Ajaccio, chief town of the department of Corse-du-Sud (2A) on the west coast of Corsica, at the bottom of the gulf of Ajaccio. The commune in itself extends on northern bank from the gulf, between the Gravona and the Sanguinary Îles (included). Many beaches and splits border its territory of which the part Western is particularly broken (culminating point: 790 meters).
HistorySeveral assumptions were put forth as for the etymology of the name Ajaccio. Among those, most prestigious claims that the city would have been founded by the Greek Héros legendary Ajax which would have given him its name. Other explanations are however much more realistic. For example, the name Ajaccio could be related with the Tuscan agghiacciu (enclosed with ewe). Another explanation, supported by Byzantine sources close to the year 600 names the city Agiation , suggesting a Greek origin of the word, Agathe being able to mean " good fortune or " good mouillage" (root also in the beginning of the name of the town of Agde).
The city is not mentioned by the Greek geographer Ptolémée of Alexandria at the 2nd century after Jesus Christ, in spite of the presence of a named locality Ourkinion in the close Cinarca. However it is probably at that time that the town of Ajaccio experienced its first development. In this boom within the Mediterranean basin (the Pax romana), the need for a true capable port to accommodate large buildings with the downstream of the various valleys which end in the gulf probably made feel (important recent underwater archaeological discoveries of Roman boats tend to confirm it). Other excavations carried out recently have allowed the discovery of important vestiges paléochrétiens likely to considerably revalue with the rise the size of the Ajaccian agglomeration in the second part of the Antiquité and at the beginning of the Moyen-âge. The city was in any case sufficiently notable to be already the seat of a Diocèse, mentioned by the pope Gregoire Large the in 591. The city was then located more at north than the site chosen later by the génois, with the site of the current districts of Manor house Vecchio and St Lucia.
It is established that as from the 8th century the city, following the example majority of the other Corsican coastal communities, strongly declined and disappeared almost completely. Nevertheless, it is known that a castle and a cathedral were always places in 1492 from there and that the latter was demolished only in 1748.
At the end of the 15th century, the Génois eager to affirm their domination on the south of the island decided to rebuild the town of Ajaccio. Several sites were then considered: the point of Parata (judged finally too exposed to the winds), the old city (considered finally unhealthy because of the proximity of the pond of the Saltworks), and Punta della Lechia finally selected. Work began the April 21st 1492. The city developed quickly and became the administrative capital of the province of Beyond the Mounts (more or less current Corse-du-Sud), Bastia remaining the capital of the whole island. Initially a colony populated exclusively of Génois, the city opens to the Corsicans slowly, even if until practically the French conquest, the Ajaccians legally citizens of Genoa, are distinguished very readily from the insular paesani . These last inhabitants mainly the Borgu , suburb outside the ramparts of the city (the current street Fesch was the principal artery).
Ajaccio was occupied by the French of 1553 with 1559, then definitively passed to France in 1768. The city was made by Napoleon i, which of it was originating, the capital of the single department of the island to the detriment of Bastia. It is during the S that Ajaccio made up for its lost time on the latter and became the most populated city island (Approximately 52000 inhabitants and 63700 for the administrative agglomeration (official figure provided by WRAPPED). That Ci not including however the communes bordering on the south of the city, the real figure is located at the neighborhoods of 70000 habitans).
At the 19th century, Ajaccio is a station of wintering very appraisal of the high society of the time, particularly English, following the example Monaco, Cannes, Nice. A church Anglican was even built. The October 8th 1943, Ajaccio was the first released French city of the German domination . The city remained (with some interruptions) an electoral bastion Bonapartiste until the municipal elections of 2001. The outgoing municipality was then beaten by a left coalition gathering Sociaux-démocrates, Communistes and… Charles Napoleon, claiming with the imperial throne!
EconomyThe tertiary sector represents by far the principal provider of uses of the city. Ajaccio is an administrative and commercial center. The balneal Tourism estival but also cultural, as well as the fishing remain important sectors in the economy. Industry is far from present.
Ajaccio is the seat of the Chamber of commerce and industry of Ajaccio and of Corsica of the South. It manages the commercial port of Ajaccio, the commercial port of Bonifacio, the commercial port of Porto-Vecchio, the commercial port of Propriano and the marina Tino Rossi. It manages also the Aéroport of Ajaccio Campo dell' Oro, and the airport of Figari as well as the Palate of the Congresses and the Center of Ricanto.
The city is served by a international airport and its port is connected to the French continent in a quasi-daily way. Ajaccio became also a notable stopover of cruising, by far the first of Corsica and the fourth of France (behind Marseilles, Nice/Villefranche-sur-Mer, and Cannes).
AdministrationAjaccio was successively:
- a chief town of district of the Corsica department of , 1790 with 1793;
- chief town of the department of the Liamone, 1793 with 1811;
- chief town of the Corsica department of , 1811 with 1975;
- chief town of the Corsica area , since 1970, and of the department of the Corse-du-Sud, since 1976.
Ajaccio east chief town of seven cantons:
- the 1st canton is made of part of Ajaccio (8 891 inhabitants);
- the 2nd canton is made of part of Ajaccio (2 675 inhabitants);
- the 3rd canton is made of part of Ajaccio (7 566 inhabitants);
- the 4th canton is made of part of Ajaccio (5 372 inhabitants);
- the 5th canton is made of part of Ajaccio (7 989 inhabitants);
- the 6th canton is made of part of Ajaccio (17 579 inhabitants);
- the 7th canton is made of part of Ajaccio and communes of Afa, Alata, Appietto, Bastelicaccia and Villanova (11 547 inhabitants);
Ajaccio forms since December 2001 part of the Communauté of Agglomeration of the Ajaccian Country (WRAPPED) with nine other communes (Afa, Alata, Appietto, Cuttoli Corticchiato, Peri, Sarrola Carcopino, Tavaco, Valle di Mezzana and Villanova).
- Charles Bonaparte (1746-1785) father of Napoleon.
- Maria-Letizia Bonaparte (1749-1836) mother of Napoleon.
- Felix Pascal Bacciochi, prince of Lucques and Piombino (1762-1841) husband of Elisa Bonaparte, sister of Napoleon
- Joseph Fesch, uncle de Napoléon, cardinal and senator (1763 - 1839)
- Joseph Bonaparte (1768-1844) brother of Napoleon and king de Naples.
- Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor of French of 1804 to 1815. (1769 - 1821)
- Lucien Bonaparte (1775-1840) brother of Napoleon and prince Canino.
- Marie-Anne Bonaparte, known as Élisa (1777-1820) sister of Napoleon and princess of Lucques and Piombino.
- Louis Bonaparte (1778-1846) brother of Napoleon and king de Hollande.
- Marie-Paulette Bonaparte, known as Pauline (1780-1825) sister of Napoleon and Borghese princess.
- Marie-Annonciade Bonaparte, known as Caroline (1782-1839) sister of Napoleon and queen of Deux-Siciles.
- Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte, (1784-1860) brother of Napoleon and king of Westphalia.
- Philippe Antoine, count d' Ornano (1784-1863) cousin of Napoleon, one of his generals, high with the dignity of marshal by Napoleon III.
- François Coty, Joseph Marie François Spoturno says François Coty (Ajaccio, May 3rd, 1874 - Louveciennes, July 25th, 1934), industrialist and politician French (" Artist, industrialist, technician, economist, financier, sociologue" indicate its calling card) became the man richest of his time in only 20 years before all to lose. It is at the origin of modern French perfumery.
- Adolphe Landry, politician, demographer and economist (1874 - 1956). It is at the origin of the theory of the demographic Transition.
- Tino Rossi, singer (1907 - 1983) First universally adulated high-speed motorboat.
- Danielle Casanova, militant Communist and heroin of the resistance (1909 - 1943). Many streets and schools bear its name on the continent, mainly in the cities having been communist. It inspired to the painter Boris Taslitzky table the death of Danielle Casanova, exposed to London.
- Fred Scamaroni, resistant (1909 - 1943). One of the 26 characters celebrated by the series of stamps " Hero of Resistance ".
- Achilles Peretti, politician (1911 - 1983)
- Paul Vecchiali, scenario writer born in 1930
- Paulu-Battistu Halter, pilot of rally born in 1982
- Geostrophic, singer born in 1984
- Michel Ferracci-Porri, writer born in 1949
- Florian Lesca, singer born on May 22nd, 1981
- All Saints' day Campi, Major general (born the October 31st 1777 with Ajaccio - died the October 12th 1832 with Lyon).
Tourist monuments and places
the house in which was born and lived Napoleon is now a national museum.
- the imperial vault shelters the burials of the parents of Napoleon as well as his brothers and sisters.
- Of many monuments is devoted to the Napoleon, most spectacular being undoubtedly that being located place of Casone.
- Citadel of the 16th century.
- Cathedral of the Rebirth.
- the museum Fesch shelters a very important collection of Italian paintings of the Rebirth.
- the public library preserves many incunables of S.
- the old city and the Borgu are typically Mediterranean with their narrow and picturesque streets.
- the district known as " étrangers" comprise number of old de luxe hotels and buildings formerly built for wintering English, like the church Anglican. Some of them are unfortunately in a bad state of conservation.
- the path of the Peaks, which leaves the center town allows an easy excursion and offers splendid panoramas on the gulf of Ajaccio. The banks of this last are strewn with a multitude with beaches and small ideal splits for the bathe and deep-sea diving.
- the city has two casino and marinas.
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