Acute-Dead is a common French, located in the department of the Gard and the area Languedoc-Roussillon.
During the French revolution the city was called Port-Pelletier.
Its inhabitants is called Aiguemortais.
By the highway network, Acute-Dead is located at approximately 35 km Nimes (prefecture of Gard) and 30 km of Montpellier (prefecture of the Herault). As the crow flies: 32,5 km of Nimes and 26 km of Montpellier.
The communal territory is composed of part of the wet plain and pond S of Petite Camargue. It is separated from the Gulf of Lions (Mediterranean) by the commune of the Grau-of-King. Acute-dead is however connected to the sea by the channel of the Grau-of-King.
HistoryThe name of Acute-Dead comes from the marshes and the ponds called theDead ones ( Aquae Mortuae ) which extended around the village. The inhabitants lived fishing, hunting and manufacture of the salt produced in various small salt-water marshes in edge of sea. The area was under the domination of the monks of the Abbaye of Chant.
In 1240, Saint Louis was interested in the geographical position which this small village represented. It indeed wished to obtain an access to the Mediterranean. It obtained monks of the Abbey the city and the grounds neighborhood by exchange of properties. It profited thus from the Gabelle, taxes taken on the production of salt. It built a road between the marshes and builds the Tour Carbonnière there to be used as turn of guet and to protect the access to the city. It built then the Tour of Constancy to shelter its garrison. In 1272, the son and successor of St Louis, Philippe Bold the, ordered the creation of an enclosure of ramparts around the city. Work will be completed only 30 years later.
- 1270 wrongly constitute for many historians the last stage of one involved process at the end of the 11th century. The judgment is hasty because the transfer of cross or mercenaries starting from the port the Acute dead ones continued. The ordinance given in 1275 to the Guillaume knight of Roussillon by Philippe III the Bold one and the pope Gregoire X after the council of Lyon of 1274 as a reinforcement to St Jean d' Acre in the East, shows that the maritime activity always perdurait there for a ninth crusade which will never take place. (ordinance of Guillaume of Roussillon - Roger the nobility of France to the crusades p 158).
From this historical fact (of 1270) rises the popular belief, wanting that the sea reaches Acute-Dead at that time. In fact (the studies of the engineer Charles Leon Dombre confirm it), the whole of the port of Acute-Dead, included/understood the port itself which were in the pond of Marette, the Channel-Viel and the Grau-Louis, the Channel-Viel being the channel of access to the sea. It is roughly on the Grau-Louis that is built today the Large-Mound.
In 1893 it was the theater of a conflict between Italian and French workmen working in the saline ones of Peccais which was transformed into a true slaughter with nine died and a hundred on wounded Italian side (cf Enzo Barnabà, the Blood of the marshes , Marseilles, 1993).
- Culture of the Vine and the Asparagus.
- the breeding of Bull X and horses of the Camargue. Both are practically high in a wild state in the surrounding marshes.
- the bull camarguais is smaller than the fighting bulls Spanish, squat, the high horns and the head. It measures approximately 1,40 m with the garrot. It is mainly intended for the race with the rosette which is very popular in the area.
- the horse of the Camargue is the essential companion of the Gardian S to move in the marshes and to sort the bulls. According to some discovered of bones, it would seem that the horse of Solutré of the quaternary era is its ancestor. So the horse of the Camargue is not very tall, approximately 1,50 m. It has an enormous resistance adapted to the ground. Its dress is maroon with the birth for gradually becoming white after a few years.
- Production of salt by the salt exploitation of the Group Saline
- Thanks to its exceptional medieval inheritance and on its site near the sea, the city attracts not only many tourists, but still of the people of any age in the search of a soft and sunny climate.
RiverThe town of Acute-Dead is with a crossroads of channels:
- Channel of the Rhone with Sète coming from the North-East and setting out again towards the west,
- Channel of Bourgidou towards the south-east, and which joined the Petit the Rhone via other channels in extreme cases of Gard and the Rhone delta,
- and the grau of the king, maintained since the Moyen-âge and connecting Acute-Dead to the central part of the Grau-of-King.
RailwayThe Nimes Line - the Grau-of-King serves the cities and villages of the Costières of Nimes and the littoral, with terminus with the Grau-of-King. She is also used for the transport of the salt manufactured by one of the salt exploitations of the Salins group (see the bond below).
Truck driverThe development of the balneal Tourisme since the Années 1960 was marked by the construction of news seaside resorts (the Large-Mound) or the extension of existing (the Grau-of-King - Port-Camargue). To facilitate their access to the tourists, the littoral highway network densified and was connected to the highway A9. Acute-dead profits thus from these axes:
- in the east, the secondary road D 58 connects the city to the Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer and the commune of Arles. This road curves through the Rizière S and different the pond S which composes the the Camargue.
- in the west, the secondary road D 62 was widened in 2x2 ways to allow a fast junction towards Montpellier.
- in north, the secondary road D 979 directly connects the city to the highway on the level of Gallargues-le-Montueux.
|- | align=right| March 1989 || 2006 || Rene Jeannot || align=" center" | || |- | align=right| 1977 || 1989 || Sodol Colombini ||align=" center" | PCF || |- | align=right| 1965 || 1977 || Maurice Fountain ||align=" center" | || |- | align=right| || 1965 || Fabre ||align=" center" | ||
Twinnings and partnerships
Fougasse theDead ones
Called " Fougasse" in midday and " Fouasse" in the center.
One can classify it in the line of the first pastry makings at raised base. (Pastry making such as we consume it today is a " art" enough recent, to see treated Pastry making of " the Game preserve 1653… ".
One finds some sweetened (called tart with sugar by place) or salted (with or without let us gratillons).
(Rabelais evoked in its Gargantua novel… Fouassiers…) to see Larousse for Fouace.
It is not so a long time still with Acute-Dead, one manufactured the " Fougasse with the sucre" only for Christmas; Work fell to the baker, the customer brought the basic ingredients.
Its receipt: paste with brioche, sweetens, butter and flower of orange tree.
Fougasse trônait (and throne always) on the local tables in company of the 13 Provençaux desserts.
Now, Fougasse is sold all the year. Often imitated, seldom equalized, it takes pleasure in Acute-Dead.
It is regrettable to find an imitation of the " Fougasse the Acuteones; a little anywhere and which does not have anything comparable with the original, resulting from the canton.
Communal and cultural places
Monuments and curiosities
The tower of Constancy and rampartsThe Turn of Constancy , was set up in 1242 by Saint Louis on the old site of the Tour Matafère, built by Charlemagne towards 790, to shelter the garrison of the king. Work finished in 1254.
Its diameter is of 22m, its height at the top of the lantern is of 33m. The thickness of the walls at the base is of 6m.
At the ground floor, one finds the room of the guards with his access protected by a harrow. The center of the part, a circular opening gives access the basements which were used of pantry, reserve of ammunition and also of dungeons. This place was called the “basic bottoms pit”.
On the first floor, one reaches the room of the knights. It resembles from its structure the room of the guards. It is in this room that were imprisoned at the 18th century of the Protestant of which most known was Marie Durand which engraved on curbstone of the well the word “to resist”. This word is always visible nowadays. She was imprisoned at the 15 years age and was released 38 years later, with political prisoners (Abraham Mazel, chief Camisard).
Between these two rooms, a narrow covered way, was built in the thickness of the wall to supervise the low room.
After the room of the knights, one reaches the terrace which offers a broad panorama on the area, thus representing an ideal station of monitoring. There the captive ones were some times authorized to come to breathe the fresh air.
The Carbonnière towerLocated on the commune of Saint-Laurent-in Aigouze, the Carbonnière tower is quoted for the first time in a text gone back to 1346 which gives precise details on the function of the work. It is known as there . that this fortress is the key of the kingdom in this region. Indeed, located in the middle of the marshes, it was the required passage to reach Acute-Dead. It was held by a garrison made up of a lord of the manor and several guards. Since his terrace which could support to four pieces of artillery, there is a panoramic sight on the Petite Camargue.
The church Our-Lady-of-Fine sandsIt was probably built before the ramparts, about the middle of the 13th century. Collegial in 1537, it was ransacked by the Protestants in 1575. After the rebuilding of the bell-tower in 1634 it became successively under the Révolution, Temple of the Reason, barracks, store with grains and salt warehouse. It was returned with the worship in 1804 and was restored 1964 with 1967.
The vault of Penitent the GrayLocated at the east of the Place of the viguery it is the property of the brotherhood of the Pénitents Gray created in 1400. The frontage is style Louis XIV. The main door of the 17th century is decorated of a statue out of wooden. Retable carved in 1687 by Sabatier.
Inside, a retable represents the Passion of Christ. It was built in gray plaster stucco in 1687 by the sculptor montpelliérain Sabatier. This retable, on which the armorial bearings of the brotherhood are reproduced, occupies all the bottom of the heart.
The vault of the Penitent WhiteLocated at the angle of the street of the Republic and the street Louis-White, it belongs to the Confrérie of the Pénitents White creates in 1622.
With the top of the chorus, on the vault, one can see a copy of the Retable of Jerusalem where the Christ celebrated the Passover and the Maundy Thursday with its Apôtres. Around the high altar, a painting on fabric recalls the descent of the Saint Spirit the day of the Pentecost. One allots it to Xavier Sigalon, painter born with Uzès in 1778. On each side of the chorus draw up two statues: on the left holy Felix for the redemption of the prisoners, on the right Holy Jacques the Minor, first bishop of Jerusalem.
The Saint-Louis placeIt is the tourist heart of the city. In the center, vis-a-vis the main entrance of the Door of Gardette, is set up the Statue Saint Louis, work of James Pradier in 1849.
- Michel Mézy: former footballer
Gallery of images
Castle of Acute-Dead
- Common of Gard
- the Camargue
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