This page relates to the year 1995 Gregorian Calendrier.
- September 5th: The first nuclear test of the last French shooting campaign raises an outcry in the world.
- January 17th: Government Dini in Italy.
- March 22nd: The Stability pact in Europe aims at promoting the dialog at the time of the problems of Frontière S and Minorité S.
- May 4th: Defeat of the conservatives to the local elections with the the United Kingdom. They obtain 22% of the votes behind the members of the Labor Party (48%) and the liberal-democrats (30%).
- May, Italy: The government Dini manages an agreement with the trade unions on the question of the retirements.
- Lamberto Dini takes with arm the body the problem of the retirements to reduce the Public deficit: The number of pensioner is higher than the number of credit. A considerable quantity of false pensioners work with the black and 30 000 pensions are versed with people deceased. On the whole 15,4% of the GDP east absorb in the retirement pensions.
- the official reports also pin many abuses which burden the budget: two months of vacancy annual for the civils servant, a disproportionate tax evasion, 3 million false versed disablement pensions…
- June: John Major dislocates of his title of leader of the Conservative party (the United Kingdom) and requires of the deputies to re-elect it. It gathers 218 votes against 89 with John Redwood, presented by the wing conservative right, which is marginalized at the time of the cabinet reshuffle of the July 5th.
9 and October 10th: Summit of Madrid. Decision to pass to a Single currency. Coming into effect of the Convention of Schengen. Widening of the EU with fifteen members, with the entry of the Austria, the Finland and the Sweden.
- 13 and December 14th: Summit of Dublin, Stability pact and of growth, fixing the conditions of the passage at the European single currency.
- December 13rd: Ratification of the customs union enters the EU and the Turkey.
- December 15th: Pronounced Stop Bosman.
Romano Prodi, “it professore”, economist of the University of Bologna and former member of cd., launches the idea of a baptized center left alliance Olivier, conceived like a machine of war against Berlusconi.
- Commission Santer: The Luxembourger Jacques Santer, president of the European commission (fine in 1999).
- the United Kingdom: Privatization of the companies and the railway material. 8% unemployed.
- Italy: 57,7 million inhabitants. The population stagnates since 1982. The public deficit reaches 7,6% of GDP. 5,5% of inflation. 12% of the credits to unemployment.
See also: 1995 in France
See also: 1995 in Switzerland
- March 6th: Political crisis opposing Lech Wałęsa and the Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak in Poland. This last resigns. Józef Oleksy, member of the SLD, succeeds the March 7th to him.
- the party of Vytautas Landsbergis gains the local elections in Lithuania.
- Victoire with the general elections in Estonia of alliance linking the party of Center-right fatherland with the Union of the rural people and the party of the Center
- April: The Estonia sign an agreement of association with the European Union, showing its wish to integrate the organization as soon as possible.
- May 7th: Adhesion of the Hungary to OECD.
- July 11th: Adhesion of the Poland to OECD.
- August 18th: Meeting of the countries of the group of Visegrad, which decide the acceleration of the economic reforms and adhesion with their group of the Slovenia for on January 1st 1996.
- September 13rd: Agreement between Greece and the Yugoslav ex-republic of Macedonia (FYROM).
- November 3rd: End of the top of the the Community of the independent States (CEI) in Moscow: in spite of an apparent unit, the Member States evolve/move in a distinct way, in particular with regard to their relations with Moscow.
- November 19th: Election of Aleksander Kwaśniewski, a former Communist, with the Polish presidency against outgoing the Lech Wałęsa.
- November 28th: Adhesion of Tchéquie with OECD (26e member, but the first PECO).
NATO intervenes directly and sends a fast rapid deployment force of 14 000 men to support the soldiers of UNO. The United States encourages the Croatia and the government of Sarajevo to conclude a military alliance. By operations flash, the Croatian troops take again the Western Slavonie (May), Krajina (August), the Eastern Slavonia (August); while cooperating with the army of Sarajevo, they take again 20% of the territory of Bosnia-Herzégovine. In their turn, the Serb ones are victims of the ethnic purification and must flee, without Slobodan Milošević not going to their help.
July 11th: The Serb ones of Bosnia maintain their vice around Sarajevo. Fall of the Moslem enclave of Zepa, in Bosnia-Herzégovine, taken by the Serb ones which makes there the Massacre of Srebrenica of the 13 13 with the July 16th (approximately 8000 dead).
- August 5th: Reconquest of the Serb Krajina by the Croatian troops.
- August 29th: The massive air intervention of NATO in Bosnia-Herzégovine imposes a cease-fire.
- November 1st: Opening of the negotiations of Dayton (the United States) on peace in ex-Yugoslavia (end the December 21st).
- November 12th: Serbo-croatian agreement on the province of Eastern Slavonia.
- November 16th: Inculpation in $the Hague of Serb Karadzic and Mladic for genocide and crime against humanity, by the international penal court for ex-Yugoslavia.
- November 21st: Signature of the Agreements of Dayton on Bosnia-Herzégovine.
- December 14th: Formal signature with Paris of the Agreements of Dayton concerning the Bosnia-Herzégovine. The Republic bosnienne is divided into two entities, the croato-Moslem woman federation (51% of the territory, of which Sarajevo) and the Serb republic; the war criminals will be excluded from any official function; the refugees will be able to turn over in their hearths or to obtain compensations. To maintain peace, NATO deploys on the ground 60 000 soldiers, of which 20 000 Americans. Peace returns in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzégovine, but the political clauses of the agreements of Dayton are not respected.
- December 15th: IFOR replaces FORPRONU in Bosnia-Herzégovine.
- January 19th: Fall of the presidential palace of Grozny in Chetchnia (Russia) after almost a month of fierce combats.
- Mars: Failure of a new coup attempt of state in Azerbaïdjan. The state of emergency is prolonged and all the opposition parties are prohibited.
- April: Decision of the Constitutional court of the Kazakhstan to invalidate the poll of March 1994 for defects of procedure. Noursoultan Nazarbaïev dissolves the Parliament. At the time of the referendum of April, it obtains the prolongation of its presidential mandate until 2001.
- the islamist rebellious forces, based in Afghanistan, launch a great offensive to the Tadjikistan in spring; their intention to establish a head of bridge in the center of the country is felt like a threat weighing on all the interests of the Russia in Central Asia. A climate of larval civil war reigns on the country.
- Cease-fire in spring between the Azerbaïdjan and the Arménie while the president Aliev seems decided to conclude their the negociations entered into with the Armenian government. After the failure of an attempt at putsch in October, the state of emergency is founded in Azerbaïdjan.
- 14 - June 19th: A commando of the terrorist tchetchene Chamil Bassaïev seizes the hospital and maternity with Boudionnovsk. 150 dead.
- August 30th: adoption of a new Constitution to the Kazakhstan.
- December: legislative elections and creation of a Parliament with two rooms with the Kazakhstan.
- December 21st: Victoire of the Communists to the elections member of Parliament in Russia. The opponents obtain the majority of the seats at the Duma.
- the Ukraine takes again the control of the situation in.
- the inhabitants of Transnistrie choose by referendum to adopt a new independent Constitution and to ask the Russia to maintain its troops on their territory.
- Russia assigns 7 to 8% of sound GDP with defense, but its military power does not make any more illusion. The material is badly maintained, the maltreated soldiers lose the moral one, the marine lets rust with quay many its units, for lack of credit.
May 21st: Repression of the movement Ogoni, in Rivers State, by the military government native of Niger of the general Sani Abacha. The principal leaders of the MOSOP (Mouvement for the survival of the people Ogoni), of which the academic and writer Ken Saro-Wiwa, are stopped, condemned to died and are carried out.
- August 28th: The Mauritius adheres to SADC.
- November 4th: Revision in Mauritius of the agreements of Lome IV.
- November 10th, Nigeria: Execution of Ken Saro-Wiwa.
- November 16th: Election of Liamine Zéroual with the presidency Algeria as of the first turn (61%).
- November 23rd: In Tanzania, old sole party CCM gains the elections legislative and presidential. Benjamin Mkapa becomes president of the Republic (fine in 2005).
- December 12th: First inculpations for crime against humanity launched by the international court for the Rwanda (TPR), sitting in Tanzania.
constitutional National conference with the Nigeria, which is divided into 30 federate States.
January 1st: Beginning of the Mercosur (Spanish acronym of Common Market of South America).
- January 26th - February 17th: Engagements between the Peru and the Ecuador for the control of the cordillera of the Condor.
- April 9th: Re-election of Alberto Fujimori with the presidency with the Peru.
Mexico: Military operation with the Chiapas which takes again the control of several occupied municipalities and pushes back the guerillas. The army did not manage to seize the leaders of the movement and the conflict continues.
- January 1st: With the presidential election, Fernando Henrique Cardoso is elected president of the Republic.
- the new president Fernando Henrique Cardoso tries to reduce the tensions between the landowners and the without-grounds: 1% of the Brazilian population then have 45% of the grounds of the country.
- violent ones confrontations burst between the landowners and the without-grounds.
The United States
April 7th: Vote of a small portion of the Contract with America but failure of independent measurements.
- April 19th: Murder attempt in Oklahoma City, perpetrated by Timothy McVeigh: 168 died, on behalf of fanatics of Extreme-Right-hand side.
- October 3rd: Payment surprised of O.J. Simpson in the United States, at the end of a lawsuit having divided the country.
- October 16th: Off go of “million” Afro-Americans on Washington organized by Nation Islam , political organization and nun directed by Louis Farrakhan.
- November-December: Confrontations between the Congress and the President on the Medicare and the budget.
Incidental with the China in connection with the visa granted to president de Taiwan.
- Clashes with the Russia on the expansion of NATO.
- the Dow Jones passes the ceiling of the 4000 (February) and 5000 (November).
- the budget of defense is brought back to 3,9% of the GNP (6,4% in 1985).
- October 30th: Tight Victoire of “not” with the referendum on sovereignty of the Quebec, (50,6%).
- April 26th: Departure of the Scandinavian of Quebec towards Colorado.
Oceania & the Pacific
- June 13rd: Jacques Chirac announces the resumption of the French Nuclear tests on the atolls of Moruroa and Fangataufa. In September, the first shootings of this last series cause riots with PAPEETE. The last shooting is carried out at the end of January 1996 before the signature of a treaty of prohibition of the nuclear tests.
- the government of New Zealand proposes an global agreement which should according to him settle all the territorial questions outstanding, but this one runs up against the hostility of the Maoris. The problem of the territorial rights causes in 1995 and in 1996 of the sit-ins, the occupations of buildings and the demonstrations in great number., Certaines tribes maories accepts an financial equalization. The queen Elisabeth II, visits of them in 1995, present official excuses at Tainuis de Waikato for the illegal confiscation their grounds by the Crown at the time of the territorial wars of 1840.
- Afghanistan: A new peace agreement, concluded in January, is immediately broken under the military push of the new movement of the Taliban (student islamist pachtouns supported by the Pakistan).
- New Constitution in Thailand. This modification involves a new instability and a recasting of political alliances.
- March 14th, India: Rise of Hindu nationalism: the Shiv Shena, allied with BJP, gains the elections with the Maharashtra with depend on the Congrès. The n° 2 of Shiv Shena becomes Prime Minister for the State. Shiv Shena immediately announces its intention to expel the illegal immigrants of the Pakistan and the Bangladesh.
- the come to power of the Shiv Shena with the Maharashtra starts a movement of fright in the mediums of business of Bombay, medium dominated by of Gujrati and Parsis (non-Marathes). Bombay Stock Exchange (12 million inhabitants) falls, the mediums of business fearing that Shiv Shena does not seek to discourage the overseas investments. The n° 1 of Shiv Shena, Ball Thackeray, declares that the project of thermo plant of 920 million dollars of the American firm Enron would be re-examined. He calls upon ecological reasons, affirming in addition that the overseas investments are welcome.
- March 20th: Terrorist attack of the sect Aum with the gas Sarin in the Subway of Tōkyō, 12 died and of the thousands of casualties.
- May 12th, Cashmere: Destruction of the Holy City of charif Chahar-e. This city which shelters the sanctuary of sheik Noureddine, was before the partition the symbol of the kashmiriyyat , the identity cachmirie. The Indian army decides to clean the town of a handle of separatist guerillas (May 12th). The Indians show the Pakistan to have infiltrated the guerillas, who would have set fire to the city to make show the Indian army in the hope to start a rising. Since 1990, the confrontations with the Cashmere caused more 11 000 died according to the official Indian sources.
- May 14th, Tibet: Young a 6 year old boy, Gedhun Choekyi Nyima, is officially identified by the 14th Dalaï LAMA, Tenzin Gyatso, like the 11th Panchen LAMA.
- May 17th, Tibet: The Chinese authorities stop with its family, child the 6 year old, Gedhun Choekyi Nyima, recognized by the 14th Dalaï Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, like successor of the 10th Panchen LAMA. The Chinese government “put at the secrecy” this child which one is always without news. Another " panchen-lama" candidate is set up by Beijing.
- May 19th: In front of the precariousness of the political situation in Thailand, Chuan Leekpai dissolves the Parliament.
- May 24th, Thailand: With the elections which follow dissolution, an alliance of six parties, the Party Thai Cat (Face of Thai development), gains the majority of the seats. Banharn Silpa Archa becomes Prime Minister. This poll sees the rise to power of the business men on the political scene, those accounting for 36% of the candidates. Since 1995, the soldiers do not constitute more of two thirds of the Room of the representatives.
- June 13rd: The king of the Nepal pronounces a new dissolution of the Parliament, apparently intended to avoid the test of a new vote of confidence at the Communist government, which was renewed in waiting of elections.
- July 10th, Burma: Mrs. Aung San Suu Kyi finds freedom.
- July 11th: Bill Clinton announces the standardization of the diplomatic relations of the the United States with the Vietnam, subject to a co-operation durable Vietnamese in the research of the Americans missing during the war.
- July 28th: The Vietnam is allowed within ASEAN.
- September 5th, Afghanistan: The Taliban take Hérat, then sweep the troops of Hekmatyar, threaten Kabul, but are pushed back by a coalition of the other factions.
- November: Arrest for corruption of the former president Korea N Roh Tae-woo.
- December 14th: 5th top of the ASEAN in Bangkok, joining together the seven Member States, plus 3 candidates.
South Korea: extremely of “the globalisation” campaign presented like a national mobilization vis-a-vis international competition, Kim Young-Sam évince the leader of the conservatives, which does not prevent the defeat of its party (the liberal Democratic party) to the local elections of 1995.
- Tibet: Beginning of the construction of a railroad between Golmud (Qinghai) and Lhassa. Length 1084 km and crossing collars with 5000 meters, it is inaugurated on July 1st 2006.
- Nepal: renegotiation of the treaty of free movement of the goods with the India.
- the Burma knows a relative liberalization of the economy.
- the president Fidel Ramos succeeds in starting again the economy of the Filipino thanks to the national and foreign investments.
- 197,6 million inhabitants in Indonesia, which places it at the fourth world rank.
The Middle East & World arabo-Moslem
April: The Safety advice of the United Nations adopts the resolution 986 “Pétrole against food”. It authorizes the Iraq to be sold for a billion dollar of oil per quarter to buy food products and drugs, under the strict control of UNO.
- August 10th: The Jordan grants asylum to two of the girls of the Iraqi president Saddam Hussein and to their husbands, of which Hussein Kamel el-Madjid, Minister of Industry and chief of the program of armament of the country.
- September 24th: Agreements of Taba: Extension of Palestinian autonomy to the West Bank (agreement signed then in Washington by Arafat and Rabin).
- Israel decides to take again the negotiations with the beginning of the year, although it gave to the colonies the right to extend, decision which involves new demonstrations and new attacks. Israel would preserve the military control of the the West Bank and the territories under Palestinian administration would increase. Israel proposes to define three zones: a zone including/understanding the Palestinian agglomerations, except Hebron, subjected to the Palestinian authority, a zone B gathering the villages jointly managed and a zone C gathering the little populated areas and the colonies under Israeli exclusive control. Israel accepts the election of a legislative council of 88 members which would designate the executive council. The prospect for an agreement at the beginning of July involves the development of the Israeli religious line opposition. The rabbis call with civil disobedience.
- September 28th: The “agreements Oslo II” are signed with the White House.
- September: Expulsion of thousands of Palestinians of Libya.
- October 5th: The partisans of Large Israel express at the time of the vote of the ratification of the agreement by the Israeli Parliament.
- October - December: Military withdrawal of the Israelis of seven towns of Palestine except for Hebron and of 450 Arab villages.
- November 4th: Assassination of Yitzhak Rabin by a young Israeli extremist at the time of a great demonstration for peace with Tel-Aviv. Shimon Peres succeeds to him the head of the government.
- November 4th:
- November 13rd: An car bomb attack aims soldiers and American civilians (working for the National guard séoudienne) at Riyadh, making seven dead.
- November 29th, Saudi Arabia: the king Fahd, 74 years old, is victim of a brain attack. He decides to transfer part of his capacities between the hands from the crown prince Abdallah (December).
- November: Success of PND to the legislative elections in Egypt.
- December: Second economic conference for the Middle East and North Africa.
- Shimon Peres revival of the operations against the Hezbollah with the Southern Lebanon with the end of the year. This one retorts by bombarding the Galileo.
Egypt is posed as a champion of the refusal of the ratification of the nuclear treaty of non-proliferation, if Israel does not sign it either. It is forced to yield in front of the Western pressures.
- Saudi Arabia: The number of members of the advisory counsel is changed to 90.
- the experts of UNO carry out an increasingly vast survey, involving an important inference in the Iraqi interior matters. The governmental activities are put under control, under the threat of an military intervention of the coalition. Baghdad generally ends up yielding but shows UNSCOM espionage. Disarm of Iraq progresses. The nuclear question is quickly settled, the last destroyed missiles, the sites suspected of manufacture placed under electronic monitoring. As from 1995, the UNSCOM approaches the file of the bacteriological weapons.
- maintains It embargo associated with dictatorial nature with the mode involves an increasingly visible degradation of the living conditions of population (food, medical care, education, etc). The reports/ratios of UNICEF allot to the embargo the death from 5 to 7000 children of less than five years per month.
Chronologies sets of themes
Arts & culture
Aeronautics1995 in aeronautics
Railroads1995 in the railroads
Sport1995 in sport
Data processing1995 in data processing
- April 9th: With Ciudad Real (Spain), alternate of Víctor Sánchez Cerdá known as “Víctor Puerto”, Spanish Matador.
- April 16th: With Málaga (Spain), alternative of Javier Cop, Spanish matador.
- April 23rd: With Seville (Spain), alternative of Francisco Will rivet Ordóñez, Spanish matador.
- December 10th: With Mexico City (Mexico), alternate of Jose Tomás Román Martín known as “Jose Tomás”, Spanish Matador .
Sciences & technology
- January 10th: Inauguration of the Bridge of Normandy between Le Havre and Honfleur.
- February 3rd: For the first time in the history of the space conquest, a shuttle is controlled by a woman.
- Internet: The search engine AltaVista (site: http://www.altavista.com) of DEC indexes 15 million pages of the WWW, leaves the Internet.
- Marek Kamiński : First man to reach the two poles the same year (May 23rd with Wojciech Moskal with the North pole; December 27th South pole.
- December 15th:
- Nobel Prize of physics: Martin Lewis Perl and Frederick Queens
- Nobel Prize of chemistry: Paul J. Crutzen, Mario J. Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland
- Nobel Prize of physiology or medicine: Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard and Eric F. Wieschaus
- Nobel Prize of literature: Seamus Heaney
- Nobel Prize of peace: Joseph Rotblat
Births in 1995
- October 11th: Luisa Maria of Belgium, girl of the princess Astrid of Belgium
- October 25th: Conchita Campbell, Canadian actress
Death in 1995
- January 2nd: Mohammed Siad Bars, former president of the Somalia.
- January 22nd: Pink Kennedy, at the 104 years age.
- February 2nd
- February 4th: Patricia Highsmith, écrivaine American.
- February 8th: Józef Maria Bocheński, philosopher Polish (° August 30th 1902)
- February 23rd: James Herriot, veterinary surgeon and British writer (° October 3rd 1916).
- March 7th: Paul-Emile Victor, polar explorer.
- March 26th: Eazy E, singer and producer.
- March 31st:
- April 2nd: Hannes Alfven, Astrophysicist Swedish, (° 1908).
- April 4th: Priscilla Lane, Actress
- April 14th: Burl Ives, Singer and Actor
- April 25th: Ginger Rogers, Actress
- May 5th: Mikhaïl Botvinnik, Russian player of failures, (° 1911).
- May 6th: Maria Pia of Saxony-Coburg-Gotha-Braganca, duchess of Bragança
- May 16th: Lola Flora, Spanish Actress
- May 18th:
- Elizabeth Montgomery, American Actress, (° 1933).
- Elisha Cook Jr., Actor
- Alexander Godunov, Dancer and Actor
- Henri Laborit, Scientific, Philosopher and writer French, (° 1914).
- June 14th
- June 20th: Emil Cioran, Philosopher and Rumanian writer
- June 29th: Lana Turner, American Actress, (° 1920).
- July 4th: Eva Gabor, actress.
- July 17th: Manual Juan Fangio, Argentinian racing driver.
- July 20th: Ernest Mandel, economist and political personality Trotski co.
- August 3rd: Ida Lupino, actress, director.
- August 6th: Hugh Borton, American historian.
- August 9th: Jerry Garcia, American singer, “Grateful Dead”.
- August 19th: Pierre Schaeffer with Aix-en-Provence.
- August 21st: Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Indian astrophysicist .
- August 26th: John Brunner, British writer of Science fiction.
- August 29th: Michael Ende, German writer of fantastic novels (° November 12th 1929).
- September 9th: Reinhard Furrer, German spationaut (° November 25th 1940)
- September 15th: Gunnar Nordahl, Swedish footballer.
- October 3rd: Charles L. Veach, American astronaut (° September 18th 1944)
- October 21st: Maxene Andrews, member of the The Andrews Sisters
- October 22nd: Mary Wickes, actress
- October 25th: Viveca Lindfors, actress
- November 4th:
- Yitzhak Rabin, Israeli Prime Minister, is assassinated
- Gilles Deleuze, French philosopher, puts an end to its days
- November 17th: Salvatore Martirano, American Type-setter . (° January 12th 1927).
- November 20th: Sergei Grinkov, Russian artistic skater (° February 4th 1967)
- November 21st: Peter Grant, manager of the group Led Zeppelin
- November 23rd: Louis Malle, realizer
- November 24th: Jeffrey Lynn, actor
- December 2nd: Robertson William Davies, writer, journalist, Canadian professor (° 1913)
- December 5th: LISA McPherson, scientologist. Its death causes a controversy.
- December 9th: Vivian Blaine, actress
- December 22nd: Butterfly McQueen, actress
- December 25th: Dean Martin, singer and actor
Beats-smg: 1995 Be-X-old: 1995 Cbk-zam: 1995 Map-bms: 1995 Simple: 1995 Zh-min-nan: 1995 nor Zh-yue: 1995 年
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