The Pays of Al-Andalûs was the name given by the Musulman S to the part of the Iberian peninsula subjected to the Moyen-âge to the Moslem domination. It is generally estimated that this name is in connection with the Vandales which named the country Vandalucia , last of Spain in North Africa at the 5th century, even if certain linguists prefer speech of obscure etymology. The conquest of the country by the Moslem was as fast as unforeseen.
The conquest of Spain
See also: Moslem Conquest of Hispanie
- Conquest itself: (711-732)
North Africa hardly conquered, the governor Mûsâ had the idea to divert towards outside the warriors Berbères in whom it did not have a great confidence. In 711 it sends, under the command of the general Târiq ibn Ziyad: 7000 Berber to cross the Straits of Gibraltar - which draws its name from Târiq itself (" jabal tariq" in Arabic what means mountain of Tariq) - and to conquer Spain, then in prey with divisions. The unforeseen crushing of the king Visigoth Rodrigue with the Bataille of Guadalete (July) brings Mûsâ, in spite of the reserves of the Caliph, to pass itself to Spain. It makes the junction with Tarîq and enters with him to Tolède.
The wisigothic weakness of the party carried out by the Akhila applicant, who had called Mûsâ with the assistance against Rodrigue besides, gives the idea to the Moslems of a durable occupation, facilitated by agreements with the local leaders. In 713, Mûsâ already exceeded Saragossa. But in 714 Târiq and are destined him for Damas for investigation. It is the new emir Al-Hurr who continues the conquest, destroying Tarragone and occupying Barcelona (716 - 719). Its successors will go even beyond the the Pyrenees, towards the wisigothic Septimanie, from where they will launch forwardings towards North.
The stop of the Moslem conquest in Occident is certainly explained by the counter-attack of the Francs, but especially by the Berber insurrection with the the Maghreb, supported on the Kharidjisme (740). The Berber ones of Spain are also raised them, forming several columns which threaten Cordoue and Tolède. Vis-a-vis this danger, the Arabs, very few, were not even plain: a traditional opposition existed between Kaisites (Bedouin nomads of Arabia of north and the center) and Kalbites (sedentary farmers originating in the Yemen). The Berber revolt in spite of was very subdued by the kaisite Baldj, with a few thousands of Syria NS which had been evacuated of Ceuta besieged, and which remained finally in Spain.
The period which follows is rather confused, but the successive famines alleviate the conflicts. The governors, although not very powerful and often replaced, are increasingly independent of the Califat. The inversion of the Omeyyades by the Abbassides has as a consequence the emancipation of Spain: Abd Al-Rahmân, grandson of the last caliph omeyyade, takes refuge in North Africa, among the Berber tribes from which his/her mother is resulting. Its freed Badr having obtained to him the rallying from the Syrians and part of Kalbites of Spain, it passes in this country and seizes Cordoue in 756, where it is satisfied to proclaim emir.
The emirate must fight as well against the Berbères as against various Arab chiefs. Two of them, the governors of Barcelona (Sulayman Ben Yaqzan ibn Al-Arabi) and of Saragossa, cause even the intervention of Charlemagne (778). However, after the death of Abd Al-Rahmân (788), its descendants succeed in consolidating its dynasty in the Cordovan emirate. Right before its death, Abd Al-Rahmân had concluded the construction of the Grande mosque of Cordoue (785 -788).
The first Al-Andalus times
Cordoue, and all the grounds of the Iberian peninsula conquered by the Moorishes, is an emirate Omeyyade placed under the obedience of the Califat of Damas.
Caliphate of Cordoue
See also: Caliphate of Cordoue
- Omeyyades of Spain
He makes continuation one period of serious disorders to the paces of civil war, and prolonged duration.
See also: time of the taifas
They are small kinglets having essaimé on each urban core accessible at the conclusion of the implosion from the caliphate omeyyade. They reign on these small parcelled out kingdoms and competitors from/to each other, and are at the thank you of inversions of alliances. The time is turbid and aventuresque, this time they are the Christian kings enhardis who obtain that unquestionable Taïfas deliver a tribute to them after having known the defeat.
See also: Conquest almoravide, Conquest of Almohades
The kingdom of Grenade
See also: Kingdom of Grenade
See also: Islamic Civilization out of Al-Andalus
This country, quickly forgotten after the crucial Year (1492) by the winners with the dogma not suffering of more than complexes than their predecessors, brought a technological development and economic important to the occident.
Al-Andalus thus allowed the development in Europe of the methods of cultures: irrigation, culture of orange, pêchers, apricot trees…
Al-Andalus, during nearly eight centuries, was perceived like alien power in Europe by the Christian Occident then in full change and which benefitted all from this neighbor until absorbing it. It is the golden age without precedent of Islam on all the civilisationnels plans and which the occident acquires without complexes.
On the other hand, the Moors are unaware of completely Western science, however available in Spain. They are unaware of the techniques of constructions of carriages and remain on an antiquated means of transport to back of animal, thus avoiding maintaining an road infrastructure.
In the same way, the Western architecture which will rise with the Moyen-âge, passing by the Romance and Gothic styles will not have an influence on the Arab architecture which will remain on a model of building to the collected forms.
- Spain under the domination almoravide and almohade by Philippe Conrad, Historian.
- multilingual Site on Al-Andalus
- Rutas farming of Andalucía islámica
- Al-Andalus ways (site of UNESCO)
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