This page relates to the year 1986 Gregorian Calendrier. For the number 1986, to see 1986 (number)
- January 18th: American-Soviet resumption of negotiations on the euro missiles stopped since 1980.
- February 9th: Passage of the Halley's Comet.
- April 26th: Major nuclear accident in the USSR with world repercussions. See Catastrophe of Tchernobyl.
- July: The barrel of Pétrole goes down for the first time under the 10 Dollar s.C' is oil the “counterblow” related to the opening of the valves carried out by the Saudi Arabia.
- 11 - October 12th: Gorbatchev meets Reagan with Reykjavík and exchanges with him new proposals for a reduction of the armaments. The negotiations stumble on the Soviet request to limit the research and the tests of the strategic Initiative of defense (IDS).
- November 28th: The the United States cease respecting agreements START II by bringing into service new a B-52 equipped with cruise missiles.
- Beginning with Punta del Este of the Uruguay Round within the framework of GATT.
- the Nobel Prize of peace is allotted to Elie Wiesel.
- January 29th: Yoweri Museveni, chief of the national army of resistance (NRA) reaches the presidency of the republic of the Uganda in prey to the civil war after its military victory.
- 13 - February 14th, Chad: Operation Sparrowhawk after the crossing of the 16th parallel by the Libyan armed forces in the north of the Chad.
- April 15th: Massive raid of the United States Air Force on Tripoli in Libya in reprisals of terrorist activities. Air confrontation américano-Libyan in the gulf of Syrte. The bombardment makes a hundred victims according to diplomats in place with Tripoli. The residence of Kadhafi is aimed and one of his/her adopted girls is killed.
- May 6th: Sadeq Al-Mahdi becomes Prime Minister with the Sudan. It is reversed in 1989 by the general Omar to el-Béchir following her alliance with the integrist Moslems.
- June 12th: State of emergency in South Africa. Negotiation enters ANC and the South-African mode. Creation of the Committee of the Heads of State charged to follow the evolution of the South Africa.
- August 21st: An enormous volume of gas CO2 escapes from deep water of the Lac Nyos (Cameroun) and flows in the valley on more than 30 km killing 1800 people.
- October 18th: The France expels by charter 101 Mali ens.
- October 19th: Died of the president of the Mozambique Samora Machel in an air crash.
- November 6th: Joaquim Chissano, president of Mozambique (fine in 2005).
- December: Riots of the hunger in Zambia.
- December 22nd: judgment of the the International Court of Justice dividing the band of Agacher between the Burkina Faso and the Mali one year close the short war between the two countries.
The United States
- January 28th: Explosion of the Space shuttle Challenger above the step of shooting 39B of Cap Canaveral.
Tax reform in summer: without changing the amount of the re-entries, it moves partially the weight of the individuals of them towards the companies; it envisages an extension of the exemptions in favor of most underprivileged, a strong reduction of progressiveness and a widening of the plate.
- September 26th: William Rehnquist, president of the Supreme court.
- Under the pressure of the public opinion, the Congress vote of the economic sanctions against the South Africa in spite of the veto of Ronald Reagan.
- 11 - October 12th: Failure of the top of Reykjavík with the Soviet Union on disarmament.
- November 3rd: Release of the Iran-contragate by an article of a Lebanese magazine. Reagan is shown secretly to have authorized deliveries of weapons to the Iran, initially in the hope to tie bonds with moderated Iranian, then to obtain the release of American hostages held by groups Lebanese. The profits drawn from these deliveries were used to finance a private paramilitary infrastructure developped at the point by the administration to ensure a maximum freedom to him vis-a-vis the Congress and in particular to subsidize the Contras Nicaragua in 1984 - 1985.
- November 4th: The democrats become again majority with the Sénat.
Fall of the dollar.
- January 14th: Marco Vinicio Cerezo Arévalo, nephew of the former president Juan Jose Arévalo Bermejo, president of the Guatemala (fine in 1991). The democratic regime runs up against the power of the soldiers, supported by the principal landowners of the country.
- February 7th: In Haiti, the dictator Jean-Claude Duvalier says “Baby Doc.” is constrained at the beginning. A short period of democracy settles. Henri Namphy, President of Haiti (fine in 1988).
- March 1st, Brazil: Jose Sarney announces the Cruzado Plan to rectify the economy by eliminating inflation. A new currency, the cruzado, is created, which replaces the cruzeiro. The prices of the rents are cold, the wages and foreign exchange rates are stabilized and the mechanisms of indexing are removed. But its application gives birth to from new problems: the revival of consumption makes increase the imports, therefore inflation. It decreases initially before rebounding on levels superior of before the reform. The President lengthens the completion periods of his plan, which involves its failure.
- 24 - May 25th: First top for the peace of Esquipulas of the leaders centraméricains convened by the Guatemalan president Vinicio Cerezo, which seeks to leave its country insulation.
- October 11th: Coming into effect of the Convention for the Protection and the Development of the Maritime environment of the area of Large Caribbean the , known as Convention of Carthagène, only obligatory regional environmental treaty.
- November 15th, Brazil: Victoire of PMDB, combined with the president Jose Sarney, the elections.
- December 5th: Raúl Alfonsín declares that the time of the reconciliation between civilian and soldiers came.
- the Argentinian government , which struggles in the economic difficulties, is anxious to reduce the number of lawsuits.
- Argentinian December 24th, : A law fixes a two months deadline for the recording of the complaints against the exactions made between 1976 and 1983 ( Ley de Punto Final ). The law has as a direct consequence to force justice to concentrate on the most important cases and to accelerate the procedures. More than 400 soldiers and police officers are accused in an expeditious way, which causes the fury of the army.
the general Camps, former chief of the police force of the Province of Buenos Aires, is condemned to 25 years of prison.
- Creation of Funds of a company urgently in Bolivia.
- the Brazil account 136 million inhabitants. About half of the population has less than 20 years. The under-employment increases. In 35% of the hearths (11 million), the income is lower than half of the wages vital minimum.
- May 4th, Afghanistan: On the initiative of the Soviets, the general secretary of the Communist party Babrak Karmal is replaced by Mohammed Nadjibullah, chief of the police force of State.
- July 28th: Withdrawal of 6 Soviet regiments of Afghanistan.
- December 17th: Incident with the Kazakhstan: with Alma-ATA, the Kazakh population rises against the nomination of a not-Kazakh like first secretary of the local Communist party.
Ouverture of the border enters both Korea to the separate families.
- political Degradation in India:
- February: The Minister for Oil and Gas issues an increase in the tariffs: this decision raises a storm of protest encouraged by the Parti of the Congress itself.
- Estrangement between Rajiv Gandhi and his/her cousin Arun Nehru. Cabinet reshuffle.
- Business Bofors.
- November 17th: Second top of SAARC to Bangalore. To satisfy the Tamouls with India, Rajiv Gandhi request with the president of the Sri Lanka Junius Richard Jayawardene to make new proposals with the Tigers (separatist movement Tamoul in Sri Lanka), which reject them. Their chief Velupillai Prabhakaran leaves the Tamil Nadu to take refuge in his fortress of Jaffna in January 1987.
- Yielding to the pressure of the United States, Marcos organizes an anticipated presidential election, during which the opposition is represented by Corazón Aquino (known as Cory), the widow of Benigno Aquino, Jr.. Marcos fakes the vote and is declared re-elected, but the population reacts while going down in the street to support a movement of revolt launched by a section of the army. The soldiers loyal supporters refuse confrontation with crowd and certain members of the government affirm their support for Cory Aquino. Capitulating to the “revolution of the popular capacity”, Marcos escapes and is exiled with Hawaii, where he dies in 1989.
August 5th, Thailand: The general Prem Tinsulanonda dissolves the National Assembly and organizes new elections. Its party carries it but, not obtaining the majority of the votes, it must reform a coalition government.
October 29th: The president Souphanouvong resigns and passes the capacity to the Laos. The economic situation is so catastrophic that the new government of Kaysone Phomvihane engages a policy of economic liberalization and privatizations, to reduce its dependence with respect to Vietnam.
the general secretary of the Vietnamese Communist party Nguyen Van Linh lance DOI mói , reform program economic aiming removing the planning system centralized and at encouraging the private company (as well as the overseas investments). DOI mói will be really concretized starting from 1989 and the government will engage all its forces there. DOI mói (“restoration”) attacks the bad management, with excesses of centralization, the wastings, corruption; the managers of the government enterprises see themselves granting more autonomy vis-a-vis the local leaders of the party; small workshops and private trade are authorized; free zones accommodate the overseas investments.
- September 22nd: End of the CDE (conference on disarmament in Europe) of Stockholm, agreement between the 35 countries.
- November 4th: Third Conference on safety and the co-operation in Europe (CSCE) with Vienna.
- Release of the Polish political prisoners.
- Bulgaria: The policy of bulgarisation implemented since 1984 runs up against the hostility of the populations. Violent demonstrations are repressed hard making more than one hundred died in the worldwide. The minorities Turkish, Armenian, Jewish, Greek Rumanian and gypsies compose in all 15% of the population of the country. The Bulgarian Communist party refuses the existence of a strong Turkish community which it perceives like a serious threat, regarding them as one “5th column” in social fabric of the country, fascinating like reference occupation of part of the island of Cyprus by the Turkish troops in 1974 to support the Turkish Cypriot population.
- In Yugoslavia, the Serb Academy of Sciences and Arts critical the monopoly of the communist League and requires liberal reforms; in Slovenia, the journalists are exempted to adhere to the Marxism-Leninism. The Yugoslav army, dominated by the Serb ones, sees this evolution of an evil eye.
February - Mars: Renewal of the Soviet leaders during the 27e congress of the party. 44% of the elected officials are new heads, against 28% with the elections of 1981. Many conservatives are drawn aside, and the partisans of the Glasnost are named with the direction of the principal media.
- April 20th: Concert with Moscow of the pianist Vladimir Horowitz after 61 years of exile.
- April 26th: Explosion of the nuclear plant of Tchernobyl, the USSR, which makes 32 dead and 200 wounded according to the authorities ( to see the Catastrophe of Tchernobyl ).
- December 6th: Serge Arto has creates Arbatr (Russian Арбатр ) - the first and last independent association painters in Soviet Union.
- December 23rd: Andrei Sakharov and Elena Bonner returns of their interior exile to Gorki.
- : The Spain and the Portugal become members of the the EEC which counts from now on twelve members. Mode of transition agreed to allow Portuguese agriculture to become competitive.
- January 20th: Margaret Thatcher and François Mitterrand announces with Lille the construction of the tunnel under the Manche.
- February 28th: Assassination of Swedish the Prime Minister Olof Palme with Stockholm. The Deputy Prime Minister Ingvar Carlsson succeeds and maintains the government of Palm to him while promising to continue the policy of his predecessor.
- March 1st: Signature of the Single act European which widens competences of the EEC and prepares the Single European market of 1992.
- March 9th: Mário Soares, president of the republic of Portugal.
- April 5th: Terrorist attack in a discotheque of West Berlin.
- April: creation of TransManche Link, consortium of 10 companies, five Frenchwomen and five British, charged to build the Channel tunnel.
- July 8th: Kurt Waldheim, president of the Republic in Austria.
- October 4th: Inauguration of the stopping of the the Eastern Scheldt ( Oosterscheldekering ) by the queen Beatrix of the Netherlands.
October 27th: Big Bang with the Stock Exchange London. The City, center of the market of the Euro-dollar S, must be reformed and yield to the spirit of time favorable to the market: the fixed commissions are replaced by variable remunerations; the distinction established between jobbers (wholesalers in actions) and brokers (broker or stockbroker) is abolished; the foreign firms can easily take foot with London Stock Exchange; the money market works from now on uninterrupted.
- December 11th: Decree (law) instituting Namur capital Walloon region in Belgium.
- Referendum with the Denmark: 56,2% of the Danes wish to remain in Europe in spite of a nationalist fort running.
- Négociation enters the Spanish government and the ETA.
- Seat is sold with Volkswagen.
See also: 1986 in France
See also: 1986 in Switzerland
- February: Lawsuit of 475 mafiosi with Naples.
- April 13rd:
- the the Vatican publishes a Instruction on Christian freedom and the release , where the recourse of oppressed to resistance is not excluded.
- First visit of one pope to the Large synagog of Rome.
- May 1st, Tokyo: Italy is allowed in the financial directory of the “Group of the Five”.
- June: Resignation of Bettino Craxi following the rejection of its reform project tax by its own majority.
- July: The trade unions of the public sector sign with their ministers an agreement of renunciation of the wild strikes.
- August: Bettino Craxi reforms a government, whose term is fixed at March 1987 by agreement written with the Christian Democrat (stafetta, passage of the relay).
- October 27th: The pope Jean-Paul II brings together with Assise the representatives of all the religions, in a “top” in favor of peace and universal fraternity.
- November: A commission of magistrates moves with Rome to hear there three ministers, of which Giulio Andreotti (Business foreign), elected of Sicily, suspected of maintaining the bonds with the Mafia.
inflation falls to 6,1%; Alfa Romeo is privatisée; unemployment is higher than 10%.
- the economic growth continues (2,8%). GNP reaches 600 billion dollars. Italy became the fifth industrial power of the world, before the Great Britain.
Oceania & the Pacific
The Middle East
- 13 - January 24th: A civil war with the Yemen of the south made 10 000 dead.
- February: The Jordan gives up the dialog with PLO, not being able to lead this one to give up the any violent action publicly.
War Iran-Iraq: The Iranian army seizes FAO, then decides to carry out a great offensive towards Al Basra. In spite of multiple attacks, the city is not taken and the Iran gives up its military ambitions in 1987.
- Multiplication of the confrontations between rival militia to the Lebanon (1986-1987): militia Druzes against Amal with Beirut, Amal against Hezbollah in the Shiite suburbs . The Syrian army is reached again and settles in Beirut, with the agreement of the chief of the government, Rachid Karamé. In the Christian tiny room, clash the Lebanese Forces of Samir Geagea, the Lebanese Armée with the general Michel Aoun and the partisans of Amine Gemayel.
Arts & cultures
- April 20th: With Málaga (Spain), alternate of Jose Miguel Delgado Stream known as “Joselito”, Spanish Matador.
- July 20th: With Buenaventura (Mexico, federal district of Mexico City), alternate of Eulalio López Díaz known as “El Zotoluco”, Mexican Matador.
- February 1st: Inauguration of the Museum of Orsay, devoted to impressionist painting.
- Opening of the MOCA, Museum off Contemporary Art (Los Angeles).
- the scenario of the play Large Theft Car: Vice City proceeds in 1986
Sciences & technology
See also: 1986 in science
See also: 1986 in aeronautics
See also: 1986 in the railroads
See also: 1986 in sport
See also: 1986 in football
Births in 1986
- January 5th: Lucien Gainsbourg says Lulu, wire of Serge Gainsbourg and Bambou;
- January 24th: Mischa Barton, American actress;
- June 3rd: Rafael Nadal, Spanish tennis player ;
- June 11th: Shia LaBeouf, American actor;
- June 13rd: Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen, actresses and producing American;
- June 18th: Richard Gasquet, French tennis player;
- June 24th: Solange Knowles, American actress and sister of Beyoncé Knowles;
- August 3rd: Charlotte Casiraghi, girl of the princess Caroline of Monaco;
- August 8th: Charlotte Stokely, American actress of charm;
- August 16th: Shawn Pyfrom, American actor;
- August 23rd: Romaric Pole, French actor;
- August 26th: Cassie, American singer of Rn' B;
- September 1st: Gaël Monfils, French tennis player;
- September 12th: Emmy Rossum, American actress;
- September 19th: Mandy Musgrave, American actress;
- October 2nd: Camilla Beautiful, American actress;
- October 4th: Sara Forestier, French actress ;
- October 9th: Laure Manaudou, French swimmer.
- December 30th: Jérémy Thomas, French Rugby player.
Death in 1986
- January 4th: Phil Lynott, musician and singer of Thin Lizzy
- January 10th: Jaroslav Seifert, Czechoslovakian poet.
- January 12th: Marcel Arland, French writer.
- January 14th:
- January 28th
- Ronald E. McNair, American astronaut (° October 21st 1950)
- Christa McAuliffe, American institurice (° September 2nd 1948)
- Francis R. Scobee, American astronaut (° May 19th 1939)
- Judith A. Resnik, American astronaut (° April 5th 1949)
- Ellison S. Onizuka, American astronaut (° June 24th 1946)
- Gregory B. Jarvis, American astronaut (° August 24th 1944)
- Michael J. Smith, American astronaut (° April 30th 1945)
- February 11th: Frank Patrick Herbert, American writer.
- February 28th: Olof Palme, Swedish statesman.
- March 7th: Philippe Gibe, French trade unionist.
- March 11th: Sherman Kent, historian of the American information
- March 31st: James Cagney, American actor.
- April 4th: Wallis Simpson, duchess of Windsor.
- April 14th: Simone de Beauvoir, French writer.
- April 15th: Jean Genet, French writer.
- April 18th: Marcel Dassault, French airframe manufacturer.
- April 23rd: Otto Preminger, realizer of Austrian origin
- May 2nd: Henri Toivonen, pilot of Finnish rally (° 1956)
- May 7th: Herma Szabó, Austrian artistic skater.
- May 24th: Stephen Thorne, candidate American astronaut (° February 11th 1953)
- May 31st: Jane Frank, painter American (° 1918).
- June 13rd: Benny Goodman, saxophonist, clarinettist and leader of American jazz, (° 1909).
- June 16th: Maurice Duruflé, organist and type-setter French, (° 1902)
- June 19th: Coluche, French humorist, (° 1944).
- August 10th: Philippe de Scitivaux, Aviator French of the Second world war, Companion of the Release. (° August 8th 1911).
- August 20th: Walter Brooke, American actor (° 1914).
- August 31st: Henry Moore, British sculptor
- September 12th: Jacques Henri Lartigue, French photographer.
- September 27th: Cliff Burton (bass player of the group metal Metallica)
- October 11th: Georges Dumézil, Philologist, French academician (armchair 40)
- October 16th: Arthur Grumiaux, Belgian violonist.
- November 1st Pierre Reference mark, humorist and actor.
- November 4th: Robert Stevenson, realizer, scenario writer, producer and British actor (° 1905)
- November 8th: Viatcheslav Molotov, former Russian Foreign Minister.
- November 13rd: Thierry the Lad, French humorist, (° 1952).
- November 15th: Alexandre Tansman, type-setter of Polish origin (° June 11th 1897)
- November 17th: Georges Besse, chairman of the Renault Control.
- November 29th: Cary Grant, American actor (° January 18th 1904).
- December 25th: Mikhaël Ivanhov, Bulgarian teacher, founder of the universal white Fraternity (° January 31st 1900).
Beats-smg: 1986 Be-X-old: 1986 Map-bms: 1986 Simple: 1986 Zh-min-nan: 1986 nor Zh-yue: 1986 年
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