Adjustments of karting
In Karting, as in all the mechanical Sports, the quality of the performances depends on the good adjustment of the material. This article on the Adjustments of karting into present an outline.
The karts are small cars single-seater with four wheels equipped with a Moteur of small-engined car (in general two times of 100 or 125 cm ³) which can develop to 40 horses. The Châssis of karting are deprived of suspension and of Différentiel, braking is ensured by a Brake disc assembled on the back axis. Certain categories accept the brakes before (small disc brakes assembled on the hubs before sometimes activated by a handle at the wheel).
Adjustment of the frame
The best frames make it possible to vary their rigidity thanks to stiffeners. Thus, one will use a frame rather:
Flexible in dry weather and sinuous circuit
- Rigid in wet weather or on circuit " long"
There exist several types of Pneu S. the tires slick with gum lasts has a good longevity, but offers less adherence, the tires slick with tender gum have better a grip, but one shorter lifespan etc. The tires rain are carved to support the evacuation of water on wet track and are narrower.
The Pression of inflation is determining for the speed of the heating of the tires (the optimal Température bordering the 70 °C).
Overpressure = loss in handling (reduction in the tread - one on-inflates in the event of wet track), overheating and premature wear
- Sous-pression = increase in the grip at the optimal temperature, but assembled in temperature slower and penalizing in the first turns
The tires are assembled on rim S in Aluminum, Magnésium or composite materials. The rims in composite allow a rise in faster temperature.
The width of the ways
The spacing of the two wheels of the same train influences the stability of the kart in turn:
Train with weak spacing = increase in adherence
- For the nose gear:
- more incisive train in the curves
- oversteer kart
- For the rear wheel-axle unit:
- returns the nose gear sousviror
- reduction in the stability of the kart in turn and with braking
- loss of motricity at exit of turn
- Train with great spacing = reduction in adherence
- For the nose gear (used in rainy weather):
- more precise turns in the average/fast curves
- For the rear wheel-axle unit:
- skids in curves
Foot-note: The width of the back way is to the maximum of 140 cm (adjustment by defect on dryness).
The height of the ways
Way before low:
- more reactive frame
- light loss of effectiveness in the middle of the turn
- Voie postpones low:
- profit of freer stability
- frame at exit of turn
The center of gravity
The Center of gravity is not inevitably to lower low possible. Indeed:
- increase in the stability of the kart
- reduction in adherence
- increase in adherence
- skids less foreseeable and controllable with more difficulty in turn
Foot-note: On wet track, one will tend to mount the frame in order to gain adherence.
dry Time: Parallelism is by null defect (wheels perfectly parallel S), but one can slightly grip the wheels forwards 1 or 2 mm
- wet Temps: Parallelism can be slightly open in order to support the rise in temperature of the tires
Foot-note: A badly adjusted parallelism involves a premature wear of the tires.
dry Time: The set must be null
- wet Temps: slightly positive set in order to gain of stability and precision for the nose gear
Foot-note: A badly adjusted set involves a premature wear of the tires on the right-sided or left.
The castor angle
Standard value: 0°
- increase in the adherence of the nose gear
- more incisive frame
- harder direction
- weak Angle:
- opposite effects
- more flexible direction
To harden or soften a little more the adjustments frame, one can use a more or less flexible tree back according to the conditions of track.
a more flexible tree is adapted to the conditions of strong adherence,
- a hard tree is adapted for conditions of rain or lack of adherence.
The pinion ratio/crown
The power of the Moteur is transmitted to the tree postpones by the way of a chain. The choice of the pinion ratio/crown is a compromise between motricity with low mode (left turns) and top speed in straight line.
Rapport runs = increase in the transmitted power (larger crown)
- long Rapport = increase speed for a number of tr/min given (smaller crown)
One finds crowns from 64 to 96 teeth. The length of the chain varies according to the selected report/ratio.
Adjustment of the engine
A rich carburation lubricates the engine but made lose power and vice versa, with a risk of tightening (driving break-in - the piston, not lubricated enough is wedged in the cylinder) if the mixture is too poor. The adjustment of carburation must be adapted according to the atmospheric conditions.
There exist two types of Carburateur S on the engines of karting, the screw carburettors and the jet carburettors.
With the carburettors with Vis the adjustment of the engine is done via 2 principal screws on the carburettor, for bottom and average mode, another for the high mode. Certain carburettors comprise one 3rd screw. The final tuning is carried out on the track, while rolling.
The jet carburettors do not have external screws of adjustment, the richness of the engine depends on the size of the jet and of the form of the bushel, the change of jet must be done in the stands.
Indicating of weak mixture too:
dynamism of the engine with high mode
- holes (jolts) in the Acceleration or with high mode
- taken turns by the engine when one blocks partially the air flow
Indicating of too rich mixture:
- lack of power
- loss of power by the engine when one blocks partially the air flow
- the engine hoquette with high mode
- the mode out of top speed is relatively weak
The state of the candles is a good indicator of the quality of carburation (after ten turns).
clogged Candle (black base plate, black electrode): mix too rich
- Bougie like new (base plate beige-white, intact electrode): mix too poor
- Encrassement of the base plate: determine the quality of the mixture with low mode
- Encrassement of the electrode: determine the quality of the mixture with high mode
Limps with air
With the engines 100 cm ³ " old génération" , limps it with air allows, by blocking it with the hand at the end of the acceleration, to enrich the air-gasoline mixture and thus to lubricate of advantage the engine. This to prevent any risk of tightening when the engine continues to turn " dry " during braking.
The length of the Muffler influences the behavior of the engine.
Pot runs: facility to be gone up in the turns to high mode
- long Pot: better begun again with low modes.
Explanations on the behavior and the basic adjustments of a unspecified Châssis are available in this article detailed.
techniques of the kart - TEAM Kart 2000
- technical Pages - World karting
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