See also: Adam (homonymy)
Adam is a character of the Genèse, companion of Eve and father of humanity .
According to the biblical account
According to the Bible, with the book of the Genesis, Adam is the first man and was creates by God at the time of the sixth day of the Création. Eve was created starting from a coast of Adam (Genesis 2:21,22). The first couple was placed by God in the garden of Éden.
However, God had prohibited the consumption of the fruit of the Arbre of the knowledge of the good and the evil, but the Serpent (Hebrew Nahash in ) tried Eve who ate Forbidden fruit then made some eat in Adam. This Original sin would be the fault made by these first men, who were then expelled of Eden.
According to Jewish legends not mentioned in the Hebraic Bible, Adam had a first woman, Lilith.
The continuation of the book of the Genesis tells that, ten generations after Adam and Eve, the humanity born of the first couple disappeared under the Déluge, except for Noah and of its family (its wife, its sons Japhet, Sem, Cham and their wives), to which God entrusted to the task of refonder humanity. Thus Noah is it, according to the Bible, the most recent ancestor common to all humanity.
Origin of the name of AdamThe popular explanation, which makes it come from Adama (ʾĀḏāma), does not take account of the mode of formation of the words of the Hebraic language: shorter with longest, parallel to the development of the concepts. It is thus Adam who gives Adama and not the opposite. In the text, the ground is named adama only after the formulation by God of the project to make Adam. Previously, it is called aretz.
The Midrash proposes several comments on the name Adam
- ADAM, it is ED (the ED, sits of the ground) and PREJUDICE (blood, sits of the heart)
- ADAMA, it is ADAM MY, it man-what, the man which raises questions
- ADAM, it is ADAMA (ground) and EDAME (I will resemble, Isaïe 14:14). It is that which can rise so high that it becomes with the resemblance of God, and go down so low that it is lower than the plant, to see mineral.
- There exists a Notarikon of Adam, Abraham, David, Messie (Avraham David Mashia' H)
Word ED is derived ADeret (the armor), ADon (the dominator), ADir (the fort). In light, ED is index of vital energy. From ED Adam comes, of course, but also Adom (red), the red being the “alive” color more, which included/understood well the artists and advertizing executives.
At the beginning, Adam represents the male and the female (God created Adam with Its image, with the image of God It created it, male and female It created them).
Created by God by giving him the most harmonious image among its creatures, starting from water and from ground, Adam accepted knowledge of the names of all things and its future offspring ( Al-Baqara , 28-31).
To be filled Creation, favoured by the aptitude for the knowledge and of the training Adam after having received teaching on behalf of God, knew to name other creatures, while the angels, while not being taught by God were not able to do it. God declared on this subject that it knew what they (angels) could not know. Thus the angels accepted the order to be inclined in front of Adam to greet it, they applied to it, except for Iblis which swelled pride by asserting the fact that it was made of matter nobler than the ground (fire) whose Adam is made, it disobeys the orders of the lord and refused to be inclined, it was counted since, like infidel among the servants of the Lord and was driven out forever His mercy. Iblis the Jura to have cursed it to work to make disobey Adam and his offspring recommendations of the lord by temptation.
Adam lived at the beginning in the garden of Eden with his wife Eve, created starting from a coast of his left side according to certain accounts. They disobeyed the divine command and ate the fruit of the prohibited tree. However, in Islam, God forgave in Adam his act due to his nature of weakness towards temptations of Satan and from the characteristic of the lapse of memory with which it was naturally conceived, it accepted words of God and was forgiven n the other hand of these words accepted by Adam at the conclusion which it had left with Iblis the paradise and had gone down by the angels towards the ground to live him there and its offspring as enemies with Ibliss and his offspring, in quality again main of the ground, as it was announced at the beginning by God with the angels.
Adam is also regarded in Islam as being the builder of the Maison Crowned of the Almighty (or Kaaba), the original one.
First man and Prophet like father of humanity. He is quoted like heir to the ground after the djinns. According to the exégète of Islam Ibnou Al-Kathir in its work “tales of prophets” the ground was populated before Adam of djinns another species of nonland creatures destroyed by the wars and the destruction of which was survivor one of their famous scientist and chief: Iblis.
In the Law of Adam, it was allowed to the brother to marry his sister born of another childbirth so that the descent of human can be propagated on ground (what with changed later). Also Eve gave the day to each childbirth with a boy and a girl; Forty times in its life.
FreemasonryThe historians Franc-maçons affirmed that Adam and Eve were the first freemasons of the history. They are the remarks of CH. Bernardin of the the Great East.
According to this account, Adam had made build a cabin whose Eve had been excluded because it was a woman. These topics are represented in the writings of Martines de Pasqually, Claude of Saint Martin's day and Willermoz.
It there also the legend of Adam Kadmon, which is a figure of the current Rosicrucien. The rite of York, certain Worthy of the 28e degree take the name of Adam. This account maconnic resembles that of the Moslems in a point: belief in a adamic religion , whatever it is.
The account confronted with science
The account of Adam as origin of the Man was contradicted by Charles Darwin and his theory of the evolution. At that time it was thought that the plants, the animals and the man had been created such as they are, right from the start, or to repopulate planet following catastrophes (the such Déluge), thus joining the scientific designs of Plato and Aristote on the Théorie of the Ideas. When Darwin publishes his book origin of the Species in 1859, it raised an general outcry and the Church raised the protests more the sharp. It published in 1871 the book The Descent off Man and Selection in Relation off Sex treating genealogy of the Man, where it concludes that the men and the monkeys go down from a common ancestor, which is with opposite account of Adam.
See also: Créationnisme
This evolutionary assumption is today accepted by the Catholic church, which locates Adam in the world symbolic system, where it represents the passage of the préhumain to the human one, at the moment when the first men become aware that they are of another nature that the animal, that certain acts “are defended to them”.
The theory of the evolution of Darwin includes the concept of common ancestor (title to which Noah and his wife as well as Adam and Eve can claim in the Bible), since the evolution of a species rests on the principle which a quality (one at the time did not speak about genes ) appeared on an individual, making it more suited to survival or the reproduction, and which the propagation of this quality will determine a new group. All the members of this group thus have at least this individual like common ancestor. The Génétique supplemented the theory of Darwin. We know today that the Mutation S occur, always at only one individual male or female, precisely in the germinal cells, and all the other representatives of the species concerned go down from him. The study of the genealogy of the species is called the Phylogénie.
See also: Evolution (biology)
In fact, each gene of the human genetic baggage corresponds to an individual, male or female, who then propagated them with all the species. For example, There is common gene 99% between the man and the Chimpanzé, which represents that a similar proportion of our common ancestors are at the not-human alive species. A small portion of the whole of our common ancestors are in the groups of the first human ones, of which the modern men.
The monophyletism of the mankind is well shown. The species Homo sapiens (the modern man) was born from the stock Homo erectus at the same time by Mutation, and by natural selection, which survived, approximately 200.000 years ago, some share in Africa. The settlement of the Earth would have started there are 50 to 100.000 years from there.
Let us recall that the Homo sapiens would absolutely not kill from the Homo neandertalensis his/her cousin, a species who would be extinct, approximately 28.000 years ago, without leaving posterity. Also let us recall that phyletic separation between the simiens (Quadrupèdes) and the Hominini (biped) ancestors of the modern man, goes back to some 5 to 7 million years. No crossing is possible between these two lines.
Certain researchers were interested, thanks to the genetics, to identify common ancestors. The professor Richard Dawkins was interested in this topic of ancestor common to all humanity. Allan Wilson and his colleagues of the university of Berkeley, as well as the English geneticist Bryan Sykes made research on the DNA mitochondrial, which is transmitted only by the mother. This research made it possible to identify several common ancestors females, which they called Eve mitochondriale by association of idea with the Génèse. Eve mitochondriale would have lived in Africa approximately 150.000 years ago,
Research on the Y chromosome made it possible to identify a male ancestor with all the men. This individual, called Adam Y chromosome , also lived in Africa, and would go back only to approximately 39.000 years.
But neither this Eve mitochondriale, nor this Adam Y chromosome (which lived at the same time), are not Adam and Eve of the Bible because they were each one child of two parents of the same species, member of their species and their social group, in which each one was coupled with a member of its species which had distinct parents.
They were not first Homo sapiens nor oldest human or more former human common ancestors. Their position in the human family tree is that of the most recent common ancestor by pure maternal line (for Eve mitochondriale) and by pure paternal line (for Adam Y chromosome).
See also: Eve mitochondriale
- Eve, the partner of Adam,
- Adamites, Adam's apple, Bridge of Adam, Peak of Adam
- Eve mitochondriale, seven daughters of Eve of Bryan Sykes
- human Evolution, Evolution (biology), Prehistory, Homo sapiens
- 2003: curse of Adam by Bryan Sykes, Editions Albin Michel
- 2006: Short meditations on the creation of the world by Jean-Marc Rouvière, Edition Harmattan
- 2006: the Epopee of Humanity by James Shreeve of the monthly magazine n°78 of National Geographic France
- 1991: Le Monde of Sophie by Jostein Gaarder, Edition Threshold, 626 p.
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