The Achaïe (in Greek old Ἀχαΐα / Akhaía , in Greek modern Αχαΐα Akhaía ) is an old area of the ancient Greece, located at the North-West of the Peloponnese. It is also current a names Greek whose chief town is Patras. This area extends on more 6000 km ², since the course Avgo in the east until the course Araxos in the west, of the Golfe of Corinth to the border with Elect and the Arcadie on the one hand, and Sicyone on the other hand. Rich person in contrasts, the country is dominated by a mountainous solid mass, the Panachaïkon (tops with approximately 2000 m), which traverses it north in the south and naturally separates Achaïe Eastern from Achaïe Western. The gulf of Corinth receives many torrents coming from the mounts from Achaïe or Arcadie; these torrents divide the landscape, often in agreement with the territories of the cities. A narrow coastal plain, along the Western part, called Aigialos in Greek Αἰγιαλός / Aigialós ) i.e. “the coast”, widens considerably towards the west (Dymé) where were formed several Lagune S.
Antiquated and mythical GreeceIt is famous to be populated by the Pélasges, native-born people in Greece, and to draw its name from Égialée, king de Sicyone. In the Catalog of the vessels ( Iliade , II, 275), Égiale is mentioned as attached to the city of Mycènes, under the command of Agamemnon.
The area was supposed, in the mythology to be the cradle of the Achaens. The Greeks distinguished the Achaens from Phthie ( Ἀχαιοὶ οἱ φθιῶται / Akhaioi hoi phthiôtai ) of those of the Peloponnese. This part of Achaïe is populated, in Homère, by the Myrmidons, ordered by Achille ( ibid , II, 683-684). For Hérodote (I, 145), Achaïe is initially occupied by the Ioniens, then constitutes for the Achaens a refuge, at the end from III, vis-a-vis the invasion of the Doriens.
Traditional timeAchaïe was organized in villages, sometimes protected by enclosures like Araxos. The villages gathered to form cities (see Synœcisme). Thus, according to the tradition, Patras was formed by the meeting of seven villages. The movement of concentration succeeds, at fifth century BC, the creation of the Achaean Ligue, gathering twelve cities, on a basis undoubtedly more religious than political. It was dissolved by the Macedonians Démétrios Ier Poliorcète and Cassandre.
Hellenistic timeThe Achaean League was reconstituted to drive out the Macedonians, in -280. This time, it obtained solids federal institutions. Under the cane of Aratos de Sicyone, it developed and competed with Sparte for supremacy in Greece. This competition, related to the imprudences made by Philopoemen, led the League however to be let subject by the Romains.
See also: Roman Greece
The Middle AgesAfter the Fourth crusade (1205 - 1210), Guillaume de Champlitte founded the Principauté of Achaïe and took the title of “prince d' Achaïe”. The frank princes reigned until in 1278.
Modern AchaïeAugust 1st
Description of Greece , VII: Achaïe , Paris, Beautiful Letters, 2000. , Landscapes of Achaïe I , Athens, 1992; ID., Landscape of Achaïe II , Athens, 2000 -->
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