This page relates to the year 1997 Gregorian Calendrier.
- 2 - November 13rd: Conference on the warming of the ground, with Buenos Aires.
- February 1st: Conference of the United Nations on the Greenhouse effect with Kyōto: 160 countries decide a reduction of 5,2% of the gas emissions with Greenhouse effect from here with 2012 (see Protocole of Kyōto).
- December 13rd: OMC decides to liberalize financial flows as from March 1999.
- 3 - December 4th: Conference of Ottawa. Treaty on prohibition of employment, storage, the production and the transfer of the anti-personnel mines and on their destruction, signed in Ottawa. Thirty-five countries will be signatory of the treaty come into effect on March 1st 1999. Fifty other countries did not sign, of which the United States, Russia and China.
- January 9th: In Swiss, a Legal settlement intercantonal, whose coming into effect is envisaged in May 1999, signed between the cantons of Freiburg, Geneva, the Jura, Neuchâtel, Valais and Vaud, creates a High school specialized of Western Switzerland (HES-SO).
- During weeks, hundreds of thousands of Yougoslaves protest against the electoral fraud practiced by Slobodan Milošević during the municipal elections.
- Italy: Nomination of a commission of 70 members, made up of deputies and senators, the Bicameral one, to reform the Constitution
- February 27th: Presentation with the the United Kingdom of a clone of ewe: Dolly (born in July 1996)
- February: Insurrection in Albania. Following accounting scandals, the country sinks in anarchy.
- the system of the financial pyramids instituted by the companies of deposits of funds on the naivety of the inhabitants, crumbles. A third of the Albanian population loses all its economies. Victims reversal towards the marked government then not to have been instituted controls. Albania sinks in chaos and the civil war during a few months. An armed insurrection, part of the south of the country, gains soon all Albania. The civil war, supplied with the Maffias, is avoided only by the intervention of a force of European interposition which helps with the return to a state of calm and allows the behavior of free elections gained by the left ex-Communist.
- March 28th: UNO authorizes the sending of a multinational force with strong Italian component in Albania to put an end to anarchy and the exodus the many clandestine ones.
- March 31st: Beginning of the negotiations for the adhesion of new countries in the EU: Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Poland, Slovenia, Czech Republic
- April 1st: As from this date, European air transport is dérégulé.
- May 1st: Broad victory of the Labor to the the United Kingdom: Tony Blair replaces John Major.
- Tony Blair does not call into question the liberal reform initiated by Margaret Thatcher. The “New” Ploughing gives up the clause 4 which appeared in its Constitution since 1918 and laid down “the common property of the means of production, distribution and exchange”. The new text accepts the system of the market: “the company spirit and the rigor of competition go the hand in the hand with the forces of the partnership and the co-operation”. One of the first measurements of the Blair government is to grant a broad autonomy to the Banque of England.
- May 6th: Autonomy of the Bank of England for the fixing of the Interest rate.
- May 25th: Referendum for the “Padanie” organized in Italy by the League of North of Umberto Bossi.
- June 15th: Re-election for 5 years of the Croatian president Franjo Tuđman.
- June 29th: Victoire of the opposition to the elections in Albania, the president Sali Berisha is reversed, the disorders calm down in the country.
- “disastrous legal victory” of McDonald's against two ecologist S British: 68 000 £ gained after an expenditure of 10 000 000 £ of defense and a very unfavourable press campaign.
- to convince the Germans to give up the Deutschemark, Helmut Kohl obtains her european partners whom they conclude a “Stability pact and of growth” founded on the limitation of the budget deficits and monetary creation necessary to finance them.
- July 8th: Programmed widening of NATO to the Hungary, the Poland and the Czech Republic.
- July 12th: Demonstrations monsters in all the Spain, including the Basque Country, to decry the ETA after the assassination of Miguel Angel Blanco.
- July 24th: Resignation of the Prime Minister Albanian Dirtied Berisha, repudiated by the voters.
- 19 - August 24th: Travel of Jean-Paul II in France, at the time of the World Days of Youth.
- August 31st: The princess of Wales Lady Diana is killed in an car accident with Paris, in the tunnel under the bridge of Alma, with her lover Dodi Al-Fayed, their driver Henri Paul and the bodyguard of Fayed Trevor Rees-Jones.
- September 11th: Yes carries it (75%) in Scotland at the time of the referendum for the creation of a Parliament and the opening towards legislative and tax autonomy.
- September 17th: The pope Jean-Paul II sets up the Basilique of the Sacred Heart of Marseilles (Rhone delta, France) in minor Basilique.
- September 12th: Victoire of the right-hand side at the time of the legislative elections in Poland.
- September 18th: Short victory of yes (50,3%) with the Wales at the time of a referendum on the autonomy of the country.
- September 26th: Earthquake with Sitted (Italy), in Italy.
- October 2nd: Signature of the Treated of Amsterdam.
- the European Union adopts an applicable complex text starting from May 1st 1999 which aims at too exclusively moving the stress laid hitherto on the economy: Europeans obtain new rights on social matters and of circulation. Employment will have to be from now on one of the aims in view jointly, although the implementation of the policies remains only competence of the States. The social protocol of 1989, accepted by the British, is integrated into the treaty. The public services see themselves recognizing a role specific in the “promotion of the social cohesion and territorial of the Union”. To ensure a sustainable development, the Community policies must take into account environmental protection. The treaty integrates the asset of the agreements of Schengen on freedom of movement of the people.
- the foreign Politics and of common safety (PESC), envisaged by the Treated of Maastricht not having been implemented, the treaty of Amsterdam makes an effort muscler militarily the European Union. The common strategies however will be applied only unanimously.
- the capacities of the Parliament of Strasbourg, placed at equality with the the Council of Ministers, are increased.
- October 9th, Italy: Following the refusal of Rifondazione Comunista to vote the bill of finance for 1998 (problem of the social skills and carryforward of the reduction of the working time), Romano Prodi resigns. The public opinion reacts and the seat of Rifondazione Comunista is submerged messages, fax and phone call condemning its policy. Bertinotti goes into reverse then and agrees to vote the finance law in exchange of promises on the 35 hours and the retirements.
- October 18th: Inauguration of the Museum Guggenheim of Bilbao.
- October 31st: New government in Poland, directed by Jerzy Buzek. The left must yield the capacity to a majority from the right organized around the resurgence of Solidarność , allied with a strong liberal component.
- November 14th: Law putting an end to the primacy Catholic religion in Italy.
- November 16th: Referendum approving the entry of the Hungary in NATO (85% yes).
Swiss: business of the not identified bank accounts pertaining to victims of the Nazism.
- Plus of 30% of the British children lives in poverty (13% in Germany and 12% in France).
- the government Romano Prodi adopts drastic measures so that the Italy enters the Euro area in 2000. The public deficit passes from 6,7% to 2,7% in two years. The Italian people are the only one of Europe to agree to pay a “European tax” which brings back 12 500 billion to read S.
- a “great depression”, more accentuated than that of 1929 - 1933, struck all the Eastern European countries. In 1997, only the Poland exceeds its level of industrial production of 1989. Everywhere else the performances are lower, the Albania, the Romania and the Bulgaria being the most touched countries. The Czech Republic stagnates. This depression comes from the outdatedness of the equipment production vis-a-vis the globalisation of the exchanges. It would have could be attenuated if the economic space of old the Comecon, based on complementarities, had been preserved. But the rejection of all the communist legacy and the rise of nationalism closed this way as of 1990.
- inflation, after having made devastations at the beginning of the economic transition, ends up being controlled in the most advanced countries (Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic). The Bulgaria and the Romania do not succeed in delaying the rise of the prices the consumer.
- unemployment goes up, but less quickly than one expected it, considering the decline of the GDP: the large companies inherited the Communist regime are not dismantled and preserve a good part of their employees in excess.
- the Eastern European countries, thanks to an educated labor and a Labor costs good-market are integrated in the world exchanges. It is necessary for them however to reach a stronger productivity, to develop an effective grid system and to build a modern banking system to be based on solid financings. The brake of the mentalities, badly prepared with the transition, is not negligible, in particular in the least advanced countries.
See also: 1997 in France
- January 27th: Election of a president moderated in Chetchnia: Aslan Maskhadov .
- April 2nd: Agreement of union between the Russia and the Bielorussia, in the fields cultural, military and socio economic.
- May 27th: Signature of a charter enters NATO and the Russia on mutual safety.
- June 20th: Admission of the Russia to the G7 which becomes thus the G8.
- September 17th: Russia is allowed with the Club of Paris.
- October 6th: Rééchelonnement of 33 billion dollars of debts of Russia.
- November 11th: Reopening of the pipeline crossing the Chetchnia.
Great depression. The production of the countries of the CEI did not cease dropping since 1989. Whole pieces of the economy work very in lower part of their capacities; separately industries extractors of hydrocarbons (especially the natural gas), all the manufacturing branches see their sales crumbling. The return to oneself of each republic, the inconvertibility of the currencies partition the vast interior market of the ex-USSR. The specialized factories have evil to export towards the close republics which were their customers, and to be supplied in intermediate consumptions near their former suppliers. The system of the exchanges is blocked gradually. The decayed equipment cannot be replaced, for lack of sufficient profit margins to invest. The collapse of the production involves the fall of the purchasing power. The domestic consumption crumbles. Fortunately the foreign demand for Gas, Oil and minerals gets for the countries holders of layers of the surpluses to their trade balance.
- If the majority of the population were impoverished since 1989, a minority of new rich person, often resulting from the Nomenklatura , slack its tastes of luxury. One attends the collapse of the ethical rules, with the rise of the gangster operations. A good part of the international assistance is diverted, placed in foreign banks, the example coming from the highest levels of power.
- May 17th: The troops of AFDL enter to Kinshasa. Victoire of Laurent-Desired Kabila at the end of several weeks of combat to the Zaire, which (Re) becomes the Democratic republic of Congo.
- May 25th: Coup d'etat in Sierra Leone, during the civil war, which obliges with the exile the president elected Ahmad Tejan Kabbah. Johnny Paul Koroma is released.
- June 5th: Civil war in Republic of Congo.
- June 8th: Alpha Oumar Konaré, President of the Republic of the Mali, starts second a five years mandate.
- August 2nd: Charles Taylor, president of the Liberia.
- August 29th: Intervention of a force of interposition western African to restore the president of the Sierra Leone Ahmad Tejan Kabbah driven out by mutinés soldiers.
- September 8th: The Democratic republic of Congo adheres to SADC. Seychelles adhere to the SADC but leave it on July 1st 2004.
- September 22nd: Massacre Bentalha, village has 20 km in the suburbs of Algiers. More than 800 died in only one night.
- November 4th: Embargo states-unien on the Sudan, due to support for terrorism.
- October 16th: Seizure of power by the force by Denis Sassou-Nguesso with the Congo (Brazzaville).
- October 24th: Broad victory of the president Zeroual with the communal elections in Algeria.
- October 25th: Denis Sassou-Nguesso seizes the power with the Congo-Brazzaville after the victory of its militia.
the African average revenue, which accounted for 14% of the income of the countries developed in the middle of the Années 1960, accounts for nothing any more but 7% of them. Death rates of the children and the teenagers are respectively of 105 and 169 per thousand in Africa (6 and 7 in the developed countries). There are only 16 doctors for 100 000 inhabitant (253 in the developed countries).
The Middle East & Arab world
- January: Agreement of Washington between Israeli Palestinians and on the town of Hebron with the mediation of Hussein of Jordan. Dead end in the israélo-Palestinian negotiations.
- January 19th: Yasser Arafat enters to Hebron. The Israeli army evacuates two thirds of the city. On the question of Palestinian autonomy, Israel proposes only to tiny withdrawals lower than the commitments entered into by Rabin.
- February 28th: Military coup d'etat in Turkey.
- May 23rd: Victoire of moderate with the elections in Iran, Mohammad Khatami, with 69% of the votes (end in 2001).
- June 30th: Fall of Turkish the Prime Minister Necmettin Erbakan.
- July 30th: Attacks with Jerusalem causing the death of 13 Israeli civilians. The government Netanyahou legalizes the use of the Torture against the Palestinian suspects and seeks to remove the residence permits of the Palestinians in Jerusalem.
- July: Australian the Richard Butler is named with the direction of UNSCOM. It requires to be able to visit the presidential palaces. The Iraq refuses and shows it to be with the service of the United States.
- October 29th: Premises of a new crisis enters the Iraq and the United States, concerning the visits of the Iraqi military sites by the inspectors of UNO. The Iraq expels the American members of the UNSCOM.
- November 6th: Failure of israélo-Palestinian talks to Washington.
- November 17th: Fatal islamist attack against tourists with Louxor: 68 dead.
- November 20th: After a Russian mediation (November 18th), Saddam Hussein accepts the return of the American members of the UNSCOM, but requires that the UNSCOM complete its inspections within six month. The United States refuses and prepares with new air actions.
- November: The fourth conference for the economic development of the Middle East is boycotted by most of the Arab countries. The United States estimates that the peace process is in danger. The American Secretary of State Madeleine Albright request a pause in colonization but Netanyahou, supported by the Congress of the United States, refuses.
Asia & India
- February 3rd: Benazir Bhutto is beaten with the elections by Nawaz Charif, chief of the Moslem league of the Pakistan.
- February 19th: Died of Deng Xiaoping.
- April 21st: Designation of a new Prime Minister in India: Inder Kumal Gujral .
- July 1st: Retrocession of HongKong to the Popular republic of China.
- July 2nd: Beginning of an important stock exchange crisis in Asia of the South East: the Thailand involves other countries in the crisis.
- Asian Crisis . Devaluation of the Baht inhabitant of Thailand. The exchange rate risk makes lose confidence with the investors who convert their assets into dollars; the country does not have any more access to the funding sources which had supported its growth until in 1996. The devaluation of the baht increases the competitiveness of the products inhabitant of Thailand on the worldwide market compared to his competitors direct of the same geographical surface. By a chain reaction, the neighbors (Indonesia, South Korea, Malaysia, Filipino, Taiwan, Singapore) are all the more obliged to follow the same way that they have an identical brittleness, related on the excess of short-term debt, the alignment of the parity of their currency on the dollar and to the weakness structural of their banking system. The escape of the foreign assets leaves the banks at the edge of the bankruptcy; for lack of credit, the production falls, unemployment goes up, misery extends, the middle-class sees its standard of living moving back appreciably.
- July 17th: The Untouchable K.R. Narayanan, president of the Indian Republic.
- July 23rd: The Laos and the Burma adherent with ASEAN.
- In July, judged by his, Pol Pot is condemned to the life imprisonment.
- In August, gigantic fires in Indonesia and in the remainder of the area, due to the abusive clearings (August-September).
- September 12th: Reinforcement of the capacities of Jiang Zemin at the time of the 15th congress of the PCC.
- October 8th: The Indonesia request a help from 4 to 6 billion dollars to the the IMF and the the World Bank.
- 21 - October 28th: Beginning of the Crash S with HongKong, Wall Street and in Latin America.
- November 1st: Emergency rescue plan of Indonesia, by the World Bank and the Asian development bank.
- November 8th: Diversion of the Chang Jiang, to allow the construction of the stopping of the three throats.
- November 9th: Change of Prime Minister in Thailand, Chuan Leek-feeds replaces Chavalit.
- November 21st: The South Korea request 60 billion dollars of assistance in the IMF.
- November 24th, Japan: Bankruptcy of Yamaichi, one of the four large stockbrokers.
- December 2nd: Resignation of the Pakistani president Farrok Ahmed Leghari, following a constitutional crisis the opponent with the Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif.
- December 12th: Aggravation of the crisis in Korea, falls of Won and the purse.
- December 18th: The conservatives, with the capacity for 40 years, have been beaten with the elections by the democrat Kim Dae-jung in South Korea, which becomes president.
- January 8th: Ramzi Yousef, brain of the attack of 1993 against the World Trade Center, is condemned to the life imprisonment.
- January 20th: At the time of its second speech of nomination, Bill Clinton preaches “a new governorship for a new century”.
- February 3rd: Execution of a woman to the Texas.
- June 2nd: Death sentence of Timothy McVeigh, author of the Attack of Oklahoma City.
- July 1st: Douglas Boeing-MacDonnell fusion.
- July 6th: Victoire of the Mexican opposition at the time of the legislative elections, against the PRI.
- July 30th: The Dow Jones to 8255.
- August 6th: Microsoft enters the capital of Apple.
- In August, victory of the strikers of UPS to the the United States.
- 21 - October 28th: Beginning of the Crash S with HongKong, Wall Street and in Latin America.
- October 27th: Mini-crash landing. The Dow Jones loses 554 points the October 27th.
- October 28th - November 2nd: Visit Jiang Zemin in the United States.
- October 29th: The United States decides that they will be able to export nuclear engineering towards the China.
the climatic phenomenon El Niño causes strong disturbances.
- Weak inflation in the United States.
- Good health of the economy of the United States. GNP grows of almost 4% per annum in 1997 - 1999. Inflation appears controlled thanks to the skilful management of the money supply and interest rates by the Federal Reserve System , under the direction of Alan Greenspan. Unemployment goes down to 4% at the end of the century. The technological advancement advances in the branches of information and the communication. The productivity starts again to increase. The federal budget, after having beaten records of deficit under Reagan and Bush, accumulates the surpluses. The only black spot is the deficit of the trade balance. The weight of the household consumption in the national revenue can appear too high, because the clear national saving fell on very low levels, from where an excessive recourse to the debt.
Oceania & the Pacific
Chronologies sets of themes
Arts & culture
Science : 1997 in science
- July 4th: Mission success of Mars Pathfinder on the red planet: exploits televised of a small robot on caster.
- Aeronautical: 1997 in aeronautics
- Railroads: 1997 in the railroads
- Sport: 1997 in Data-processing sport
- : 1997 in data processing
- May 11th: The Ordinateur IBM “Deep Blue” beats Garry Kasparov world champion of failures.
- September 15th: Creation of the site Google.com, search engine.
- September 30th: at the time of the Annual general meeting of the Data-processing Club of the French Large companies, Christian Pierret, Secretary of State to industry, select the firms to mobilize themselves to prepare the passage to the year 2000.
- Communication : June 17th: Creation of the Mouv', the radio young person of the group Radio France.
- March 2nd: With Olivenza (Spain, Province of Badajoz), alternate of Antonio Ferrera, Spanish Matador.
- April 10th: With Seville (Spain), alternate of Eduardo Dávila Miura, Spanish Matador.
- June 29th: With Burgos (Spain), alternative of Jose Antonio Morante Camacho known as “Morante of Puebla”, Spanish Matador.
- August 17th: With Tolède (Spain), alternate of Eugenio de Mora, Spanish Matador.
- Nobel Prize of physics: Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, Steven Chu and William D. Phillips
- Nobel Prize of chemistry: Paul D. Boyer, John E. Walker and Jens C. Skou
- Nobel Prize of physiology or medicine: Stanley B. Prusiner
- Nobel Prize of literature: Dario Fo
- Nobel Prize of peace: international Countryside for the prohibition of the anti-personnel mines and Jody Williams
Births in 1997
- June 11th: Hunter Clary, American actor
Death in 1997
- January 5th: Andre Franquin, Belgian draftsman
- January 10th: Sheldon Leonard, actor, realizer, producing
- January 12th: Jean-Edern Hallier, writer French
- January 17th: Clyde William Tombaugh, American astronomer
- January 18th: Diana Lewis, actress
- January 19th: Robert Chapatte, (France, Cycling then sports correspondent)
- January 21st: Colonel Tom Parker, manager of stars (Elvis Presley at its beginnings)
- February 11th: Gift To carry, actor
- February 19th: Deng Xiaoping, dignitary of the popular republic of China
- March 9th: The Notorious B.I.G, musician (rap)
- March 15th: Victor Vasarely, painter Hungarian
- March 17th: Robert A. Rushworth, astronaut of USAF (° October 9th 1924)
- March 20th: Tony Zale, (E. - U., Boxing)
- March 21st: Jean-Louis Boncœur, writer French
- March 31st: Lyman Spitzer, American astrophysicist .
- April 16th: Roland Topor, draftsman and writer French
- May 5th: Walter Gotell, actor
- May 20th: Virgilio Barco Vargas, president of the Republic of Colombia of 1986 with 1990. (° September 17th 1921).
- May 29th: Jeff Buckley, singer, guitarist and American musician. (° November 17th 1966).
- June 14th: Richard Jaeckel, actor
- June 25th: Jacques-Yves Cousteau, oceanographer French
- June 26th: Israel Kamakawiwo' ole, singer hawaiien
- June 30th: Annie Fratellini, French personality of the circus (° November 14th 1932)
July 1st: Robert Mitchum, actor
- July 2nd: James Stewart, actor, states-unien, (° 1908).
- July 10th: Miguel Angel Blanco, (assassinated) by the ETA
- July 14th: Kressmann Taylor
- July 15th: Gianni Versace, fashion designer
- July 25th: Ben Hogan, (E. - U., Golf)
- July 31st: Bao Dai, last emperor of Ass, (Vietnam).
- August 4th: Jeanne Calms, the senior of humanity, at 122 years.
- August 10th: Marie-Sun Tougas, Québécois actress at 27 years.
- August 16th: Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, singer Pakistan board.
- August 23rd: Jean Poperen, French politician
- August 25th: Robert Pinget, French writer of Swiss origin (° July 19th 1919)
- August 31st: Diana, Princess of Wales, accidental death
- September 5th: Mother Teresa, humanistic
- September 9th: Burgess Meredith, actor
- September 9th: Richie Ashburn, (Baseball E. - U.)
- September 17th: Red Skelton, actor
- October 1st: Stephan Grappelli, musician of Jazz French
- October 8th: Georges Montaron, Director of Christian Testimony, President of the Trade union of the Parisian Weekly press.
- October 12th: John Denver, singer and actor
- October 29th: Anton Szandor LaVey, founder and high priest in 1966 of the Church of Satan
- October 30th: Samuel Fuller, realizer of American cinema (° August 12th 1912).
- November 1st: Roger Goes, (France, Football)
- November 9th: Helenio Herrera, (Argentinian/France, Football)
- November 11th: Rodney Milburn, (E. - U., Athletics)
- November 14th: Eddie Arcaro, (Equestrian sport E. - U.)
- November 17th: Nelson Paillou, (France, sporting leader)
- November 22nd: Michael Hutchence, musician, leader of the group INXS
- November 24th: Barbara, French singer
- December 7th: Billy Bremner, (Scotland, Football)
- December 18th: Chris Farley, actor
- December 24th: Toshirō Mifune, actor
- December 27th: Billy Wright, Leader of WILL GO
- December 28th: Henry Barraud, Type-setter French. (° April 23rd 1900).
- December 31st: Billie Dove, actress
Beats-smg: 1997 Be-X-old: 1997 Map-bms: 1997 Nds-nl: 1997 Simple: 1997 Zh-min-nan: 1997 nor Zh-yue: 1997 年
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