In the tradition Moslem E, the expression Ahl Al-Bayt designates the close relations of Mahomet.
The Sunnites and the various branches of the Chiisme do not completely give the same contents to this expression.
Shiite point of viewThe definition of Ahl Al-Bayt would have been given by Mahomet itself in the “hadith of the coat” `Aicha tells that the messenger of God left one morning with coat to stripes makes wool of a black camel when Hassan Ben `Alî arrived. He wrapped it in his coat, then Husayn arrived, He wrapped it in his coat with the other. Then Fatima arrived and it put it under its coat, finally `Alî arrived and it also took it under its coat. He says “God then wishes only to keep you away of any impurity, O! “people in service”, and to purify you. The Shiites deduce from it that the people in service are: Followed Imam S, which for the Duodécimain S means: These people in service is called “the fourteen infallible ones”.
In a hadith brought back by Al-Tirmidhi in its collection, Al-Jami `Al-Sahih , `Aicha would have then required to be covered by the coat. Mahomet would have answered him that it was reserved for the people in service . The Shiites consider this hadith as a proof that the wives of the prophet do not form part of the people in service , and a fortiori their descendants.
The jurisprudence Shiite, provides that neither the people in service nor the direct descendants of Mahomet by one of the twelve Imams (Sayyid) can perceive alms (Zakat). They can perceive the alms of end of the Ramadan (Zakat Al-Fitr) of another sayyid. They can receive a share of (Khums) with the authorization of the Marja `- E Taqlid.
Sunnite point of view ofThe field of the people in service is broader.
On the way of return of its pilgrimage of good-bye, Mahomet made a halt between halfway Mecque and Médine with the place known as Ghadir Khumm. There, during a sermon, Mahomet announced its nearest end. In the hadith, known as Hadith de Ghadir Khumm , brought back by Muslim, Mahomet would have said that it left behind him two important things: The first it is the book of God (the Coran) and The second it is my descent, I point out to you your duties towards the members of my descent. Husayn ibn Sabra required of Zayd ibn Arqam: who are the members of the relationship? Isn't this its widows who are her family? Zayd answered him: Its widows and members of his family, i.e. all those which can't receive alms (Zakat)? And which is? `Ali and his descent, `Aqil and its descent, Ja `far and its descent and the descent of `Abbâs. Husayn ibn Sabred known as: Those and those which should not accept alms (Zakat). Zayd known as: Yes.
For the sunnites as for the Shiites the descendants of `Alî belong to the people in service . They include there also the widows of Mahomet is their descendants and the Hachémites and all their descendants until now.
Some, considering that what imports it is piety (Taqwâ) and not blood, still widen this field with all the pious Moslems.
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