The alaouites or alawites (Arab: ʿalawīy, rear RTL علويّ, alaouite; alawite ), also called noseïris or nusayris (nuṣayrī, rear RTL نصيريّ, nusayrite ), is a branch of the Chiisme. Today, they form approximately 10% of the population of Syria and a community alaouite exists in Turkey, in particular near the Syrian border (in old the Sandjak d' Alexandrette). The Head of the Syrian State (Bachar el-Assad) is alaouite .
The founder of the noseirism is Mohamed Ibn Nousayr Al-Namîry, died in 884, which, in 859, when the caliphate périclite and propaganda Shiite are with its apogee, declared bâb (“emanation, demonstration”) of the tenth Imam, 'Ali Al-Hâdî Al-Naqî. He regarded it as an incarnation of the Holy Spirit, and saw itself like a prophet. According to the tradition, the eleventh Imam Al-Hassan Al “Askarî (death in year 260 of the era of the Hégire, is in 874 of the Christian era) entrusts a new revelation to him, which is the core of the doctrines alaouite. The oldest sources name sect Al-Namîriyya according to the nisba of Ibn Nousayr, then on 11th century Al-Nouṣayriyya imposes itself.
To the 10th century, the doctrines are transferred in Syria from North, with Alep. Surûr B. Al-Qâsim Al-Tabarânî, the chief of the community nosayrié, leaves the city in 1032 because of the ceaseless wars and goes in the Byzantine city of Laodicée (Lattaquié). He is the true founder of nosayriés Syrian. The local dynasty of Tanûh seems to adopt its doctrines, Al-Tabarânî converts also the peasants perhaps still pagan of the mountain ( jabal or Djebel in Arabic according to the areas) of the back-country. Its works form the main thing of the written tradition. He dies in Lattaquié in 1034-1035. Its tomb is venerated in mosque Al-Sa' rânî, not far from the port.
At the beginning of the 12th century, the west of the area is subjected by the cross . However, the Christian penetration is weak, and one speaks little in the Latin sources about the “nossorites”. As from 1132-1133, the Ismaéliens Nizârites take several fortresses in southernmost Djebel. The conflicts are already numerous with the alaouites. Two “councils” organized with 'Âna, on the means Euphrate, and in 1291 in Safita, with an aim of finding a conciliation with the ismaéliens are failures.
In 1188, Saladin takes Djeblé, Lattaquié and the Sahyoun, Djebel passes to a sultanate Ayyoubide. At the end of the Ayyoubides, about 1220, of the Bedouins come from Djebel Sinjâr are apparently called by the alaouites against the ismaéliens, and invade Djebel. They would descend four important tribes alaouites, which are Haddâdiyya (Haddadines), Matâwira (Mataouiras), Mahâliba (Mehelbés), Darâwisa (Darouissas), Numaylâtiyya (Nmeilatiés) and Banished 'Ali (Blessed Ali).
When the sultan Baybars takes the castles of the South of Djebel, it tries to convert with the Sunnisme the alaouites, by prohibiting initiations and ordering the construction of Mosquée S. the rising which follows these measurements is repressed, and the sultan Qalâwûn reinforces this policy.
But the sect survives and is maintained, and the pressure decreases under the Othoman . Nosayriés, pushed by the misery but freer of their movements, meet in bands which plunder and hold to ransom the area. The settlings of score are frequent with the ismaéliens. Most serious in 1808 takes place, when the emir of Massyaf is assassinated by two alaouites.
In 1854, the Turkish government wants to control the Djebel and names a local leader, the there to musir Al-Jabal Ismâ' it Beg, governor of the district of Safita. Installed at Dreykiche, this one puts an end to the ceaseless fights various rival families and subjects them. In exchange of a tribute fixes versed at the government, this one lets all to him be able on the country. But in 1858, it too powerful and is relieved by Tahîr Pasha. On several occasions, and especially in 1870 and 1877, of the Othoman troops devastate the country, break the resistance of the tribes and set up mosques, which remain empty.
Defying Arab Nationalism sunnites, they encourage during the Entre-deux-guerres a particularism alaouite which wants to make those people with whole share, having nothing to do with the Arab and whose history would go back to the Phéniciens.
See also: Alaouite (territory)
Doctrines alaouiteThe alaouites profess doctrines trinitaire:
Ma' nâ (divine gasoline)
- Ism (" Noun, Verb, the prophetic voice which reveals Ma' nâ hidden)
- the bâb (which plays the part of initiator to the religious mysteries).
The two last are both Hypostase S of the first.
For the alaouites, Ali is the Incarnation of God. He is eternal in his divine nature and appeared like Imam of time .
They profess the belief of the passage of the Holy Spirit in the succession of the Shiite Imams and are antinomists: they rejetent the Charia and the pertaining to worship obligations of the Islam (pilgrimage). Their clean delivers holy (Kitâb Al-madjmû') is added to the Coran.
Cosmogony alaouite is dialectical: at the beginning of times, the hearts of the believers are lights around God and rent it, then revolt while doubting Its divinity. They are then precipitated on ground where they are locked up in material bodies condemned to the Métempsycose. But they have a chance to be repurchased: indeed, God appears to them in the history to force them with obedience. With each théophanie, It is the gasoline ( ma' nâ ), and is accompanied by two hypostases which are subordinate for him: the name ( ism ) or veils ( hijâb ) and carries it ( bâb ).
The ma' nâ was Abel, Seth, Joseph, Josué, holy Pierre, and Ali, then all the Imams until eleventh, Al-Hassan Al 'Askarî. The hijâb , which veils the true nature of God and achieves His will, was Adam, Noah, Jacob, Moïse, Solomon, Jesus, Mohamed, and each one is accompanied by a bâb, which reveals the true nature of God, intermediary between the hidden divinity and the believers initiated. The central trinity is however that which have Ali for ma' nâ , Mohamed for hijâb and Salmân Al-Fârisî for bâb .
The eleven Imams are the following incarnations of the mâ' Na , their hujub is the caliphs, and of the abwâb reveal their divine nature. Thus, Muhammad B. Nusayr is the bâb last Imam. That which recognizes the mâ' Na is saved, released from the cycle, its heart becomes again star, and turns over through the seven skies towards the ġâya, the ultimate goal, i.e. the contemplation ( mu' âyana ) of the divine light. But the reincarnation can be a punishment. Because the heart which transgressed the commands of Ali must be réincarnée until its purification in a Juif, a Sunnite or a Christian , or worse , an animal.
The religion alaouite is founded on the hidden direction ( bâtin ), the mass of faithful being unaware of the deep sense of the divine message, reserved to the only initiates. Also it is difficult to have certainty as for the beliefs of the alaouites. Apparently, in addition to being in the history, one finds the principal Trinity in the stars. Here, interpretations diverge. According to Rene Dussaud, one finds four points of view different, which is as many sects: Haidariés, which identifies Mohamed with the sun and Salman with the moon, Chamaliés, who identify Ali with the sky, it has as a residence the sun which Mohamed represents, Ghaibiés, which thinks that hypostases, being expressed, are now invisible in the atmosphere, and Kalaziés, which preserved vestiges of the old lunar worships. On the other hand, the English anthropologist Sir Edward Evans-Pritchard made, like the father Henry Lammens in 1915, to disappear Chamaliés, confused with Haidariés.
The male alaouites are circoncis, and their initiation is done around 15 years. Two spiritual fathers are designated for the young man, then a sheik informs it. The Ramadan is practiced, one celebrates the Aid Al-saghîr. Moreover, like the Christian , the alaouites celebrate the Epiphanie and Christmas, and like the other Shiites, they celebrate the Achoura, which commemorates the martyr of Hussein to Karbala.
From all that, the women are excluded, and do not have the right to take part in the rites of the men. Their popular religion keeps pagan traces then (veneration of the high places, sources, green trees…). The worship of the saints, like often, is another pagan trace, commune with the two sexes. The country is indeed covered with qibâb (singular qubba ), which is cupolas sheltering the tombs of these saints.
As for the Druzes, there is no unanimity among the Moslem theologists as for the membership of the Islam of the alaouites: the lawyer hanbalite Ibn Taymiyyah invited to simply massacre them purely and like apostates, but the late Syrian president Hafez el-Assad Maria one of his sons with a woman sunnite resulting from the reigning family séoudienne, however known for his attachment with the Wahhabisme, doctrines for which Ibn Taymiyyah was an important source of inspiration. Same the Hafez el-Assad obtained lawyers as well Lebanese sunnites as Shiites of the fatwas recognizing the alaouites like Moslems, the presidency of the Republic of Syria constitutionally being able to be assumed only by one Moslem. The legitimacy of these fatwas was disputed.
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