The agarics , also called psalliotes (the mycologists were entredéchirent since long years to know which of the two terms is preferable), are Champignon S Basidiomycète S of the kind Agaricus , pertaining to the family of the Agaricacée S. It exists about it very many species, almost all edible, of which the most consumed is Agaricus bisporus , cultivated in an industrial way under the name of cultivated mushroom . The “wild” species grow in an often abundant way, as of the first rains of the summer, in the meadows and the coppices, sometimes in wood lights.
CharacteristicsAgarics are mushrooms whose Lamelle S, free, are pink when the mushroom is young, then brown-black with black when it ages. The Spore S are brown noirâtre or black. The hat, fleshy, generally smooth and white at the young specimens, recovers then fibrillae or of squames of ocrée color as it opens. The foot is with the departure attached to the hat by a veil, which is transformed then into ring. It can easily separate from the hat. It does not carry a Volve, which makes it possible, inter alia characteristics, to distinguish agarics from the white Amanite S mortals. A confusion is also possible with certain small Lépiote S, but these last have white plates and spores.
Agaricus arvensis : agaric of the fallow. Sometimes called snowball , it is one of largest agarics, pushing in the meadows and the places discovered. Its hemispherical hat is generally white. It is distinguished from the close species by its pronounced enough anisated odor and its ring, whose bottom forms a kind of gear wheel.
- Agaricus bisporus : agaric bispore. Rare in a wild state, it is cultivated under the name of cultivated mushroom.
- Agaricus campestris : pastoral agaric, also called rosy of the meadows . Undoubtedly the best of all agarics, it pushes in important groups in the meadows. The hat is blanchâtre, generally fibrillous. The plates are pink sharp then brown. One recognizes it moreover with his strong fungic odor (mushroom odor).
- Agaricus silvaticus : sylvan agaric or agaric of the forests. Met primarily in the forests of conifers. Its hat is covered with many brown scales. Its flesh strongly turns pink with the break or crumpling. Strong fungic odor. Excel edible.
- Agaricus silvicola : forestry agaric, also called snowball of wood . As its name indicates it, this agaric pushes in the wood or the forests of leafy trees. Enough similar to A. arvensis , it has like him a strong odor of anise and almond (benzylic alcohol, anisaldédyde). Its hat is often moderate of yellow. Very good edible (to be wary of the risks of confusion with the white amanitas, and thus to check well the color of the plates and the absence of volva).
- Agaricus xanthoderma : yellowing agaric. Could be confused with the precedent, but its phenol odor, rather unpleasant, does not evoke of anything anise. Moreover, it strongly yellows if one rubs it with the back of the nail. It pushes especially with the edge of wood. It contains derivatives of phenol which irritate the digestive tract (toxic).
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