The agronomy (of the Greek agronomos) is the whole of the Science S exact, natural, economic and social to which it is appealed in practice and the comprehension of the Agriculture. The Sciences veterinary surgeons are sometimes excluded from this definition.
Agriculture and agronomyThe terms of Agriculture and agronomy are often used indifferently, whereas they are two concepts différents.
Generally, agronomy is side of science (what explains why one speaks sometimes about agronomic sciences) whereas agriculture is directed towards the technique (including the application of the results of the agronomic research in the natural environment). Columelle, writer Latin of Ier century wrote a treaty on agronomy.
Agronomy: a local scienceResearch in agronomy, more than any other research, presents a character very often local. It can be regarded as the Pédologie insofar as it is closely related on the ground S and the Climat S, which are never the same ones from one area to another. This is why in France, for example, certain specializations are done in tropical agronomy, whose specificities are not comparable with the agriculture of the metropolis. One often speaks about Terroir S, which must be treated differently from/to each other.
Evolution of agronomyAgronomy is a science which evolved/moved much. The intensification of agriculture (years 1960 to 1990), also known under the term of Green revolution, is strongly related to the progress made as regards vegetable and animal productions (selection and improvement), like as regards inputs (plant health Engrais and Produits).
However, environmental degradations, related on agriculture productivist, the industrial development and at the height increase in world population, raised many questions and involved the development, even the appearance of new disciplines for agronomic science (Dépollution, treatment of the Déchet S, rural Development, biological Lutte).
The concept of the Sustainable development appeared in order to bring solutions to the degradation of the natural resources (lowers fertility of the grounds, water pollution, erosion…) caused by a type of intensive agriculture. This concept has as a principle of developing agriculture by increasing the outputs of the cultures and the livestock productions while respecting a natural balance. Agriculture thus becomes a cultivated ecosystem of which the man forms part and which it must maintain in balance.
The coupling of agronomy and data processing made it possible to bring a modern approach, in particular in the development of the farms. In the years 1960, the Operations research made its beginnings in the agronomic research.
Agronomic sciences currently seek to nourish the man, with larger Sécurité, a good management of the Natural resources and a respect for the Environnement. The economic, environmental and social functions of agriculture are today in the middle of a vast societal debate. Recent crises (Mad cow, genetically modified organizations), indeed showed the complexity and the importance of this debate. Some consider it essential to update the explanatory mechanisms of the evolution of agriculture by connecting them to the evolution of the social request. Although agronomy can be seen with the local scales, he is often considered to be essential to know and interpret the Systems of production set up in the world. Per hour of the Universalization of the exchanges, it appears indeed essential to know the raison d'être and the objectives of such systems.
Various branches of agronomyAgronomy is a science joining together several disciplines.
- vegetable Productions
- Livestock productions (Zootechnie)
- Fertilization of the plants, animal nutrition and human consumption
- Crop protection and health of the animals
- Sciences of the ground (Pédologie)
- Gestion of the Eau
- Biotechnologie S, the genetic Engineering and the Microbiologie
- agricultural Équipements, agricultural mechanization
- Food industries
- Sciences and genius of the environment
- Valorisation and Recyclage of the waste
- Écologie and Environment
Formation with agronomy
In France, agronomy is taught in several schools which form agricultural engineers, ENSA (agronomic higher National schools), ISTOM (School of engineers in international agro-development), ENITA (National schools of engineers of the agricultural work), the ESITPA (School of engineers of the Rooms of Agriculture), the schools of the FESIA (Federation of the universities of engineers in Agriculture), the Academic institute of biological technology Génie and of course within the agricultural colleges (since the BEPA-CAPA until the BTSA (Agricultural Advanced vocational diploma)). For a few years, Professional Licenses, carried out in partnership with establishments of the superior, have appeared.
To Quebec, the baccalaureat in agronomy is offered to the Université McGill in Montreal, in English, and with the Université Laval in Quebec, in French. The two baccalaureats are recognized by the Ordre of the Agronomists of Quebec.
In French-speaking Belgium, the agricultural engineers, or bioingénieurs, can follow their formation in three universities, the Catholic Université of Leuwen (UCL) to Leuwen-the-New, the Universit3e libre de Bruxelles (ULB) and the university Faculté of agronomic sciences of Gembloux (FUSAGx). These formations count 3 years of baccalaureat and 2 years of control. Several universities (in particular with ATH, Ciney, Liege…) gives also access to diplomas of agronomy into 3 or 4 years, whose graduates carry the title of agronomist and not of Agricultural engineer.
List of manufacturers of agricultural machinery
- List of manufacturers of inputs
- List of manufacturers of seeds
- List of fruit producers and vegetables
- List of great breedings
- List of agroalimentary companies
- List of great restaurants
- Antonio Saltini, Storia delle scienze agrarie , 4 vol., Bologna 1984-89, ISBN 88-206-2412-5, ISBN 88-206-2413-3, ISBN 88-206-2414-1, ISBN 88-206-2414-X
- List of the articles of agriculture and agronomy
- List of the agronomists famous
|Random links:||I am a celebrity, leave me from there! | Master miles | Juan Martín del Potro | Maffe | Billy Kearns | Passage_de_Mercury|