This page relates to the year 1989 Gregorian Calendrier.
- November 9th: Opening of the Berlin Wall, marking fine the symbolic system of the Cold war.
- December 2nd: Summit of Malta 2 days between Gorbatchev and Bush, during which the US president George H.W. Bush states that the cold war is finished.
- the Nobel Prize of peace is allotted to the Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso.
- January 4th: Incidental of the Gulf of Syrte
- March 1st: Withdrawal of the South Africa in Namibia.
- April: Conflict sénégalo-Mauritanian: ethnic confrontations between Mauritanians and Senegalese. Plundering of the goods of many tradesmen Mauritanians (approximately 300 000) operating with the Senegal and of the Senegaleses (approximately 30 000) alive in Mauritania. Confrontation sporadic soldiers take place until in 1991 and the diplomatic relations between the two States are broken until in 1992
- May 24th: Cancellation by the France of part of the national debt of the African countries.
- June 22nd: Reconciliation in Angola.
- June 30th: Islamic revolution with the Sudan. Omar Hassan Ahmed el Bechir seizes the power.
- July - August: General strike of the civils servant of the Benign , unpaid since several months. One supports financial is promised by the backers in exchange of a political amnesty.
- September 19th: Attack against a French DC-10 of ATU which explodes above the Niger, making 171 dead.
- September 30th: Dissolution of the Confederation sénégambienne.
- 7 - November 11th: Abolition of the racial segregation and elections legislative multipartists in Namibia. SWAPO obtains 57% of the votes to the elections with the constituent Assembly.
- December 21st: Several tens of thousands of veiled women, accompanied by their husbands, convergent towards the National People's Assembly Algeria to denounce “ recrudescence of the aggressions against Islam and the Moslems ”. Oulémas, leaders of the Ligue of Islamic Dawa denounce the sport and the Mixité, and require laws in conformity with the Islam, going until comparing Algerian feminist associations with the “ women of French parachutists at the end of the years 1950 ”.
- December 24th: Beginning of the armed struggle of the NPFL of Charles Taylor with the Liberia.
Adoption of the multi-party system to the Nigeria.
- Adoption of the multi-party system with Madagascar.
- Significant reduction of the official traffic of weapon in direction of Africa, whose full value passes from 13 121 million dollars (1985 - 1988) with 4 739 million (1989 - 1992).
- August 14th: resignation of the president Pieter Willem Botha putting fine at several months of open crisis. Frederik de Klerk takes over temporarily the duties.
- August 28th: Major meeting in Zambia, for the future of the Apartheid, between Frederik de Klerk, and various chiefs of ANC, the face of the refusal and the Soviet advisers.
- September 13rd: Election of Frederik de Klerk with the presidency of the Republic. It is committed reforming the Apartheid.
- January 1st: Application of the Agreement of free trade canado-American (suppression of the customs duties on the goods coming from the two countries).
- January 20th: Beginning of the republican presidency of George Bush with the the United States (fine in 1993).
- February 11th: Nomination of the first bishop épiscopalienne to Boston.
- March 24th: Shipwreck of the tanker Exxon Valdez with broad of the Canada, container 300 000 tons of crude oil, which causes an ecological catastrophe in the south of the Alaska.
- July 4th: In its speech, the US president states: “ I did not pass the test of fire yet, but it will become inevitable ”
- July 19th: The flight 232 of the United Airlines is crushed with Sioux City. 111 dead.
- October 17th: Earthquake with San Francisco, 63 died, including 42 following the collapse of Bay Bridge.
- October: Speeches favorable to the Perestroika of the Secretary of State étatsunien James Baker.
- December 3rd: Summit off the coasts of Malta between Gorbatchev and Bush, which seals the establishment of relationships of trust mutual insurance company between the United States and the USSR.
- December 6th: Slaughter at the polytechnic school of the University of Montreal (Quebec). Marc Lépine, 25 years, carrying a semi-automatic weapon, surveys the corridors of the school and keep silent 14 women.
- Demonstration of almost 300 000 people with Washington for the defense of the abortion.
- January 15th, Brazil: Verão plan (Plane of summer) which freezes the prices, dissolves five ministries to make economies and creates a new currency, “new the cruzado”.
- February 3rd: Coup d'etat of the general Andrés Rodríguez bringing the democracy to the Paraguay after 35 years of dictatorship of Stroessner.
Mars: Crisis of the debt in Latin America. Brady plan. The secretary of the American Treasury, Nicholas Brady, proposes a plan which obliges the trade banks to make considerable concessions with their debtors, in particular a reduction of “voluntary” debt; “the banks must make efforts to arrive to reductions, as well of the debt as of the debt servicing”. Some countries, like the Costa Rica, can profit quickly from the Brady plan, but for the majority of the others the problem of the debt remains always irresolute.
Argentinian July 8th, : Come to power of Carlos Menem. It promulgates a law of reform of the State, envisaging a fall of the public expenditure and a bill book of privatizations ( Aerolíneas Argentinas, Entel ) and a law on the economic urgency, which initially worsens hyperinflation. Supplementary measures aiming at completely releasing the markets after a change of Minister for the economy (December) manage to control inflation.
- July 30th: Democracy with the Chile. Constitutional reforms (limitation of the role of the Safety advice main road, presidential mandate at 4 years, etc) are approved by referendum. A Dialog for the democracy is formed for the presidential ones, joining together 17 left parties and of the center to support Patricio Aylwin, president of the Christian Democrat.
- December 14th: Patricio Aylwin is elected president of the republic of Chile with 53,8% of the votes. Departure of the general Augusto Pinochet.
- December: With the Brazil, have been held the first democratic elections for thirty years, and Fernando Collor of Mello becomes the first president of the Brazilian Republic really elected by the people.
Mexico: The government Salinas accelerates the privatization of the nationalized companies and takes measures to incite the foreigners to invest while allowing them to entirely control the companies.
- 200% of Argentinian inflation per month in in 1989.
- Argentinian Tax reform in . Creation of a tax on the added-value.
- February 14th: The Nicaragua announces the organization of free elections for the February 25th 1990.
- March 19th: Alfredo Cristiani-Burkard (ARENA) is elected president of El Salvador (beginning of mandate on June 1st). He promises “peace before the end of the year”. Two months before the elections, FMLN had offered to take part in it in certain conditions, but in vain.
- May: Election with the Panamá. Probable Victoire of the candidate Guillermo Endara of the party of the democratic Alliance of opposition common lawyer (ADOC). Manuel Noriega refuses to recognize the defeat of its candidate of the Coalition of national release (COLINA), Carlos Duque and the Supreme court of the elections cancels the poll to avoid a civil war.
- 5 - August 7th: The five Heads of State of the Central America, joined together in Tela with the Honduras, conclude an agreement to put an end to the guerilla armed (Contras) against the mode Sandinista (communist) from the Nicaragua, with the help of a promise of democratization of the mode of Daniel Ortega.
- 13 - August 14th: Summit centraméricain of Costa LED Ground with El El Salvador to prepare the elections with the Nicaragua.
- September 13rd: A dialog opens between the new government of the El Salvador and FMLN with the Mexico, then continues with the Costa Rica in October, without results.
- November 11th, El Salvador: FMLN lance its greater offensive in ten years of civil war. The army benefits to be devoted to a vast repression, and assassinates from it in particular six prestigious professors Jesuits of the University centraméricaine (UCA).
- 10 - December 12th: Emergency Summit of San Isidro de Coronado (Costa Rica) vis-a-vis the offensive of the FMLN of November 11th.
- December 15th, Panamá: The National Assembly names Manuel Noriega Head of the State equipped with special capacities.
- December 20th: Operation Just Causes , intervention American with the Panamá “to reverse Noriega, to restore the democracy, to protect the American nationals and to defend the treaties concerning the channel”. Guillermo Endara lends oath on an American military base.
- December 25th: The general Manuel Noriega takes refuge with the embassy of the the Vatican, besieged by the American troops. The January 3rd 1990, shown to be compromised with traffickers of narcotics, it goes to American justice.
Asia & Indian world
- January 7th: Died of the Japanese emperor Hirohito after 62 years of reign. His/her oldest son Akihito succeeds to him.
- February 15th: End of the withdrawal of the Soviet troops of Afghanistan. The civil war continues until April 1992, when the rebels take the control of Kabul. The engagements begin again between the factions of the resistance, divided between radical and moderated Moslems, sunnites and Shiites, and especially between ethnos groups, Pachtounes, Tadjiks, Uzbek or Hazaras
See also: History of Afghanistan of 1989 to 1992
- August 9th: New Prime Minister with the Japan, Toshiki Kaifu which succeeds Sōsuke Uno compromised in a scandal of manners and person in charge of the rout of PLD to the senatorial elections of the July 23rd.
- December: Meeting popular require the end of the reign of the sole party in Mongolia. New parties, democrat, social democrat and nationalists create for themselves and require reforms.
- January 28th, Tibet: Died of the Panchen Lama. Its successor Gedhun Choekyi Nyima will be recognized by the Dalai Lama in 1995 and “put at the secrecy” since by the Chinese government.
- March 5th: Bloody repression of demonstrations to the Tibet by the Chinese occupying forces.
- March 8th: In front of the demonstrations for independence and the riots, the chief of the Communist party Tibetan Hu Jintao founds the martial law with the Tibet.
- April 15th: The death of Hu Yaobang, former General secretary of the Chinese Communist party encourages the students to meet on the Place Tian' anmen with Beijing, where engage of the debates and where petitions are signed. A spontaneous movement in the big cities requires the liberalization of the mode, the fight against corruption and the rise of the prices.
- April 25th: Beginning of the democratic demonstrations on the place Tian' anmen. Very quickly Deng Xiaoping, supported by the Prime Minister Li Peng and the Head of the State, Yang Shangkun, chooses repression. The occupants of the place Tian' anmen become more militant.
- May 20th: Introduction of the martial law. The leaders of the party, after long deliberations, repudiate the too moderate Zhao Ziyang, impose the martial law and utilize the initially reticent army.
- May: Summit sino-Soviet. China and the USSR take again normal relations after a thirty years eclipse.
- June 4th: The Chinese army represses the revolt of the students on the place Tian' anmen with Beijing. This event is covered on line on television. Confrontations of a great violence make hundreds of dead at the students, the workmen and the employees who refuse obtempérer with the orders, but also in the soldiers. The massacre ruins temporarily the prestige of the China, put at the round of applause of the international community.
- June 23rd: Zhao Ziyang is replaced with the general secretary by the mayor of Shanghai, a former engineer, Jiang Zemin, which becomes soon president of the military Commission following Deng Xiaoping. The dissidents are pursued, imprisoned, carried out or constrained to flee abroad. Jiang Zemin emerges, cumulating the functions of Head of the State, president of the military Commission and general secretary of the party.
- the Dalai Lama (Tenzin Gyatso) obtains the Nobel Prize of peace.
South Asia and of South-east
- January 2nd: Ranasinghe Premadasa, president of Sri Lanka (fine in 1993).
- January, India. With the local elections, the Parti the Congress loses the Tamil Nadu, which gives the capacity to the opposition in half of the States.
- April: By the Vietnam nearest withdrawal of its troops of the Kampuchea announces. The Popular republic of Kampuchea takes again officially the name of State of Kampuchea.
- June 18th: The name of the Burma is officially changed into Union of the Myanmar and the name of the capital of Rangoon in Yangon.
- July 30th - August 30th: Conference of UNO to Paris on the Kampuchea. The United Nations always refused to recognize the government of Hun Sen. On the other hand, the coalition of the three resistance movements (Khmer Rouge, Face of national release of the Khmer people and partisans of the prince Sihanouk) had been recognized like government in exile (Government coalition of democratic Kampuchea). In spite of attempts at talks in favor of peace, as of 1988, between the government and the three resistance movements, little progress are accomplished before 1990.
- August 2nd: Massacre of 63 Tamouls by the Indian toupes with Valvettiturai, the Sri Lanka.
- Failure of the intervention of 80 000 Indian soldiers against the separatist Tamouls of the Sri Lanka.
- September 27th: Withdrawal of the troops Vietnameses of the Kampuchea under the international pressure. The emigration is stopped.
- December 2nd: Rajiv Gandhi, which cannot form majority any more, passes the capacity to a coalition of the opposition, the National front, which formed the day before the elections, gathers the Janata Dal, BJP, the Communist party, etc V.P. Singh becomes Prime Minister of India (fine in 1990).
Of the islamist militants leads actions of guerilla against the Indian interests to the Cachemire
- Moscow withdraws its hunters and its bombers of the base Vietnamese of Cam Ranh and strongly reduces its military aid.
- Signature by the Malayan Communist party of a formal treaty of peace.
- January 1st: Madrid chairs the European Community during first half of the year.
- Enrique Barón Crespo chairs the the European Parliament.
- the Austria makes an application to join with the European Union.
- August 8th: Revision of the constitution to the Portugal.
- 8 December 9th: At the Top of Strasbourg, the EEC accepts the self-determination of the German while laying down conditions.
- Failure of the negotiations between the Spanish government and the ETA.
- the peseta enters EMS.
- In Spain, unemployment touches 17,3% of the active population.
- Privatization of the companies nationalized with the Portugal.
See also: 1989 in France
See also: 1989 in Switzerland
- May: Visit of the president of the United States George Bush.
- 22 - July 23rd: Fall of the government Ciriaco De Mita, PSI having opened a crisis. Giulio Andreotti form a sixth government.
- November: Visit first Soviet secretary Gorbatchev.
- February 1st: Gorbatchev is received by the pope with the the Vatican and invites it to Moscow.
the economy falls down in lethargy after six years of expansion. High interest rates intended to support the lira discourage the investments and decrease the growth (3,5%). Inflation (6,6%) and unemployment (10,8%) increase. The budget deficit reaches the tenth of GDP, ten times more than in France, and the whole of the debt is assembled to 89% of the GDP.
- Weakening of the political authority of Madam Margaret Thatcher with the the United Kingdom.
- the the United Kingdom refuses to ratify the European Charte of the fundamental social rights.
- the public expenditure falls to 39,25% from the GNP (44% in 1979). The budget is surplus (7 billion £) for the third consecutive year.
- Beginning of a serious economic recession. Inflation sets out again with the rise and the balance of payments deficit requires a policy of high interest rates which block the return to the growth.
- the United Kingdom ensures nothing any more but 5% of the world industrial production (9,1% in 1979). The investment foreigners in the United Kingdom passed from 31 billion £ in 1980 to 164 billion in 1989, whereas the investments British abroad reach 324 billion at the same date.
January 17th: End of the third CSCE with Vienna.
- January 19th: Demonstration commemorating the memory of Jan Palach in Czechoslovakia. The principal opponents, whose Václav Havel, is again stopped.
- February 2nd: MBFR: End in Vienna of the negotiations on the mutual reduction of the forces and the armaments in Europe, without result.
- February 6th: In Poland, the Communist government, to put a term at the strikes, the organization of a Roundtable with the representatives of the trade union Solidarité accepts (fine the April 5th).
- February 11th: The Hungarian Communist party authorizes the multi-party system.
- February 20th: 1 300 minors of the mines of Trepca to the Kosovo (Yugoslavia) make an hunger strike to 800 m of depth.
- March 6th: Beginning with Vienna, Austria, of negotiations on the conventional forces in Europe (NATO - Warsaw Pact).
- April 5th: Institutional reforms and trade-union in Poland: signatures of the agreements known as of the “roundtable” between the communist capacity and Solidarność. The Prime Minister Mieczysław Rakowski must accept the establishment of trade-union pluralism and the democratization of the institutions. Civic and political freedoms are granted, Solidarité is legalized and a Senate freely elected instituted.
- May 2nd: The Hungarian government of Miklós Németh decides to dismantle the Iron curtain between the Hungary and the Austria.
- May 12th: The president George Bush request with the Russian government “to tear the iron curtain”.
- May 16th: The commemoration of Imre Nagy in Hungary, marks the end of the Communist regime there.
- June 4th:
- Revolutions peaceful and crowned anticommunists success in Eastern Europe
- free legislative Elections in Poland: victory of Solidarność. The opposition gains the elections, that is to say 35% of the seats to the Diet (65% being reserved for the Communist party and its allies) and 99 seats of senators on 100. The new Parliament elects the general Wojciech Jaruzelski with the presidency of the Republic.
- 12 - June 15th: Triumphal voyage of Gorbatchev in Germany of the West.
- June 13rd: Roundtable enters the communist capacity and the opposition to Hungary to negotiate a peaceful transition towards the democracy. The Communist party divides: the reformers, directed by Imre Pozsgay recognize that the revolution of 1956 was a popular rising and not a counter-revolution; they wish the rehabilitation of Imre Nagy carried out in 1958. The old guard accepts concessions only with reserve. It joins in October with the name change however.
- June 16th, Hungary: Imre Nagy receives funeral worthy of a national hero. The laws of immigration are softened and the constitution revised in favor of a multi-party democracy.
June: Resistance in GDR of Lutherans groups which protest against the electoral frauds, hold of the meetings and express against the arrests. The general secretary of the party, Erich Honecker is constrained to make concessions: he grants multiple passes which allow to the Germans West to return visit to their family, he gives the order to cease drawing on the fugitive ones who want to cross the “Iron curtain”, but intends to hold the border hermetically closed. The citizens of GDR who want to leave the country take refuge with the mission of the FRG to East Berlin or in the West German embassies with Budapest, with Warsaw, Prague, which are soon full.
- July 9th: Triumphal voyage 3 days of the US president George Bush in Poland.
- August 13rd: 28e birthday of the construction of the Berlin Wall, FRG must close its occupied Hungarian embassy by nearly two hundred Easts Germany. Situation identical to Vienna, East Berlin, Prague and Warsaw, all submerged by refugees.
- August 16th: The Hungary makes the decision unilaterally to open its border with the Austria, measurement made final the September 10th.
- August 19th:
- 500 German of the East passes the border between the Hungary and the Austria.
- noncommunist a Prime Minister, Tadeusz Mazowiecki, one of the leaders of Solidarność form a coalition government in Poland. The role directing of the Communist party is abolished.
- In a context of worsened economic crisis, the trade unions controlled by the Communists poke social agitation. The Mazowiecki government misses unit to act in-depth. Nevertheless it purges the police force, dépolitise the army, establishes freedom of the press, widens local autonomy and settles the frontier question with reunified Germany. Its principal weakness resides in bursting of camp anticommunist, divided between Alliance of Center (Lech Walesa and the Catholic church), which preaches the acceleration of the reforms and the expulsion of the communist ministers, and the Movement of the Citizens for the Democratic Action, which supports the more moderate options of Mazowiecki.
- August - September: Beginning of the massive exodus of refugees Easts Germany by the Hungary and the Czechoslovakia.
- September 13rd: Opening of the borders between the Austria and the Hungary, the exodus of the Easts Germany becomes massive.
- September, Yugoslavia: The Slovenien assembly proclaims the right to self-determination, secession included/understood. The Serbia answers by the commercial boycott of the Slovenia, which receives the support of the Croatia. No economic recovery package can be implemented because of the discord between the Yugoslav republics.
- October 3rd: firm GDR its border with the Czechoslovakia to avoid the continuation of the hemorrhage. Deprived of possibilities of exit, the Easts Germany mobilize themselves in mass, face the police force with Berlin, Leipzig and Dresden.
- October 6th: The Hungarian Communist party becomes “Hungarian socialist party”.
- October 7th:
- Last great popular demonstration of the Communist regime of East Germany, at the time of the 40e birthday of GDR.
- Hungary: The party of the socialist workers (Communist party) becomes the Hungarian socialist party (MSZP), with the social democrat program. The Parliament benefits from the bursting of the party to destroy the bases of the mode: the working militia are dissolved, the cells of the party are prohibited on the work places, its accounts and its goods are revealed with the public.
- October 18th:
- Gorbatchev refusing the recourse to the Soviet tanks, Erich Honecker, general secretary of the Communist party and chancellor of GDR, leaves the capacity. Its successor, Egon Krenz (October 18th - December 3rd), with beautiful making concessions and reopening the Czechoslovakian border, it is exceeded by the extent of the protest movement.
- Introduction of the multi-party system in Hungary, which does not indicate itself any more like people's democracy.
- October 23rd:
- the Soviet Union proposes the liquidation of its military presence abroad (bases and troops): it is the programmed end of the Warsaw Pact.
- 300 000 people claim with Leipzig the end of the communist dictatorship in Germany.
- the Hungarian Popular republic takes the name of republic of Hungary.
- October 28th: Beginning of the “Revolution of velvet”.
- November 4th: Gigantic demonstrations with Berlin Is and in all GDR.
- November 9th: Opening of the Berlin Wall, marking fine the symbolic system of the Cold war. Egon Krenz must be solved to open its doors in the west.
- November 10th:
- the Easts Germany obtain freedom of movement, without benefitting from it to emigrate towards the prosperous West. The question of the survival of GDR arises. The Communists moderated like the new Prime Minister Hans Modrow and the general secretary Gregor Gysi, hope to preserve a socialist system which would have become liberal, but of Leipzig share a claim in favor of the reunification of both Allemagnes, watchword which finds an approval increasing in the public opinion.
- Resignation of the Bulgarian dictator Todor Jivkov with the capacity since 1954 in Bulgaria. After a plea which misses sincerity in favor of a “socialist pluralism”, its policy of assimilation forced of Turkish-speaking testifies to a limited nationalism and, when it leaves them by demolished the possibility of leaving, 300 000 of them gain the Turkey. These outrageous measurements encourage the most moderate Communists, gathered around Petar Mladenov, to drive back with the resignation Todor Jivkov), then to expel it party. The opposition, gathered in the Union of the Democratic Forces (UFD) obtains government which it amends the Constitution, puts a term at the monopoly of the Communist party and makes it possible Turkish-speaking to take again their Moslem names.
- 17 - November 27th: Success of the Revolution of velvet in Czechoslovakia. The brutal repression of a demonstration of students with Prague encourages the population to react the following days in a spontaneous way and to adopt the claims of a new opposition party, the civic Forum: democracy, end of the role directing of the Communist party, freedom of the media.
- November 24th: The general secretary of the Czechoslovakian Communist party Milos Jakes resigns. Its successor occupies the station less than one month.
- November 25th: Inversion of the Communist regime in Czechoslovakia.
- November 28th: Helmut Kohl presents a plan of reunification of Germany. He proposes to initially negotiate a monetary union which would provide the foundations of an economic community.
- December 10th: Gustáv Husák, president of the Czechoslovakia, is withdrawn under the popular pressure and, the same day, a new government not-Communist directed by Marian Calfa seizes the power, establishes the Multipartisme: end of the role directing of the Czechoslovakian Communist party.
- December 11th: Abolition of the “role directing of the Communist party” in Bulgaria.
- December 15th:
- the the International Court of Justice of $the Hague decides in favor of Dumitru Mazilu, Special protractor for the human rights and of youth, in a disagreement which opposes the United Nations to the mode Ceauşescu.
- December 24th: Total freedom of circulation between the east and the west of Germany.
- December 28th: Alexander Dubček is elected president of the Parliament in Czechoslovakia.
- December 29th: Václav Havel is elected president of the republic in Czechoslovakia.
- In December, the SED, Communist party of East Germany changes its name into PDS: Partei der Demokratischen Sozialisten : party of the democratic Socialists.
- the people's democracies are at the edge of economic collapse. They arrive at a dead end where cumulate the shortages, inflation, the risk of unemployment.
- In Poland, the economic crisis worsens as of the second half-year; the rise of taken turns to hyperinflation, the food shortages continue.
- 164 cars for 1000 inhabitants in Hungary (56 in Soviet Union, 403 in France).
- Mars, Romania: Six former Rumanian communist leaders address a letter to Nicolae Ceauşescu to incite it to change policy. They are shut down, then relegated in functions subordinates.
- July 10th: UNO publishes in Geneva the Report/ratio on the Human rights, written by the Rumanian professor Dumitru Mazilu. This one presents a very critical view and an upsetting panorama of the Communist regime of Nicolae Ceauşescu.
- December: the Rumanian revolution of 1989
- Demonstrations with Timişoara (Transylvania) against the arrest of Magyar Pasteur, Laszlo Tökes, defender of the human rights of the Hungarian minority in Romania.
- December 16th, Timişoara: The army opens fire on crowd, killing several tens of people (and not of the thousands, as the Western mediums claim it at the time).
- December 17th: Release of the revolt of Timişoara which marks the beginning of the Rumanian Révolution (fine the December 22nd) which will reverse the Communist regime in Romania.
- December 21st, Bucharest: Nicolae Ceauşescu is hooted by the people during his public speech against the riots of Timişoara. Release of the revolution with Bucharest.
- December 22nd: Fall of the Communist regime in Romania. The army making defection, Nicolae Ceauşescu is constrained to leave Bucharest with his Elena wife. They are captured later, this same day, with a few tens of kilometers of Bucharest. A short civil war makes many victims. The council of the Face of national hello, directed by the former Communist leader Ion Iliescu, exerts finally the temporary executive power. Leaders of the mode of Ceausescu are arrested and imprisoned.
December 25th: The execution of the dictator Nicolae Ceauşescu and its Elena wife, shot following an expeditious lawsuit returned by a car-proclaimed military tribunal (a martial court of kindness), with Târgovişte.
- March 26th: First free elections in Soviet Union, first national election since 1917 (90% of participations), choosing the new Congress of the deputies of the people: this one meets in May to elect the Supreme Soviet and to elect Gorbatchev for a five years presidential mandate. The apparatus of the party succeeds in imposing its candidates in the campaigns and in Central Asia, but essuie of bitter failures with Moscow where triumph Boris Eltsine, with Leningrad, Kiev, etc With the Congress, if the Communists have the majority (88%), they are divided into currents if opposite that no discipline of vote can be instituted.
- May 25th: Mikhail Gorbatchev, becomes president of the Supreme Soviet.
- May: Visit of Gorbatchev to Beijing. China and the USSR take again normal relations after a thirty years eclipse.
- August 31st: On the initiative of the Moldavian majority, Rumanian is declared official language in Moldavie. Civil war caused by the ethnic and territorial problems. Separatist movements appear in the south and the east of the country. Civils servant refuse to locally apply the linguistic law in the area located at the east of Dniestr where a strong Slavic minority is installed. A political party, Yedinstvo, (“unit” in Russian), are created and assert a greater autonomy for the Transnistrie. It obtains the organization of a referendum, after which the local authorities announce, in September 1990, the creation of the autonomous Soviet socialist republic of Transnistrie.
- February 1st: Establishment of diplomatic relations with the the Vatican (Rome).
- December 3rd: Summit off the coasts of Malta between Gorbatchev and Bush, which seals the establishment of relationships of trust mutual insurance company between the United States and the USSR.
the USSR counts 289 million inhabitants.
- the coal minors put themselves in strike to obtain soap. The slowness of the reforms does nothing but worsen the economic situation. Gorbatchev joins with an market economy conceived on the model of the mixed economies of the social democrat European countries. He runs up against the inertia of the interests in place, in particular with the Prime Minister Nikolaï Ryjkov.
Oceania & the Pacific
the revolutionary army of Bougainville (New Guinea-News-Guinea), separatist movement launches an insurrection which leads to the closing of the copper mines, harmful for the environment.
The Middle East
- February 15th: Final withdrawal of the Red Army with Afghanistan.
- March 14th: The American Secretary of State James Baker declares that Israel should open the dialog with PLO.
- April: Popular riots in Jordan caused by the austerity policy installation by the the IMF and the mode.
- May: The Israeli Parliament votes on peace proposals defined by Yitzhak Shamir: elections in the Occupied territories but refusal of the participation of the PLO, provisional autonomy during three years, then opening of negotiation on the final status of the territories, but refusal of a Palestinian State. James Baker accepts the Shamir plan but refuses the idea of large a Israel. Arafat accepts the initiative of Shamir but by amending it (withdrawal partial of the Israeli army, supervision of the elections by UNO, return of the refugees, final creation of a State of Palestine).
- June 30th: Hussein of Jordan decides to carry out measurements of political liberalization and is caught some with the American policy considered to be responsible for the economic situation. He announces new elections and authorizes the political parties prohibited since 1957. He invites the oil countries to provide him an economic aid and financial.
- October: James Baker proposes a plan for the installation of a Palestinian delegation for the negotiations with right to watch of Israel, to organize elections in the occupied territories and the recognition of the Shamir plan.
- November 16th: The elections in Jordan show a strong progression of the islamist ones, which obtain 31 seats out of 80.
- December 31st: The Nakhitchevan, hundreds of demonstrators, for the majority of the driven out refugees of Arménie neighbor, ask new grounds. In a few hours, they destroy on 130 kilometers of border with the Iran, of tens of frontier stations, the hundreds of pylons and boundary stones.
- February 14th: The Ayatollah Khomeiny lance a call to the execution of the British writer Salman Rushdie, for “blasphemy”.
- Mars: Khomeiny relieves sounds successor designated, Hossein Ali Montazeri, considered to be too liberal.
- June 3rd: Died of the ayatollah Khomeiny.
- July 28th: Election of the hodjatoleslam Hachemi Rafsandjani, conservative, with the presidency of the Iranian Islamic Republic, while its predecessor Ali Khamenei inherits the supreme capacities of the large ayatollah. He supports the most preserving monks but ends up dissatisfying the population.
- January 1st: resumption of the confrontations interchiites in the South of the country.
- January 30th: Damas and Teheran imposes on Amal and with the Hezbollah an agreement of cease fire.
February: The general Michel Aoun acquires a growing popularity which exceeds denominational cleavages. He wants to restore the authority of the Lebanese State. He closes the clandestine ports of the sector Christians and faces the Lebanese Forces. Then it decides to be caught some with the ports under control Druzes. The militia Druzes resist, constant by the Syria.
- March 14th: The general Michel Aoun, Prime Minister since the September 22nd 1988 declares the “war of liberation” against the occupant Syria N. The confrontations in Beirut make considerable civil losses. The war lasts several months and Aoun seeks an international intervention.
- July 28th: An Israeli commando removes in South-Lebanon, the sheik Abdel Karim Obeid, regarded as the spiritual leader and soldier of the Hezbollah in the south of Tyr and knowing the majority of the secrecies of the operations of catches of Western hostages since 1982.
- July 31st: the Hezbollah diffuses a film-video of the hanging of American colonel Higgins, commander-in-chief of ONUST removed the February 17th 1988 last, according to American sources the colonel would have been tortured then carried out as of December 1988.
- September 17th: An Arab committee (Morocco, Algeria, Saudi Arabia) proposes a peace plan, accepted by the Syria, including/understanding a general cease-fire, the lifting of the blockades and the meeting of the deputies Lebanese out of the country.
- September 30th: Meeting of the deputies Lebanese with Taëf.
- October 22nd: The appointed Lebanese vote the Accords of Taëf. They underline the independence of Lebanon and recall the membership of the country to the LEA, the the United Nations and the Mouvement of non-aligned the. The number of the deputies is changed to 108 with parity between Moslems and Christians. The capacities of the president of the republic are reduced to the profit of those of the president of the Council. The restoration of the national unit passes by the election of a new Head of the State, the dissolution of the militia, the setting-up of a cabinet of national union and the adoption of reforms. The Syrian forces are authorized to remain two years in Lebanon to contribute with the rebuilding and the authority of the State. The militia, the Muslim communities not sunnites and Michel Aoun oppose the agreement.
- November 4th: Michel Aoun pronounces the dissolution of the Parliament, decision considered illegal by the Prime Minister Sélim Hoss.
- November 5th: In spite of the pressures aounists on the Christian deputies, Rene Moawad is elected president of the Republic and indicates Sélim Hoss like Prime Minister.
- November 22nd: Rene Moawad is assassinated
- November 24th: Elias Hraoui is elected president of the Republic. Aoun maintains its control on the Christian part of Beirut. The foreign embassies decide to recognize Hraoui and forsake Aoun. The FL agree to adopt the agreement of Taëf.
Arts & cultures
Sciences & technology
See also: 1989 in science
See also: 1989 in aeronautics
See also: 1989 in the railroads
See also: 1989 in sport
See also: 1989 in football
Births in 1989
- February 26th: Gabriel Obertan, French footballer
- March 2nd: Marc Donato, Canadian actor
- April 12th: Arthur Bernard, French type-setter
- April 19th: Nicolas Martin, French skier
- May 5th: Chris Brown, American rappor
- June 2nd: Freddy Adu, American footballer
- July 23rd: Daniel Radcliffe, British actor
- August 2nd: Priscilla, French singer
- August 19th: Romeo Pery Miller known as Lil' Romeo , American rappor
- August 21st: Hayden Panettiere, actress and American compositrice
- September 1st:
- December 12th: Harry Eden, British actor
- December 28th: Mackenzie Rosman, American actress
Death in 1989
- January 16th: Pierre Boileau, writer French, (° 1906).
- January 17th: Jeanne Denis (the Denis mother), French high-speed motorboat of publicity, (° 1890).
- January 23rd: Salvador Dali, Spanish painter, (° 1904).
- January 30th: the prince Alphonse of Bourbon, duke of Anjou and Cadiz, elder of the Capétiens and chief of the House of France, (° 1936).
- February 3rd: John Cassavetes, Actor and Realizer, American (° 1929).
- February 5th: Andre Cayatte, Realizer French, (° 1909).
- February 9th: Osamu Tezuka, Draftsman of Manga Japanese, (° 1909).
- February 14th: James Bond, American ornithologist, celebrates to have given its name to the hero of Ian Fleming. (° 1900)
- February 20th: Harold Christensen, dancer, choreographer and American ballet master (° 1904)
- February 26th: Mouloud Mammeri, writer, anthropologist and Algerian linguist (° December 28th 1917).
- February 27th: Konrad Lorenz, founder of the modern ethology, Nobel Prize, Austrian, (° 1903).
- March 29th: Bernard Blier, Actor French, (° 1916).
- April 15th: Bernard-Marie Koltès, French writer (° April 9th 1948).
- April 30th: Sergio Leone, Scenario writer and Realizer, Italian, (° 1929).
- June 3rd: Ayatollah Khomeyni, politician religious Iranian, (° 1900).
- June 10th: Albert Spaggiari, author of the Break-in of the century (° December 14th 1933)
- June 17th: S. David Griggs, American astronaut (° September 7th 1939)
- June 22nd: Henri Sauguet, French type-setter (° May 18th 1901)
- June 29th: Michel Aflaq, politician and ideologist Syria N (° 1910)
- July 2nd: Andrei Gromyko, Soviet statesman (° 1909).
- July 6th:
- July 16th: Herbert von Karajan, German Leader, (° 1908).
- August 6th: Hubert Beuve-Méry, French journalist, founder of the daily newspaper “Le Monde”.
- September 4th: Georges Simenon, Belgian writer, (° 1903).
- September 30th: Horace Alexander, Quaker British, professor and writer, pacifist and Ornithologist, (° 1889).
- October 1st: Witold Rowicki, musician and leader Polish (° February 26th 1914)
- October 4th: Graham Chapman, British actor former member of the Monty Python (° January 8th 1941)
- October 21st: Jean Image, Realizer of cartoon films French, (° 1910).
- October 24th: Jerzy Kukuczka, mountaineer Polish (° March 24th 1948)
- February 1st: Alvine Ailey, Dancer and American choreographer.
- December 6th: Marc Lépine, (the killer of the Polytechnic school of Montreal), Canadian (° 1964).
- Mélinée Manouchian, wife and biographer of Missak Manouchian
- December 7th: Sirima, singer, especially known to have sung " Là-bas" with j.j.Goldman
- December 8th:
- December 14th: Andrei Sakharov, Physicist and Soviet writer, Nobel Prize of peace (° 1921).
- December 16th: Silvana Mangano, Italian actress of cinema (° 1930, 59 years)
- December 22nd:
- December 25th: Nicolae Ceauşescu, Rumanian Dictator, (° 1918).
Beats-smg: 1989 Be-X-old: 1989 Map-bms: 1989 Simple: 1989 Zh-min-nan: 1989 nor Zh-yue: 1989 年
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