This page relates to the year 1992 Gregorian Calendrier.
- June 16th: Summit George Bush and Boris Ieltsine on the reduction of the nuclear armaments.
- July: Boutros Boutros-Ghali, General secretary of the United Nations, proposes a “Agenda for Peace”.
- the Nobel Prize of peace is allotted to the Guatemalan Rigoberta Menchú Tum.
- the 17th Karmapa, Orgyen Trinley Dorje is discovered and established with the Tibet.
- January 13rd: Re-election of Mario Soares with the presidency of the republic to the Portugal.
- February 7th: Signature of the Treated of Maastricht also called treated European Union. It will come into effect at January 1st 1993, the European Union (EU) replacing the EEC then and applies to the twelve initial Member States, namely the Germany, the Belgium, the Denmark, the Spain, the France, the Greece, the Ireland, the Italy, the Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the Portugal, and the the United Kingdom; it envisages also the economic Union and monetarist. The the United Kingdom refuses to accept the social clause of it.
- See also: Process of ratification of the treaty of Maastricht and decisions of the Constitutional council.
- March 17th: The British troops leave Gibraltar definitively.
- April 9th: Fourth electoral victory of the conservative party to the the United Kingdom.
- April 12th: Opening of the park Euro Disneyland with the Marne the Valley.
- May 21st:
- Creation by François Mitterrand and Helmut Kohl of the Eurocorps (35 000 with 45 000 men).
- Agreement of the Twelve on the common agricultural policy.
- June 2nd: Referendum with the Denmark: in spite of a favorable vote at the Parliament, 50,7% of the Danes refuse the Traité of Maastricht.
- June 19th: The Parliament Suisse adopts a federal law on the “data protection”.
- July 9th: Summit of CSCE (52 countries) to Helsinki.
- July 18th: Neil Kinnock is replaced by John Smith with the head of the Labor to the the United Kingdom.
- July 23rd: The Parlement of the United Kingdom ratifies the agreements of Maastricht.
- September: Monetary crisis in Europe with the autumn. The To read, the Peseta and the Escudo are devaluated. The frankly resists thanks to the assistance of Germany.
- September 16th: The Pound sterling must leave EMS vis-a-vis the attacks of the speculators.
- September 20th: Referendum in France on the Treated of Maastricht: short victory of YES (51,05% of the voters).
- September 25th: Opening of the channel Hand - the Danube in Germany.
- September 28th: Beginning of the emissions of Arte, television channel Franco-German general practitioner of public service to European cultural vocation, within the framework of a European grouping of economic interest. Jerome Clément is the first president.
- October 4th: An airfreighter of the airline company El Al is crushed in the suburbs of Amsterdam, making 43 dead.
- October 7th: With alternate Saragossa (Spain), of Jose Raúl Gracia Hernández known as “El Tato”, Spanish Matador.
- December 6th: Following a referendum, the Suisse refuses to ratify EEE.
- More than 10% unemployed to the the United Kingdom between 1992 and 1994.
See also: 1992 in France
See also: 1992 in Switzerland
- Visit of Chinese the Prime Minister Li Peng.
- Transformation of the great holdings of State (IRI, ENI, ENEL, INA) into public limit companies under the supervision of the Treasury (law n°35).
- February 2nd: Dissolution of the Room by the president of the Republic Cossiga.
- February 17th: Beginning of the Operation '' Mani Pulite '' (clean Hands). Two Milanese magistrates, Antonio Di Pietro and Gherardo Colombo, during an investigation into an corruption affair in the government contracts, flushes out a member of the PSI, Mario Chiesa whereas it received a bribe of a contractor. Chiesa recognizes that these practices are widespread in all the political parties. The diverted sums are enormous and the investigation of the Milanese judges, relayed by the press, causes a true tidal wave judicaire and decapitates the political community. The April 2nd 1993, 1 116 legal informations aiming 2 500 people are in hand. 152 members of Parliament are implied, and 1 356 arrests carried out.
- April 23rd: Last legislative elections control by the electoral law proportional adopted by the Republic to the fall of Fascism. This system had allowed dualism cd. - NCV without possibilities of alternation. Cd. dominated the political life since 1948. The result of the elections is a true political earthquake ( terremoto ). Cd. passes in lower part of 30% for the first time and PDS (NCV since 1991) obtains only 16,5% of the voices while its left wing, Rifondazione Comunista , obtains 5,8%. The PSI regresses (13,9%) like MSI (5,5%). The League Lombarde ( Northern Lega ), created recently by Umberto Bossi with a populist and federalistic program, obtains 8,7%. This upheaval gives rise to a democracy of the alternation based on coalitions.
- May 23rd: Assassination by the Maffia (Cosa Nostra) of the judge anti-Maffia Giovanni Falcone, in the Province of Palermo
- May 25th: Oscar Luigi Scalfaro, president of the Republic.
- June 28th: The Socialist Giuliano Amato, near to Craxi, form a coalition government whereas the situation is particularly difficult: the To read at summer devaluated of 30%, the national debt is enormous, the operation Manu Pulite decapitates the political community. The Amato government succeeds in September imposing a saving in 93 000 billion liras (46 billion euros), the privatization of the large companies with official participation and manages an agreement with the trade unions on wage moderation.
- July 19th: Assassination by the Maffia (Cosa Nostra) of the judge anti-Maffia Paolo Borsellino, collaborator and friend of Giovanni Falcone.
- July 21st: Following the assassination of Palermo, the population expresses its indignation and the Italian leaders, constrained to act, put the Sicily in state of siege.
- July: Removal of the sliding scale and blocking of the wages for the year.
- September: Devaluation of the To read of 3,5% while the other currencies of EMS are revalued of 3,5%.
- October 22nd: One repented, Tommaso Buscetta, highlights the bonds between the Mafia and political power, affirming that Salvo Lima, appointed European and former mayor cd. of Palermo, assassinated the March 12th, was the intermediary between the Maffia and Giulio Andreotti.
- December 23rd: Bonds between the Maffia and of the persons in charge of the fight anti-Maffia are denounced.
- December: The Lire leaves EMS.
12% of the credits works in the primary sector, 32% in the secondary, 56% in the tertiary sector. According to the Ministry of Labor, 1,5 million workers is not declared. A million workers carry on a double activity.
- January 30th: Tiit Vähi Prime Minister in Estonia.
- February: In Lithuania, the popularity of the coalition Sąjūdis is exhausted because of internal political battles, of a severe economic crisis caused by the interruption of the commercial links with the Soviet ex-republics and bad relations with the adjoining countries. The Democratic party of the Work of Lithuania (PTDL, old Communist party of Lithuania) gains the majority of the seats to the Seimas in February.
- March 22nd: The opposition gains the first free elections in Albania. Defeat of the Albanian Socialist party to the legislative ones. The “democrats” are majority at the Parliament.
- April 2nd: Sali Berisha becomes president in Albania in the place of Ramiz Alia, with a program of market economy and privatizations. The communist and reversed system, but the Socialists remake surface in summer at the time of the local elections, whereas the country is inserted in the crisis and that the democratic camp tears.
- October 25th, Lithuania: The leader of the PTD, Algirdas Brazauskas, is elected president of the Seimas and chair Republic by interim.
- November 4th: Ion Iliescu, re-elected president of Romania, names a new government directed by Nicolae Văcăroiu and dominated by the democratic Face of the national hello (FDSN), one of the two parties resulting from the scission of the Face of national hello.
- December 31st: Dissolution of the Czechoslovakia, replaced the following day by the Czech Republic and the Slovakia.
In Czechoslovakia, the campaign privatization by free distribution of coupons takes its rise thanks to the massive publicity orchestrated by funds of investments related to the banks and other financial institutions. These funds sell their actions against coupons which they use to buy of the actions of the government enterprises transformed into public limit companies; they promise to repurchase their own actions at prices at least ten times superiors with the amount paid initially by the public this which explains its passion (82% of the Czech adults hold coupons). At the time of the first wave, 42% of the credits are privatisés in this way, whereas the State preserves a good portion of its capital. Certain government enterprises fall under control from foreign assets (Skoda for example, repurchased by Volkswagen). But the majority depend on a group of Funds of investment, the ones controlled by private individuals, the majority by the five Czech large banks, themselves controlled partly by the public agency in charge of privatization. It results a fragile and unstable pyramidal system from it, because the Funds of investment, which must pour dividends, reduce their wallets by selling actions. A new privatization, “quiet” can then begin, aiming at restructuring the economy to make it more powerful.
- Withdrawal of the Soviet garrisons in Poland (1992 - 1993).
- January: Cease-fire enters the Croatia and the Serbia. Croatia loses more than a third of its territory. Dubrovnik is destroyed.
- February 29th: Referendum on the independence of the Bosnia-Herzégovine.
- March 1st: Declaration of Independence of the Bosnia-Herzégovine following a referendum where the Serb ones (a third of the population) boycotted the ballot boxes. The war moves on its territory.
- April 6th: Beginning of the war in Bosnia-Herzégovine (end in August 1995). The Serb ones of Bosnia-Herzégovine supported by the “Yugoslav” army of Milosevic conquer 70% of the Bosnia-Herzégovine in a few months and constitute a republic which intends to make secession to be attached to the Serbia. UNO condemns Yugoslavia like the attacker of Bosnia-Herzégovine.
- April 27th: The Serbia and the Montenegro are linked to form the Federal republic of Yugoslavia.
- May 22nd: Admission of the Croatia, the Slovenia and the Bosnia-Herzégovine within UNO.
- May 30th:
- the Bosnia-Herzégovine joined the the United Nations.
- UNO vote a commercial embargo against the Yugoslavia which quickly appears porous. Old solidarity paralyze the action of the international community which posts its divisions.
- August 2nd: Revelation on the installation of concentration camps by the Serb ones in Bosnia-Herzégovine, beginning of “ethnic purification”.
- September 22nd: The Federal republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia-Montenegro) is excluded from the General meeting of the United Nations. UNO does not recognize the new republic like successor of Yugoslavia, leaving him the possibility of presenting its candidature in its proper name. The First federal minister, Milan Panić seems decided to follow this way (October), but its political adversaries benefit from it to eliminate it.
- the EEC recognizes the independence of the Slovenia, the Croatia and the Bosnia-Herzégovine.
- January 1st: Launching of the reform program economic radical of Iegor Gaïdar in Russia. The conservatives, gathered around the president of the Parliament, emanation of the Congress of the deputies of people (CDP), Rouslan Khasboulatov, seek to counter Eltsine.
- January 31st: Russia replaces the the USSR like permanent member of the Safety advice of the United Nations.
- March 2nd:
- Admission of the Arménie, the Moldavie, the Azerbaïdjan, the Kazakhstan, the Kirghizstan, the Ouzbékistan, the Tadjikistan, and the Turkménistan within UNO.
- the Moldavian president Mircea Snegur authorizes an armed action against the rebels with Transnistrie. Those, helped by quotas of cossacks and Russian XIVe armed with the general Lebed, consolidate their influence on the disputed area. The Moldavian government asks for several times UNO to intervene, without success. Lebed obtains a cease-fire in August and the troops of the CEI interpose.
- March 27th: CEI creates with Saint-Pétersbourg an interparliamentary assembly.
- March 31st: Treaty remelting the Federation of Russia. It is not signed by the Tatarstan and the Chetchnia. Tchétchènes Moslems of the Caucasus, rich in oil, choose independence.
- May 5th: A movement secessionist directed by Russians is formed in the Crimea. The Crimea proclaims its independence, which is finally repealed. The same month, the Russian legislative body declares no one and null and void the transfer of 1954 which attached the Crimea to the Ukraine. In fact, as from 1991, the Ukraine and Russia asserted each one control of the fleet of the Black Sea, based in the port of Sébastopol.
- June 15th: Iegor Gaïdar, Prime Minister of Russia.
- June 23rd: Russo-Ukrainian agreement on the division of the command of the fleet of the Black Sea until in 1995, date on which it will be divided between the two countries.
- October 9th: The agreement of Bichkek (Kirhizie) maintains a zone Rouble between Russia, Bielorussia, Kazakhstan, Ouzbékistan, Kirghizie, Arménie.
- October 13rd: Leonid Koutchma becomes Prime Minister of Ukraine. He sets up a series of economic reforms which coincide with the beginning of the economic crisis and hyperinflation.
- December 14th: The Parliament refuses to confirm in its station Egor Gaïdar, principal architect of the governmental plans of reforms, “Prime Minister in exercise” since June, and indicates in its place “pragmatic” the Viktor Tchernomyrdine, member of long time of the Communist party of the Soviet Union (PCUS), seeming partisan of a less radical economic policy.
- December: The Russian Constitutional court reconsiders the decision taken by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, before its car-dissolution in August 1991, to suspend the activities of the PCUS, giving again with the party the official possibility to reconquer a new audience. Russia is in a true political dead end, between a Cabinet committed on the way of essential reforms and a legislative body referring unceasingly to the Constitution of 1977, installation lasting the era brejnévienne and become completely unsuited. Conservatives and reformists arrive at an agreement on the behavior of a referendum in April 1993, sincerely hoped by Boris Eltsine.
vertiginous Inflation (often more than 1000% of rise of the prices per annum between 1992 and 1994). The public authorities do not control any more the money supply. In Russia, after having returned Gaïdar, Boris Eltsine follows a wavering policy. A strict control of the money supply is likely to put in bankruptcy many nonprofitable or insolvent companies and to throw to the street of the million unemployed. Of fear of chaos, the government prefers to let the firms operate between them various forms of barter or be given bank credits constantly renewed. The State itself maintains the inflationary mechanism by its heavy budget deficit: the expenditure has beautiful being reduced (armed, education, health), these cancellations of appropriations do not compensate for the bad re-entries of taxes (no tax reform is adopted). The Russian State does not have the means of implementing a policy of growth and development.
- January: Beginnings of the confrontations between Mobutu and the opposition to the Zaire.
- Mars: Multi-party system with the Congo.
- March 17th: Success of the referendum on the participation of the Blacks in the political life in South Africa. Frederik de Klerk obtains the abolition of apartheid at the conclusion of a referendum organized for the only White. The homelands are invited to reinstate South Africa (1994).
- April 29th: Military coup d'etat in Sierra Leone against the president Joseph Momoh. Valentine Strasser seizes the power.
- April: Multi-party system in.
- May 18th: IV° Republic with the Ghana. Pluralist democracy.
- May: Law founding the multi-party system in Tanzania.
- August 10th: IIIe Republic with Madagascar. Introduction of the multi-party system.
- August 17th: SADCC, fascinating account of the political evolution with Pretoria, is transformed into the Community of Development of the Southern Africa (SADC).
- August 31st: Pascal Lissouba, president of Congo.
- October 4th: General agreement of peace to the Mozambique signed with Rome.
- October 11th: Pluralist elections with the Cameroun. Paul Biya is re-elected president of the Republic.
- December 9th: Beginning of the humane intervention (“Restore Hope”) in Somalia (the United States, France…).
- Multi-party system with the Burundi and Djibouti.
- “Great national debate” in Central Africa: adoption of the multi-party system.
- Taken again civil war in Angola (1992 - 2002).
- January 12th: Adoption by a constitutional referendum of the Constitution of IIIe Republic of the Mali.
- February 25th: Promulgation by decree of the news Constitution of the Mali, founding IIIe Republic.
- April 11th: Signature with Bamako of the “National Pact” devoting the payment of the conflict of the North of Mali.
- April 12th: First turn of the presidential election.
- April 26th: Second round of the presidential election: Alpha Oumar Konaré becomes the first President of IIIe République.
- May 7th: Signature with Bamako of the “Social pact for the improvement of the living conditions of the workers” , between the State Malian and National union of the workers of Mali (UNTM).
- June 5th: End of the period of “Democratic transition” chaired by Tinder Toumani Touré.
- June 8th: Nomination of the President Alpha Oumar Konaré, first President of IIIe Republic, for a five years mandate.
- January 11th: Cancellation of the second turn of the legislative elections after the success of MADE with the first in Algérie, involving the resignation of President Chadli Bendjedid replaced by Mohamed Boudiaf. The soldiers seize the capacity.
- January 17th: In Algeria, nearly 500 militants of the Islamic front of the hello (MADE), of which many elected officials, are stopped by the security services.
- February 9th: The state of emergency is issued for 12 months in Algérie. It opens one long period of civil war where perish of the thousands of Algerians and abroad.
- March 4th: Dissolution of the Islamic front of the hello (MADE).
- March 31st: Adoption by the Safety advice of the United Nations of the resolution 748: beginning of the embargo against the Libya, shown to have organized the Attack of Lockerbie in 1989 and the attack against a plane of ATU to the Niger the same year.
- June 29th: The Algerian president Mohamed Boudiaf is assassinated.
The Middle East & Arab world
- January: the Safety advice of the United Nations condemns the Israeli policy with regard to the Palestinian population (deportation). Individual attacks strike the Israeli colonists.
- May 13rd, Lebanon: The government Omar Karamé resigns following demonstrations started by the crisis monetarists.
- May 16th: Rashid Al-Suhl is appointed Prime Minister of Lebanon.
- May 19th: Elections are organized in the Kurdish autonomous region in Iraq.
- June 8th: The Egyptian writer Farag Foda is assassinated in an attack perprétré by the islamist group Al-Gama' has Al-Islamiyya. Its work on Islam and Coran had caused the anger of the religious authorities.
- June: Victoire of the Labor to the elections in Israel.
- July 13rd: Yitzhak Rabin, soldier with the prestigious past, Prime Minister in Israel. It takes initiatives to resolve the situation, and endeavors to obtain peace without safety not suffering from it. With its Foreign Minister Shimon Peres, it takes for the first time contact with Yasser Arafat, leader of PLO become vulnerable since Arab monarchies refuses any financial aid to him since its supports with Saddam Hussein in the war of the Gulf.
- July 25th, Southern Lebanon: Israeli aviation retorts with the attacks Chiites (13 Israelis died since the beginning of the year) by bombarding many sites, including civilians. The Hezbollah counterpart by bombarding the Galileo. Rabin then launches the operation “settling of score” which involves the escape towards the north of Lebanon of 300 000 people. The July 31st, following an American intervention, a cease-fire is obtained.
- August: At the end of August, a new zone of air exclusion is created in the south of the Iraq in order to protect the populations Shiite.
- September 6th: Rashid Al-Suhl organizes the first legislative elections with the Lebanon since 1972. They are boycotted in the Christian sectors, but the Hezbollah and Amal enter to the Parliament.
- October: The dead end of the negotiations of Washington starts again the violence, carried out by the islamist movements. The houses of the suspects of attacks are destroyed with the anti-tank missile by the Israelis.
- November 12th: The government Rafiq Hariri is invested with the Lebanon.
- December: The government Rabin off-sets out of the occupied territories more than 400 marked Palestinians to be islamist activists. They are sent to the Lebanon, which refuses to accommodate them is find in No man' S Land between the zones of the two armies. The Israeli action is condemned by the Safety advice.
- Campaign islamist attacks against groups of tourists in Egypt.
- the Iraq launches out in a vast program of rebuilding of the infrastructure of the country. Saddam Hussein multiplies the extravagant expenditure, such construction of presidential palaces. A new canal system is dug in the south. The non-existent political opposition and (assassination of Shiite monks, escape of leaders abroad) and the blockade reinforce the mode while placing the populations in a state of dependence and malnutrition.
- Lebanon: the State seeks to dismantle the cultures of drugs. The economy is with lowest. The national currency continues to lose its value while the real rebuilding remains to be made. In May, the Lebanese pound crumbles (a dollar for 2000 pounds).
- February 25th: Massacre of Khodjaly during the conflict of the Haut-Karabagh.
- June 16th: Abülfaz Elçibay, chief of the Azeri Popular front (FPA), is elected president of Azerbaïdjan by the vote for all with 55% of the voices (end on September 1st 1993).
- January 6th: Zviad Gamsakhourdia, the president of Georgia, accused of corruption, of violation of the human rights and abuse of power is driven out capacity. Gamsakhourdia and its partisans assemble several operations to try to take again Tbilissi by the force and, in October 1993, threaten Kutaisi. The revolt ends after death, apparently by suicide, of Gamsakhourdia at the end of 1993.
- July 23rd: The Abkhazian Supreme Soviet declares the independence of the Abkhazie.
- August: The authorities géorgiennes send troops in Abkhazie under cover to protect the ways from provisioning and to continue the forces supporting Gamsakhourdia. Intense combat take place, the Abkhazians receiving the support of the Caucasian people of Russia. The forces géorgiennes enormously lose ground until a cease-fire is declared in July 1993.
- October 11th: Edouard Chevardnadze is elected President of the Parliament of Georgia.
the Armenian army invades and occupies the Nagorny-Karabakh, enclave Armenian in Azerbaïdjan.
Asia & India
- the North Korea sign an agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) authorizing the inspection of its nuclear installations. Probably holder of the nuclear weapon, the North Korea refuses the visit of the sites suspectés with the inspectors of the IAEA and threat to withdraw itself from the nuclear treaty of non-proliferation which it had ratified in 1985.
- the emperor of the Japan goes to China for the first time of the history.
- China: The conservatives try to benefit from repression to slow down the reforms, but Deng Xiaoping benefits from a voyage through China with the beginning of the year to indicate that the economic material course did not change; the 14th Congress of the party, in October, confirms that the objective is well to build “a socialist economic system of market”. After 1992, Deng Xiaoping, old man and patient, hardly any more take part in the management of the country but remain the most respected figure.
- China counts 1,27 billion inhabitants. The country became since the death of Mao Zedong an economic and military great power. But the effort of supports budgetary in favor of the government enterprises, heavily overdrawn, becomes unbearable. Their setting in bankruptcy would imply unemployment for million work profiting in addition from a poor social protection. The bad health of the government enterprises flashes back on the banks which ploient under the doubtful debts. Corruption weakens the system. The communist central capacity however succeeds in preserving the control of the situation, because a majority of Chinese fears that the country replonge in chaos.
- Tibet :The June 7th, the 14th Dalaï Lama recognized officially Orgyen Trinley Dorje like 17th Karmapa. The June 27th, is 20 days later, the Chinese authorities also recognized it, acceptor thus the choice of the 14th Dalaï Lama. Orgyen Trinley Dorje was led to the monastery of Tsourphou, seat traditional of the Karmapa S, close to Lhassa and the September 27th of this same year, it was established there by Taï Sitou Rinpoché and Gyaltsab Rinpoché. Number 3 in the religious hierarchy Tibetan with the Dalaï Lama and the Panchen LAMA, the 17th Karmapa is the only LAMA réincarné to be recognized at the same time by the Chinese Dalaï Lama and Government. However, with the wire of time, the heavy constraints imposed by the Chinese administration appeared a major hurdle with its formation and he will escape in India with the day before from the year 2000.
- December: National elections in South Korea. Change of majority, the president Roh Tae-woo resigns with the profit of Kim Young-Sam.
South Asia and of the South-eastern
- 27 - January 29th: With Singapore, ASEAN lance the project of a free exchange zone with a bill book of reduction of the customs tariffs between his members. Creation of a permanent secretariat of the APEC (Economic cooperation for the Asia-Pacific) in Singapore. An annual summit of the Heads of States adhering to the APEC is instituted starting from 1993.
- February 28th, Kampuchea: UNO starts to register the voters in preparation for the elections of May 1993. Confrontations between the government, the partisans of Norodom Sihanouk and the Khmer Rouge on several occasions threaten to put a term at the peace process. Finally, the Khmer Rouges refuse to take part in the electoral poll.
- March 22nd: Elections in Thailand. The victory of parties pro-soldiers causes with Bangkok a wave of manifestations of the students and middle-class requiring the installation of democratic reforms. These demonstrations are violently repressed by the army, but the king intervenes to impose a more respectful government of the democracy.
- April 15th: Constitution of the socialist Republic of the Vietnam, who confirms the evolution of the country towards the market economy.
- April 23rd, Burma: Patient, Saw Maung is replaced with the head of the SLORC by the general Than Shwe.
- May 24th: The leader inhabitant of Thailand Suchinda Kraprayoon is constrained to resign. End of the military regime.
- June 30th, Filipino: The communist movements insurrectionary and the internal quarrels within the army push Cory Aquino to seek a compromise with the line, which causes the departure of many liberals of its government. Cory Aquino, after having escaped with several coups d'etat, must resign following the failure of its economic policy and agrarian. Fidel Ramos succeeds to him the presidency.
- September 23rd: The elections organized in Thailand lead to the formation of a new coalition government of the parties prodemocratic directed by a veteran of the policy, Chuan Leekpai, chief of the democratic party.
- November 25th: After the death of Kaysone Phomvihane, Nouhak Phoumsavanh reaches the capacity with the Laos.
- December 6th, India: The Hindu extremists undertake the destruction of the mosque of Ayodhya, which involves intercommunity violent ones confrontations in all the country, causing the death of more than 1200 people. The following day, of the riots anti-Indians take place with the Pakistan and the Bangladesh.
- December: The American forces withdraw Filipino, after the decision by the Filipino Senate not to renew the beams of American military bases.
- As of the end of the year, Washington makes it possible the American companies to open offices with the Vietnam.
- January: A new Constitution, respecting the principles of democracy, mixed economy, freedom of thought and neutrality in foreign politics is adopted in Mongolia. The name of popular republic and the red star of the flag are abandoned.
- March 2nd: The Ouzbékistan, the Azerbaïdjan, the Arménie, the Kyrgyzstan and the Tadjikistan become members of the the United Nations.
- April 28th: Catch of Kabul by the Moudjahid DIN of Ahmed Shah Massoud.
- May: Beginning of the civil war with the Tadjikistan (end in July 1997). Supplied out of weapons starting from the Afghanistan, the islamist democrats take the control of the capital. Helped by the Russian and Uzbek forces, the procommunists take again then the city then the control of the country, restored the government and launch an elimination campaign of the opposition, prohibiting the Party of the Islamic rebirth, where Lali Badakhshan, which claimed a greater autonomy for the area of the Gorno-Badakhshan (1993), and limiting freedom of the press. To be able to control the Moslem religious authorities, the government established a separation of the capacities of the State and clergy.
- June 28th, Afghanistan: The rival factions accept the installation of a temporary council to control the Afghanistan, with like chair Burhanuddin Rabbani of Pamiat-i Islami (moderate Inhabitants of Tajik and Moslems).
- June: The revolutionary Parti the Mongolian people (PPRM) reconstituted gains the legislative elections in Mongolia. Large Khural is abolished and new Large Khural unicaméral becomes the legislative Body of the country.
- September 7th: Resignation of the president of the Tadjikistan Rahmon Nabiev.
- November 20th: Emomali Rahmonov (called today Emomalii Rahmon ), president of the Tadjikistan.
last troops of the old Soviet Union (approximately 65 000 soldiers) leave the Mongolia with the end of the year.
- Treated Kazakhstan with the Russia: Kazakhstan must destroy all its nuclear weapons or transfer them under Russian control in the seven years to come.
- April 5th: Coup d'etat of the president Fujimori with the Peru, which is excluded from the Andean Communauté of the Nations until in 1997.
- August 24th: Valery Fabrikant assassinates 4 colleagues of the Université Concordia with Montreal with the Quebec.
- October 7th: North American Free Trade Agreement (Agreement of North-American free trade, or Alena) signed between the Mexico, the the United States and the Canada. The Mexican Parliament ratifies the agreement in 1993 and the treaty takes effect on January 1st 1994, thus creating the greatest zone of Libre-échange of the world.
- November 13rd: Failure of a Coup d'etat of the Salinas general against Fujimori with the Peru.
Launching by the the Andean Community of the Nations of an Andean zone of free trade, supplemented later by a common external tariff.
- Plane of political union of the islands to the Wind (Dominique, Grenade, St Lucia, Saint-Vincent), not ratified.
The United States
- April 29th May 1st: Riots of Los Angeles, making 50 died and of the hundreds of casualties, following the business Rodney King (payment of four white police officers who had beaten a black motorist).
- June 16th: Treaty START II. Agreement between Boris Eltsine and Bush for the reduction of the number of the intercontinental missiles (ICBM) which will deploy the United States.
- November 3rd: Election of William (“Bill”) Jefferson Clinton (Democratic) like President of the United States with 43% of the votes on George Bush (38%) and Ross Perot (19%), with 45% of abstentions. The democrats preserve the majority at the Senate and the Room of the representatives.
Commemoration of the five hundredth birthday of the arrival of Christophe Colomb. The Indians, joined by other American, organize national demonstrations of protest.
- Prolongation of the duration of the unemployment insurance.
- Hardening of the oppositions on the Voluntary interruption of pregnancy (IVG).
- Signs of recovery economic.
- 1% of richest holds 42% of the national wealth (22% in 1979).
- Reduction of 2% of the military budget, which passes from 281 billion dollars to 275 billion.
- May: The brother of President accused of corruption Paulo César Farias and President Collor.
- 3 with the June 14th: Conference of Rio: Summit “Planet Ground” organized by the the United Nations with Rio de Janeiro, during which is adopted a declaration on ls right and responsibilities for the countries in the field of the Environnement.
- September 29th: Impeachment of the president Fernando Collor of Mello, accused of corruption financial. The vice-president Itamar Franco assumes the presidency of the Republic. He will be discharged in 1994 for lack of evidence.
inflation reaches 1150% in 1992 and is accompanied by a collapse of the industrial production. Erosion of the wages, unemployment, impoverishment. The external situation improves (balances commercial, surge of foreign assets). An agreement signed with the the IMF in July leads to a total reduction of 15% of the foreign debt and supposes the adoption of a strict program of stabilization.
Oceania & the Pacific
- June 2nd: Sitiveni Rabuka is elected Prime Minister for the Fiji, but its government must resign in November 1993, its proposal for a budget having been refused. He will be however re-elected in February 1994.
- June 3rd: Stop Mabo. The High court Australia does not give reason to the Meriam which assert the possession of the island of Murray, annexed by the colony of the Queensland in 1879.
- October: Resumption of the engagements with the separatists of Bougainville to the return of the governmental troops in the island.
Chronologies sets of themes
Arts & culture
- Aeronautical: 1992 in aeronautics
- Railroads: 1992 in the railroads
- Editions : 1992 in the edition
- Science: 1992 in science
- Sport: 1992 in sport
- June 6th: With alternate Nimes (France, department of the Gard), of Antonio Borrero Borrero known as “Chamaco”, Spanish Matador.
- September 25th: With Seville (Spain), alternate of Marcos Sánchez Mejías, Spanish Matador.
- October 7th: With alternate Saragossa (Spain), of Jose Raúl Gracia Hernández known as “El Tato”, Spanish Matador.
- October 12th: With Madrid (Spain), alternate of Óscar Higares, Spanish Matador.
- Nobel Prize of physics: Georges Charpak
- Nobel Prize of chemistry: Rudolph A. Marcus
- Nobel Prize of physiology or medicine: Edwin G. Krebs
- Nobel Prize of literature: Derek Walcott
- Nobel Prize of peace: Rigoberta Menchu Tum
Births in 1992
Death in 1992
- January 1st: Ginette Leclerc (Genevieve Menut), French actress
- January 3rd: Ram Judith Anderson, American Actrice
- March 16th: Jean Poiret, French actor
- March 20th: Georges Delerue, film type-setter and musical director
- March 23rd: Friedrich August von Hayek, economist of the Austrian School
- April 6th: Isaac Asimov, American writer (° 1920)
- April 23rd: Satyajit Ray, Indian realizer
- April 27th: Olivier Messiaen, type-setter
- April 28th: Francis Bacon, British painter (° October 28th 1909)
- May 6th: Marlène Dietrich, actress
- May 12th
- May 22nd: Zellig Harris, linguist states-unien
- June 28th: Mikhaïl Tal, Russian player of failures
- June 29th:
- Mohammed Boudiaf, President of the Algerian Republic, assassinated
- Pierre Billotte, soldier and politician French (° 1906)
- August 2nd: Michel Berger, French singer
- August 12th: John Cage, American type-setter
- October 21st: Jim Garrison, District Attorney of the Orleans News
- November 5th: Jan Oort, Dutch astronomer
- November 7th: Alexander Dubček, Czechoslovakian politician (° 1921).
- November 13rd: Maurice Ohana, Type-setter French (° June 12th 1913)
- November 24th: Henriette Puig-Roget, compositrice, French Pianist and Organist. (° January 9th 1910).
- December 12th: Suzanne Lilar, Belgian writer (° 1901).
- December 21st
- December 24th: Peyo, Drawing ator and Belgian scenario writer of Cartoon
Beats-smg: 1992 Be-X-old: 1992 Cbk-zam: 1992 Map-bms: 1992 Simple: 1992 Zh-min-nan: 1992 nor Zh-yue: 1992 年
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