée for one 9 years duration maximum.
There exist three types of jurisdictions: criminal, civil and military. The court of appeal comprises 11 members who are named by the Popular Assembly for one 7 years duration. In the Courts, justice is returned by three professional judges. There is no popular jury.
See also: Subdivisions of Albania
Albania is cut out in 36 District S ( Rrethe ) which lay out each one of a local Gouverneur chosen by the council of district whose members are elected with the Scrutin proportional. The districts are gathered in Préfecture S ( Qark ) which are 12 with their heads of the Préfets named by the the Council of Ministers, the capital Tirana having a special Statut. The Maire S of the other cities are elected with the Direct suffrage and the Municipal councils are it with the proportional one.
Political principal parties
Democratic party of Albania (PDA): 56 Appointed
- Socialist party of Albania (PSA): 42 deputies
- socialist Movement for integration (LSI): 15 deputies
- Republican party (PR): 11 deputies
- Left social democrat: 7 deputies
- Left the Union for the human rights, left the Greek minority: 3 Various deputies
- right-hand side: 6 deputies.
The coalition carried out by the former president Sali Berisha joined together the PDA, PR and various the lines. It has 73 seats out of 140, that is to say 3 deputies moreover than the absolute majority. Contrary, the LSI is a dissidence of the Socialist party, which contributes to divide to it center-left within the Assemblée of Albania.
See also: Geography of Albania
Albania is a mountainous country (70%), whose culminating point rises to 2753 m (Mont Korab). The remainder consists of alluvial Plaines, whose ground is rather of poor quality for the Agriculture, alternatively flooded or desiccated. The grounds more Fertiles are located in the district of the lakes (Lac of Ohrid, Grand Prespa and Petit Prespa) and on some intermediate plates between the plain and the Montagne. Only the notable island is that of Sazan which was occupied in turn by various European great powers.
Largest Fleuve Albanian is the Drini . 282 km length, it is one of only to know a relatively stable flow throughout the year. The other rivers are generally almost dry during the summer, even the rivers Semani and Vjosa which however has a length of more than 160 km.
The Climat is there Méditerranéen in the littoral Régions (average winter: 7°), and becomes more continental in the relief. The Précipitations are rather high (1 000 to 1.500 mm annual), the flow of humid air meeting the colder mass of air continental, especially during the winter, which is the rainy season.
See also: Economy of Albania
Albania left sick the heritage Communiste. Insulation had important consequences on the economy. With the Natural resources important and the variety of climates inside its territory, Albania could have been a prosperous country. Nevertheless, a series of political and historical factors, made that this one remains a Developing country. Its history was deeply marked by the forty-five years of Autoritarisme and Autarcique set up by Enver Hoxha which was maintained until in 1991 and which gave the principal importance to the Primary sector, without supporting the Agriculture. Moreover, Communism was the economic main brake. Without counting the many wars which prevailed during centuries, as well as the Othoman occupation, during almost five hundred years, which made move back Albania compared to the other Western countries and which parcelled out it, that because of the Féodalité of the Ottoman Empire.
Albania remains the second poorest country of Europe. 25% of the population live under the Poverty line, situation accentuated in the north of the country. Agriculture represents a quarter of GDP and the parallel economy has an important weight. The economic structures remain fragile and dependant on the outside assistance and the Transferts of incomes of the emigration (approximately 14% of the GDP). In 2004, the Budget deficit accounted for 5% of the GDP and the national Debt amounts to 56% of the GDP. Nevertheless, the Productivité has improved appreciably for approximately a decade and knows since 2003 a regular growth (6%) in a context of moderate Inflation. The country has moreover of a geographical location favorable to its development and of an opening on the sea, a large range of natural resources and a potential Touristique. She hopes to benefit from her bringing together with the EU to attract the overseas investments and to develop her commercial exchanges.
The energy production of Albania is the cleanest production of Europe. Indeed, 98% of this production come from the Hydroelectric stations located on the Drin river at the north of the country. In spite of an average consumption per capita very low (one of weakest in Europe), Albania has problems of provisioning because the 3 power stations located on Drin are not ready any more to meet the requirements in electricity of Albania, which has for the moment of another alternative only the Importation or the restriction.
Albania is a developing country, which belong to the poorest countries of Europe (approximately 20% inhabitants in lower part of the poverty line), with half of its Active population working in the sector of the Agriculture, and an abroad working fifth of the credits. Officially, the Chômage amounts to 15%, but independent sources estimate it at nearly 50% in the North and the North-East of the country. It is more important for the men than the women. The global growth is of 7,3% but varies according to the sectors. It reaches almost 20% for the Construction but only 10% for the Public services and private.
inflation is estimated at 9% for the year 2005.
the industrial growth is estimated at 15% for 2005.
International economic relations
The escape of the Albanian elites is a social and economic process which penalizes the Recherche. However, to stop this Exodus and to encourage the emigrants to return, Albania must lay down a clear policy scientific and school, closely related to a long-term industrial policy with the assistance of the European programs developed for this purpose (ACE, HEADLIGHT, TEMPUS or EAST).
The Exportation S are weak (approximately 1,8 billion American dollars in 2005, especially of the Agricultural produce ) and the migrant workers are the principal providers of currencies. The Importations are mainly the mechanical equipment, the Manufactured good , the Foodstuffs, the Textiles and the Chemicals (approximately 2,1 billion American dollars in 2005).
The country receives financial aids from abroad, in particular of the Greece and Italy which are its principal economic Partenaires, but receives from it more European commission. The change of mode in 1991 created the conditions of a progressive bringing together of Albania and Europe. The accession of Albania to the the Council of Europe in 1995 offered a first tangible sign of it. In November 2000, the top of Zagreb opened in Albania the prospect for one adhesion to the European Union (EU), so that were started on January 31st, 2003 the negotiations for a Accord of stabilization and association (ASA), which was signed on June 12th, 2006. The EU recalled on several occasions to Albania the need for implementing the adopted reforms concretely and for continuing them. In his report/ratio of the November 8th 2006, the European commission specifies that “Albania must from now on take up the challenge which the implementation successful of this ASA represents, while starting with the relative tendencies with the trade contained in the interim agreement, which will come into effect on December 1st, 2006”.
See also: Demography of Albania
Albania is one of the most homogeneous people ethniquement speaking. 94% of the population are composed of Albanians of stock, divided into two groups: the Guègues (in north) and the Tosques (in the south), whose river Shkumbin constitutes the dividing line. The Greek (2%), the Aroumain S (3%), the Gypsy S, the Serb and the Macedonian S constitute the minority groups. The Albanians, who would descend from the It NS, are also present in certain areas and adjoining countries, such as the Kosovo, the west of the République of Macedonia, in the north of Greece and certain areas of the Montenegro.
Converted with the Islam by the Turks during the Occupation, Albania currently counts three principal Religions: Moslem S (58,8%), orthodoxe S (24,1%) and Catholic S (16,8%). Religious cleavages play a weak part in Albania of today, because of the very old tradition of peaceful coexistence between the various religions, which appears in the currency “Feja E shqiptarit është shqiptaria” - “the religion of the Albanian is the albanitude”, dating from the Albanian Rebirth at the 19th century. Also, the atheistic policy of the mode of Enver Hoxha attenuated the religious feeling. Among the Moslem , one counts two great obediences: Moslems Sunnites and Bektashis (running Mystique which is attached to the tradition Chiite and is marked by a very great religious and cultural tolerance). The bektashis played a determining role in the fight of the Albanians for an autonomy within the Ottoman Empire. During the Second world war, many dignitaries bektashi took share with resistance armed to the sides with the Communist party. They were not less pitilessly eliminated from it by the new mode. Albania having undergone a complete insulation lasting 45 years, it must today still continue its rebuilding and its integration on the international scene.
LanguageThe Albanian is the spoken language in Albania, in Macedonia, in Montenegro, in Kosovo like in certain pockets isolated from Italy (Arbëresh) and from Greece. Both principal Dialecte S experienced different developments during the last millenium:
- the Guègue, spoken in the northern area about Albania delimited by the river Shkumbin;
- the Tosque, spoken in the south about this river like in the Italian and Greek enclaves.
As a whole, the two speech communities include themselves/understand between them, but there exist many dialectal forms. The official language of Albania was a southernmost dialect guègue of 1909 until the end of the Second world war; it after this date was replaced by the tosque one. The literary works written in characters of the Latin alphabet, very few are, for the majority, posterior with the national revival of the 19th century.
See also: Albanian Writers, alphabetically
Fatos Kongoli, “other K” of the Albanian literature, received many prices in its country. Its novels, often tinted blackness and of an extreme realism, evoke the disorder even the madness of characters during and after the traumatism created by the totalitarian system. Its works are translated in many languages including French.
Cizia Zykë, Adventurous writer and French born from a Greek mother and an Albanian father become legionary; four wrote Romance which explains how various traffics developed in Albania during the years 1990: the Eagles and the trilogy In the name of the father . He is in addition the author of a report on the code of Albanian honor, the Kanoun.
Xhevahir Spahiu, poet and translator.
- Nexhmije Pagarusha, Singer and Actress Albanian, alive with the Kosovo.
- Elsa Lila, Albanian singer, it took part in the Festival of the Song Italian to Sanremo for the years 2001 (Valeria) and 2007 (It senso beyond vita).
- Vaçe Zela, Albanian singer, alive in Albania.
- Genc Tukiçi, Pianist of Albanian origin, alive with Paris.
- Type-setters Albanian or of Albanian origin: Cesk Zadeja, Kujtim Laro, Limoz Dizdari, David Tukiçi.
- Painters: Kolë Idromeno
See also: Albanian Cinema, List of Albanian films
- Realizers/directors: Dhimitër Anagnosti, Kristaq Dhamo, Gëzim Erebara, Hysen Hakani, Viktor Gjika, Muharrem Fejzo, Xhanfize Keko, Fatmir Koçi, Saimir Kumbaro, Piro Milkani, Vladimir Prifti, Gjergj Xhuvani, Kujtim Çashku
- Actors/actresses: Roza Anagnosti, Piro Milkani, Aleksander Moisiu, Kadri Roshi
- Population 4.124.801 inhabitants (in 2006). 0-14 years: 30%; 15-64 years: 64%; + 65 years: 7%
- Middle Age (in years): 27
- Surface: 28.748 km ²
- Density: 128 h/km ²
- terrestrial Borders: 720 km (Kosovo and Montenegro 287 km Greece 282 km; Republic of Macedonia 151 km)
- Littoral: 362 km
- maximum Altitude: 0 > + 2.753 m
- Life expectancy of the men: 70 years (in 2006)
- Life expectancy of the women: 76 years (in 2006)
- Growth rate of the Population: 0,88% (in 2001)
- Birth rate: 17 per 1000 (in 2006)
- Death rate: 5 per 1000 (in 2006)
- Rate of Infant mortality: 6 per 1000 (in 2006)
- Fertility rate: 2,6 children/woman (in 2006)
- Rate of migration: -3,69 ‰ (in 2001)
- Date of the Independence: November 28th 1912
- Many lines of Telephone: 324.000 (in 2006)
- Many cellphones: 2.6M (in 2006)
- Many stations of radio: 1M (in 2006)
- Many stations of Television: 900.000 (in 2006)
- Users of Internet: 100.000 people (in 2006)
- Number of Suppliers of access Internet: 9 (in 2006)
- Mileage of Roads: 22.500 km (including 17.200 tarred km) (in 2006)
- Mileage of Railways: 447 km (in 2001)
- inland Waterways: 43 km (in 1990)
- Number of Airports: 11 (including 3 with tarred tracks (in 2000)
(Sources: Gjeografia 4 (Book of geography of final)
CodesAlbania has as codes:
- , according to the List of the prefixes of codes ICAO of the airports,
- ZA, according to the List of prefixes ICAO of registration of the aircraft.
- Air force of Albanian Albania
- National army
- political Chronology with Albania
- Épire of North
- Order of succession with the Throne of Albania
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