The African Union (UA) is an organization of African States created in 2000, with Durban (South Africa). It replaced the Organization of African Unity (OAU) in 2002. The installation as of these institutions (Commission, Panafrican Parliament and the Council of peace and safety) took place in July 2003 at the top of Maputo (Mozambique).
Created with the image of the European Union, its goals are to work with the promotion of the Démocratie, the Human rights and the development through the Africa, especially by the increase in the outside investments via the program of the Nouveau partnership for the development of Africa (NEPAD). This program stipulates that peace and the democracy are essential preconditions to sustainable development.
The objectives of the African Union comprise the creation of a central bank of development.
Bodies of the UA
Its bodies are:
- the Conference: meeting of the heads of state and government once the year, decisional body of the Union;
- the Executive council: composed ministers or authorities named. He prepares the Conference, carries out the decisions and the follow-up ensures some;
- the Commission, of which the current president is Alpha Oumar Konaré, former president of the Mali. It is made up of a president, a vice-president and eight police chiefs. It replaced the general secretary of the UA. It is the executive authority and also has a capacity of initiative;
- the Panafrican Parlement, whose creation was decided in March 2004, it opened its doors in September 2004 in South Africa. It currently has an advisory role;
- the Council of Peace and Safety (CPS): composed of 15 States, it is in charge of the maintenance of stability, the promotion of the preventive diplomacy and the humanitarian action;
- the Economic council, social and cultural (ECOSOCC): consultative body, from which the members come from the various socio-professional layers of the Member States;
- Court of justice;
- African Court of the human rights and the people;
- the Committee of the permanent representatives;
- specialized technical Committees;
- financial institutions (three).
Member StatesIt there currently has 53 members of the UA, that is to say all the countries of Africa, except for the Morocco. This last was withdrawn from the OAU to protest against the admission in the organization of the Arab République sahraouie democratic in 1982.
See also: List of the Member States of the African Union
Origin of the UA
The African Union was born from the will to start again the process of political integration, which appears essential to the eyes of the African leaders for the economic growth of the continent. The impulse would have been given by the Libyan president Mouammar Kadhafi in 1998. As during the creation of the UA, the designs federalistic and the souverainists clash. According to the analyzes, the result is an organization of compromise.
Two notable changes in the new organization:
the new institutions of the UA testify, at least in its form, of an intention of division of the authority.
Another characteristic of the UA, its organization is inspired largely by that of the European Union. The general secretary of the OAU was replaced by the Commission, which has a capacity of initiative and either only executive.
Preventions of the conflictsThe OAU, ancestor of the UA preached the respect of sovereignty and non-interference. Contrary, the UA gives itself a right of interference in certain situations (genocide, war crimes). She plays since her creation a part in this field.
The UA in particular intervened with the Togo in 2005: an open crisis is avoided with died of the " président" Gnassingbé Eyadéma allowing the Eyadema son to replace his/her father. It also intervened for the resumption of the democratic process, as in Central African Republic and with the Burundi.
The two actors within the UA acting in this field are the president of the Conference of the Heads of State and the Council of peace and safety (CPS).
Its first mission in times that gripping force of peace during the Civil war in Darfur consisted in deploying in 2007 approximately 6.000 soldiers, at the time of the operation FRIENDLY. But those are not sufficient vis-a-vis the extent of the task.
The Council of peace and safety ( CPS )
Created in 2003, the Council of peace and safety of the African Union is composed of 15 States: South Africa, Algeria, Cameroun, Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Libya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan and Togo.
Declaration on African sovereignty
In May 2004, the Commission of the African Union emitted a Strategic planning in which for the first time, the African continent indicated the foreign occupation of country or territories considered as African. On the whole, eight territories are asserted:
Chronological reference marks
- 1991: treated Abuja which envisages the creation of a continental Common Market before 2025.
- 2000: creation of the UA with the signature of the deed of partnership with Durban in South Africa.
- 2002: the UA replaces the OAU.
- July 2003: top of Maputo (Mozambique): installation of the institutions: Commission, Panafrican Parliament and the Council of peace and safety (CPS).
- January 2006: end of the presidency of Olusegun Obasanjo (also Head of State of the Nigeria on this date) to the head of the UA. The president of the République of Congo Denis Sassou Nguesso becomes the new president of the UA. The President of the commission is Alpha Oumar Konaré, former president of the Mali.
- November 2006: the the United States name for the first time an ambassador of a nonAfrican country at the UA: Cindy Courville .
|Random links:||Gerard Petitjean | Dig | International Stockholm Peace Research Institute | Busturialdea | School of art of the community of agglomeration of Bayonne-Rebated joint-Biarritz | 519|