Adhud AD-Dawla Faded Khusraw
Azad o-dowleh or “Adhud AD-Dawla Fannâ Khusraw ( the auxiliary of the capacity ) is the oldest son of Rukn AD-Dawla emir bouyide with Ray and Hamadan. It was born the 24 September 936 with Ispahan. He becomes emir of the Fars and the Kerman in 949 then emir of Iraq in 978. He dies on March 26th 983. Fannâ Khusraw, oldest son of Rukn AD-Dawla, will inherit directly none the territories conquered by his/her father but he will succeed his uncle `Imad AD-Dawla `Alî in the Fars then to increase his field with depend on his brothers.
BiographyIn 947, Driven `izz AD-Dawla and Bouyides of Iraq takes Bassora. From this moment, one of the objectives of the policy of Bouyide will be to control the trade of the gulf towards the Indian Ocean and consequently to take the control of the Détroit of Ormuz. The control of the strait allows, those which hold it, to impose taxation of the transit goods.
Emir of Fars (949)In 948, Fannâ Khusraw is chosen by his/her uncle `Imad AD-Dawla `Alî as successor because this one does not have a heir. `Imad AD-Dawla “Ali dies in December 949. Unfortunately this nomination is not accepted by the court. A rebellion against Fannâ Khusraw occurs little time afterwards. Rukn AD-Dawla leaves towards the south Iran to support his/her son. It is joined by the vizier of Mu `izz AD-Dawla left Iraq with a same aim. Both manage to give Fannâ Khusraw on the throne to Chiraz. Fannâ Khusraw receives Abbasid Caliph Al-Muti the nickname of `Adhud AD-Dawla ( the auxiliary of the capacity ). His/her father Rukn AD-Dawla, who is most powerful Bouyide, claims the title of elder emirs. Driven `izz AD-Dawla and `Adhud AD-Dawla recognizes this prerogative to him. In 966, `Adhud AD-Dawla and Mu `izz AD-Dawla conduct a joint campaign to impose the capacity bouyide in Oman. The representatives of Bouyides are quickly expelled of Oman.
In 967, Driven `izz AD-Dawla, “the emir of the emirs” of Iraq, dies. His/her oldest son `Izz AD-Dawla succeeds to him as emir d' Irak it considers that it also inherits the title “of emir of the emirs”.
Conquest of Kerman (967)`Adhud AD-Dawla benefits from the quarrel between Abû “Ali Muhammad Ben Elyâs and his son in Kerman to annex part of this province. Driven `izz AD-Dawla had tried the takeover of this province but Banû Elyâs had taken again control of it. It conquers the remainder of Kerman the following year and negotiates peace with the Saffaride Khalaf bin sovereign Ahmad of the Sistan which plays a crucial role by weakening the permanent enemies of Bouyides, i.e. the Samanides. The latter support Sulayman, the son of Abû `Alî Muhammad Ben Elyâs which wants to take again its kingdom of Kerman. “Adhud AD-Dawla demolishes the armies of Sulayman and continues its progression through the territory of Kerman to the strait of Ormuz. On this occasion of many tribes will convert with Islam and will make act of allegiance. In August/September 971, `Adhud AD-Dawla launches a punitive forwarding against these tribes Baloutches which disavowed their oath. They are definitively overcome on January 8th, 972 and `Adhud AD-Dawla installs peasants to modify the aspect of the province. `Adhud AD-Dawla and its father Rukn AD-Dawla signs a peace treaty with Samanides. Bouyides agree to pay 150.000 dinars in Samanides per annum. After having opened the way towards Ormuz, `Adhud AD-Dawla conquers Zohar the capital of Oman then in the year it conquers the mountains and thus takes the complete control of the country what was already the objective of the campaigns carried out with his/her uncle twenty-five years earlier.
In 974, `Izz AD-Dawla is taken with the trap with Wâsît by a rebellion of its troops with Baghdad and simultaneously in the Khuzestân. “Adhud AD-Dawla comes from Fars to subdue the rebellion. It imposes to the rebels a defeat on January 30th, 975. But then it intrigues so that `Izz AD-Dawla is constrained to abdicate in its favor (March 12th, 975). His/her father, Rukn AD-Dawla, refuse this catch to be able and restore `Izz AD-Dawla. This last agrees to recognize Rukn AD-Dawla like “elder emirs”. The consequences the competition between `Izz AD-Dawla and `Adhud AD-Dawla will appear after the death of Rukn AD-Dawla.
`Adhud AD-Dawla launches into 975, a forwarding to take again Bam with a renegade officer samanide and it demolishes another son of Abû “Ali Muhammad Ben Elyâs who sought to take again Kerman. Then, the area seems to be remained in peace until the death of `Adhud AD-Dawla.
Died of Rukn AD-Dawla (976)September 16th, 976, last Rukn AD-Dawla representing of the first generation of Bouyides dies. “Izz AD-Dawla tries to take its revenge against “Adhud AD-Dawla. It makes alliance with Fakhr AD-Dawla which succeeds his/her father on the territory of Hamadan, with Hamdanides which reigns on the north of Iraq, with the Kurdish chief Hasanûya Barzekânî and the sovereign of the marshy territories of the south of Iraq. On its side Mu' ayyid AD-Dawla, the third wire of Rukn AD-Dawla which inherits the territory of Ispahan, remains faithful to its elder `Adhud AD-Dawla.
`Izz AD-Dawla does not seek any more to make pretense recognize the preeminence of his/her cousin `Adhud AD-Dawla. It makes cease mentioning name of his cousin during the prayers of Friday. `Adhud AD-Dawla leaves for Khuzestân and easily overcomes `Izz AD-Dawla with Ahwaz (July 1st, 977). `Izz AD-Dawla asks for `Adhud AD-Dawla the authorization of be withdrawn and to be established in Syria. On the road towards Syria `Izz AD-Dawla is convinced by the sultan Hamdanide of Mosul Abû Taghlib to go to take again the combat against his/her cousin. May 29th, 978, the battle begins close to Samarra. `Izz AD-Dawla is again overcome. It is made prisoner and condemned to died by `Adhud AD-Dawla. `Izz AD-Dawla is carried out.
`Adhud AD-Dawla becomes emir d' Irak. Contrary to Bouyides which had occupied this Khuzestân in a temporary way, “Adhud AD-Dawla took control completely of it. The armies of `Adhud AD-Dawla take then the control of the territories under the dependence of the Kurds who had practically become independent of the capacity of the Abbasids. It should be understood that at the time one designated by “Kurdish” any wandering population of the Zagros including the At the time.
In May/June 979, `Adhud AD-Dawla penetrates in the territories of his/her brother Fakhr AD-Dawla who flees towards Qazvin then towards Nichapour most of his troops deserted. `Adhud AD-Dawla moves towards Kerman where it installs a governor. In August/September 980, `Adhud AD-Dawla occupies Hamadân and all the area in the south of this city which passes under the entirety controls of Bouyides for one half-century. Little time afterwards, in October /novembre of the same year, the vizier de Mu' ayyid AD-Dawla arrives of Ray to negotiate a transfer to be able of this city in favor of its Master. `Adhud AD-Dawla in recognition of the fidelity of his/her young brother gives the troops of Fakhr AD-Dawla to him more other troops to be able to attack Samanides which have been just combined in Ziyarides to conquer the Tabaristan and the Gorgan. Mu' ayyid AD-Dawla will manage to conquer these two provinces.
The death of `Adhud AD-Dawla`Adhud AD-Dawla dies on March 26th, 983, it is buried with Nadjaf.
The work of construction of a state bouyide unified `Adhud AD-Dawla will not be continued by its successors. The execution of his/her cousin destroyed the family solidarity of Bouyides. Nevertheless its aptitude to impose its capacity on almost all other Bouyides gives to this family at the humble origins a kind of legitimacy which will enable him to survive until the medium of.
HeritageWhile continuing the policy of the sovereigns Bouyides precedents by maintaining the caliphate Abbasid in Baghdad what gave to Bouyide a certain legitimacy with the eyes of their subjects sunnites, `Adhud AD-Dawla showed more interest than its predecessors for the preislamic culture Persian. He visited Persépolis where he left an inscription which shows its conscience to be the heir to be the heir to these preislamic civilizations.
Like the majority of Bouyides, `Adhud AD-Dawla was the patron of Arab authors. There are only very few elements making it possible to speak about an interest for poetry Persian of its time. He learned Arabic, wrote in Arabic and was proud to be the pupil of famous a grammairien Arab. He studied sciences of his Arabic time, including astronomy and mathematics. The majority of the works written in Arabic were dedicated to him that they are with religious contents or layman. Apparently while showing its interest for Arabic rather than for the Persan one, `Adhud AD-Dawla followed the general current of the intellectual life in a provincial town where the culture was dominated by Arabic and Pahlevi.
As much of its contemporaries, it does not seem only its admiration for preislamic Iranian civilization did not enter in conflict with its Moslem faith Shiite. According to certain testimonys, it made repair the mausoleum of Hussein to Kerbala and made build the mausoleum of `Alî with Nadjaf where it asked to be buried. It is said that it was shown particularly generous towards the one eminent Shiite theologist. However its policy was not Shiite in a univocal way. It tried to approach the sunnites by giving his daughter in marriage to the Caliph, it was a failure because the caliph refused to consume the marriage.
The builderIn Iraq its more important construction is the hospital in Baghdad which remained in function until after the Mongolian invasion. The major part of its constructions is in Fars. It made there build caravanserais, cisterns and stoppings. The city which particularly profited from this work is Chiraz. In the area of Chiraz, it builds a palate of three hundred and sixty rooms with a sophisticated system of turns with wind for the air-conditioning of the rooms. Chiraz became so populated that, under his reign one built a close satellite town for his army. The name of this garrison town was Kard-e Fannâ Khosrow, ( made by Fannâ Khusraw ) thus referring clear to the names which the sovereigns Sassanides gave to their foundations.
There were two annual festivals in the city. The first to commemorate the day when the water of the aqueduct reached the city and the second to point out the date of foundation of the city. These two festivities were instituted by `Adhud AD-Dawla on the model of the festivals of Norouz, the Iranian new year, which he had known during his childhood with Ispahan.
All this activity reinforced the economy of Fars so that the income of the taxes has triplet during. It contributed to the enrichment of Fars which will be an area of relative stability and prosperity for the culture Persian in spite of the invasions of the Mongolian Seldjoukides then .
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